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Theories, Principles and Models of Reflective Practice

Part A (5.1 and 5.2) Task 1: Using the provided reading list, analyse the range of theories, principles and models of reflective practice.Research and select one to start producing your reflective activities. Begin with a justification of the reasons for selecting the chosen approach, supporting it with evidence from your research. This forms your ‘Personal Learning Journal’. It should be continued throughout the course and you should use it to reflect on a regular basis and for ‘Eureka’ moments. Introduction Definition of theories:A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several different related meanings. Principle:a moral rule or belief that helps you know what is right and wrong and that influences your actions; a basic truth or theory: an idea that forms the basis of something; a law or fact of nature that explains how something works or why something happens Model:Is something that a copy can be based on because it is an extremely good example of its type: Something that is good to copy The learning theories were dated back to 500 BC and Greek philosophers Pato and Christopher. Pato argued that Truth and Knowledge are natural and that people had an intrinsic desire to do as they please. On the other hand Aristotle point of view is something that is taught (This can happen by nurturing). The nature verse nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in human development that focuses on the relative contributions of generic inheritance and environment conditioning. Another philosopher Rene (the nativist’s viewpoint) suggests that that certain things happen naturally.(Bates, 2016) Behavioural psychologists suggested that humans are advanced mammal that reacts to stimuli. Behaviourism remained the basis of teaching and learning until it was challenged in the period between the two world wars by psychologists who argued that thinking and learning was a developmental cognitive process in individuals create, rather than receive, knowledge. This led to the movement of cognitivism. I have to analyse the range of theories, principles and models of reflective practice. Also I need to research and produce my reflective activities. Beginning with justifying the reason why I have chosen my approach, supporting my evidence from my research also using the points to consider as highlighted below to support my work. Reflection is the ability to reflect on one’s actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning.Described by Schön (1983, p.68) as ‘When someone reflects-in-action, he becomes a researcher in the practice context. Example applying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively. This leads to developmental insight”.A key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning; continuous reflection on experience is essential. A person who reflects throughout his or her practice is not just looking back on past actions and events, but is taking a conscious look at emotions, experiences, actions, and responses, and using that information to add to his or her existing knowledge base and reach a higher level of understanding.

  1. Explain at least 2 models of reflective practice linking them to theories and 4 principles of reflective practice.

  Models of reflective practices Schön’s (1983) Reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action:In my practice I can relate with Schon’s reflection in action  theory for my sessions because with his theory there is no specific way of teaching, you can do and then plan after you have reviewed your teachings to correct what did not go well, and improve upon it. Also On action- is after the teaching, that went well or it didn’t go well then reflect and plan for the next session differently to get my learners involved. An example during a teaching sessions with my learners last week, I noticed a learner was not engaging in my learning due to personal issues, it affected him and his peer next was concerned and this distracted them both, I had to take immediate action to resolve the issue by telling the learner to relax and I will support him shortly after a quick break. I did this to prevent it distracting the rest of my session. As this was an unplanned event that could cause me to be behind my teaching time and distract the whole learners from achieving anything also they might be demotivated. It was effective as both learners stayed calm until break time. On action- is after the teaching I will plan ahead of the session and do a review  on my actions for another session, I will look at what worked for that session and what did not, in this case my method was effective as I had a learner who was able to keep it together until break, I will have an action plan that will reflect a situation where the next learner might not be able to wait until break time, in that case I will puss the session to take the learner outside the classroom where I can get a brief one to one discussion to support , depending on the urgency of the issue I will refer him to admin to take over so I can return to the other learners and continue my teaching session(Smyth, 1988) Greenaway (plan-do-review) EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CYCLES: This is Greenaway’s model of reflection. 1. DO – create a piece of work or experience. 2. REVIEW – review what happen and draw from that what can be learnt. 3. PLAN – what steps from reviewing can be implemented for next time you approach a task. (Greenaway, 1995) As a teacher I can relate to Greenways experimental learning circle which allows me to Plan before my teaching to ensure that I deliver the session well by ensuring that class activity or resources are available and ready to use this is an act of planning, After planning I engage in doing, which is to deliver my session to the learners, sometimes things that are unplanned for happens where learners either misbehaves or the session doesn’t go as planned I find myself making adjustment on the sport improvising. And lastly I reflect to see what I must change for the next session, what is working or not working, because I can feel within me or through class room comments or my learner expressions if it session went well or not. I also can review through the resources used for that session, this then takes me back to planning, , reflecting and making adjustment during the session, there is also no specific method of applying Greenway concept it can be done in any order just like Schon’s In an action and On action theory at any stages. As a teacher I must reflect regularly after delivering a session, I feel if the session went well and why, if it did not go as plan I also reflect on the next actions so as to engage in a process of continuous  development so I am learning my learners will gain a lot more. I pay critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform actions daily’s. I examine my own practice by reflecting  and reviewing my teaching practical as I believe that there is no one way of teaching but that my learners learn differently so I must always improve on my styles of teaching this is to ensure my learners are engaged and achieving. This leads to developmental insight; a key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning; deliberate reflection on experience is essential. Image result for greenaway plan do review Source 🙁 Anon, 2017) Related image Sources: (, 2017)    

  1. Choose one model of reflective practice that you use and justify your choice.

As adult education professor (Boud, 1985) and his colleagues explained: “Reflection is an important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull it over and evaluate it. It is this working with experience that is important in learning.” When a person is experiencing something, he or she may be implicitly learning; however, it can be difficult to put emotions, events, and thoughts into a coherent sequence of events. When a person rethinks or retells events, it is possible to categorize events, emotions, ideas, etc., and to compare the intended purpose of a past action with the results of the action. Stepping back from the action permits critical reflection on a sequence of events.As a health and social care teacher I am very critical of my teaching style I am constantly analysing my style of teaching to see if I am meeting the learners needs, and if not how will I improve on it I do that by modifying the session to ensure that my learners are achieving. Points to be considered:  Theories, principles and models, e.g. as part of Kolb’s Learning Cycle, Honey & Mumford (learning styles), Schon (reflection-in- action/reflection-on-action), Greenaway (plan-do-review), Gibbs (reflective cycle), Johns (description, reflection, influencing factors, alternative strategies, learning), Murphy (new situation, awareness of thoughts, describing situation, analysing knowledge, evaluating relevance and use of knowledge, identifying learning to apply to new experience), Moon, Dewey, Schon, Tripp: critical incident approach, Brookfield — critical lenses.

  1. Now link the techniques that you use for reflective practice to the above model and explain them briefly. The techniques can be (at least 3 from the following): Reflecting on own practice, e.g. Scaffolded questioning, analysing personal experiences, SWOT analysis, session evaluation, formal course evaluation, action research, use of critical thinking, questioning choices, problem solving, identifying coping strategies, identifying ways to adapt and improve current practice, identifying sources of best practice, identifying development opportunities, action planning, networking.

As stated above, in my teaching I used Greenaway Model reflective practice as a role model for my teaching. The techniques adopted in order to achieve my teaching objective, its fit for purpose, meeting learning outcomes and learners achieving line with curriculum using the following strategy:   Reflecting on own practice: As a health care lecturer I always reflect on my practice by using Schon, s In action an On action model; sometimes I can plan my session and it doesn’t quite go as intended, so I have the opportunity to improvise as I go along or review it after I finish in action and on action theory suits me perfectly. SWOT analysis: As a lecturer I must always reflect on my session after delivering I can feel if my teaching went well or not with the learners, and as a result I draw on my strength build upon what is going on well and build on my weakness what is not going well by working towards improving it. I use opportunities for my advantage and the treats are if I don’t do CPD I might be out of work for fear of competition teachers staying on a job. Identifying development opportunities: I take advantage of opportunity to help me improve on practice example I attend INSET DAY set for me as a lecturer for continuous professional development (CPD).   Word count: 800 Task 2: As part of your Personal Learning Journal produce an individual statement to analyse how the development of wider skills can improve student motivation, confidence and achievement. Collect examples from practice to include in your teaching practice portfolio.

  1. Analyse how the development of wider skills can improve learner motivation, confidence and achievement

As a teacher I act as a mentor, adviser, pastor, motivator etc. I am flexible in my duty I provide one to one support and also can provide pastoral support when the students are in need of it, I am a comforter and an advocate, I play the role to support my student to settle when they are faced with diverse challenges from being homeless or financial issue the list is endless, I direct them to the appropriate departments so as to get them help, which will make them settle and actually accomplish their aim of joining the school or studies which is to achieve a qualification. A good example will be student struggling with homelessness I will contact the housing department to get the student an accommodation I will provide a listening hear and assist with documents where appropriate to support that student to get accommodation, this varies from student to student, my role doesn’t just involve class room teaching it is much more than that. As a teacher with multiple skill I build, restore confidence to the learners.

  1. What are wider professional skills?

These are the ideas that bring the areas of professional and technical expertise together with the generic skills and capacities required to be an effective and successful teacher and learner. There are numerous wider professional skills and knowledges that empower teachers and learners in the process of teaching and learning in achieving results, inclusive learning fit for the purpose. Knowledge and information management, Organising knowledge and information, Using and exploiting knowledge and information, Research skills, Information governance and compliance, Records management and archiving, Information and Technology (IT) and communication, Strategy, planning and management, Literacies and learning, Leadership and advocacy and accountability skills. The challenge is that these wider skills are often seen to be intangible, difficult to influenceand problematic to measure. Despite this however, it is critical that we find ways to inculcatethese wider skills in young people, to help them navigate their way through an increasingly uncertain and unpredictable world – a world in which the ability to originate and implementnew ideas will be essential.(Claxton, 2009) As a teacher it is my duty to ensure that my teaching style is captivating and that I apply other skills to be able to carry all along, I must be a multi skilled professional a motivator, mentor and facilitator and so on.

  1. How can your wider professional skills improve learner motivation, confidence and achievement?

As a teacher it is imperative to be as effective, efficient proactive with my primary objectives of acquiring wider professional skills to improve my learners’ motivation in order to take ownership of their learning outcomes, enhance their confidence towards future challenges on academic and outside the academic environment and ultimately incorporate ability and capability to achieve individual goals. However, my wider professional skill in Knowledge and information management and Organising knowledge and information improve my learners’ motivation through liaising with other professional in organising workshops, work placement experiences, giving my learners updated information about their specific learning subject and building team work. Also my wider professional skills in Information and Technology (IT) and communication, Literacies and learning and Research skills improve my learners’ confidence towards future challenges. They learnt every aspect of communication skills required of them for working placement or for academic progression while   literacies help them to gain and create knowledge through reading (build confidence of reading) and writing (confidence of writing) as well as using technology to achieve their objective. In addition, my wider professional skills in Leadership and advocacy and accountability skills improve my learners’ achievement of their individual and institutional learning outcomes and goals. My mentoring and parentingskills, allow me to support each individual learner to choose their career and nurture them towards achieving them.

  1. How can your learners’ wider professional skills improve learner motivation, confidence and achievement?

Learners wider professional skills can improve motivation, As the learners are motivated by themselves or instructed to study by others, studying alongside other learners of various background qualification, culture the mix in the class are sometimes reach, they can learn from each other where one is not good at speaking but very good at writing the other can be presenting thereby complementing one another. And thereby building team spirit during activities. Role plays and so on. As learners have their strength, weaknesses they complement each other during group activities leaving all motivated confidence building and all achieve the set target task..  As a result of the numerous wider professional skills my learners acquired and practiced, these will unavoidably improve their achievements and institutional learning outcomes. Word count: 800 Task 3: As part of your Personal Development Record collect evidence from practice and produce an individual statement to report on the validity and reliability of data relating to your learners and the role of assessment and evaluation in the quality cycle. Explain your role in and contribution to the quality improvement and quality assurance in your organisation.(Unit 4 AC 5.1 and 5.2). As a teacher, there are various principle role and contribution to be made that impact in the quality improvement and quality assurance in my institution, checking the data in the application form of my learners to ensure validity of the information and ensuring that learners are selected to the right course meeting all qualifications requirement example must have HND/ Degree to be admitted and so on.

  1. What is quality assurance and quality improvement?

Quality assurance is an organisation’s guarantee that the product or service it offers meets the accepted quality standards. It is achieved by identifying what “quality” means in context; specifying methods by which its presence can be ensured; and specifying ways in which it can be measured to ensure conformance. According to the ISO, quality assurance is a part of quality management, providing confidence that quality requirements (need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory) will be fulfilled. (Eqavet, 2010) Quality Assurance: Focuses on identifying and correcting unfavourable quality related events; whereas Quality Improvement seeks to foster organizational change in response to systemic quality events, changing the system to foster continuous improvement. In reality, they go hand in hand – without Improvement, you run the risk of repeating the same mistakes in quality over and over again.Quality assurance of quality in higher education is a process of establishing the learner’s confidence that provide fulfils learners to achieve. Quality improvement: Is the continuous actions taken throughout an org to increase the effectiveness of activities and processes to provide benefits to both the Org and its customer.All staff within the schoolis involved from the ground staff to their superior. Improve focus on clients need supporting staff to engage in the process of Quality. Making continuous progress improve delivering,we are constantly reviewing our teaching materials and styles to ensure its meeting the learners needs example we take feedback from learners, stake holders and other professionals affiliated or customers and internal quality assurance and external quality assurance (EQA) into account when reviewing the school activities; this is to enable us provide a service that is fit for purpose and up to date meeting the standard set by the UK Higher Education (HE) All within are continually working towards raising standard to ensure that learners can achieve in as specified within their curriculum, in a Safe environment.

  1. What is your role in the quality improvement and quality assurance of your organisation?

My roles as a lecturer is to adhere to improving quality of my delivery by ensuring that I apply trainings of new skills put in place to aid continuous professional delovepment of the teachers and staff of the school, it includes me updating my resources adapting to new styles and continually assessing the method of teaching to make sure its meeting todays learners style, to do that I will look at how my learners learn using audio, visual and verbal styles. I plan my teaching using lessons plan and scheme of work this is to aid and give me direction in accordance to the policy put in place by the HE, with the aim of meeting learner’s needs through standard set for learners to achieve as a teacher I work with my school to see to quality improvement and comply to quality put to meet curriculum standards. My full cooperation is give where applicable through collating learner’s feedback and so on and using it to improve on the standard in place already. Points to be considered (at least 3 from each paragraph): □ Quality assurance e.g. standardised pro forma and course files, verification of documentation and assessment, course review, observation scheme, achievement prediction and tracking, self-assessment review, annual staff review. Course review: We need to collate information’s that ensure that all reviews published are genuinely helpful relevant and fair to those reading them. Reviews are moderated and may not be published if they do not meet the guidelines below. You must have attended the course gone through the school to give a review, which must be based on your personal experience of the course ex-student, not hearsay information you should have completed at least 50% of the course you are reviewing. We accept reviews written about experiences on courses within the last three years. Your review must be helpful to other students: Make only fair and reasonable comments based on what the course is stating it will deliver in the course description and the level it is aimed at ensuring that the content is relevant and helpful to other students , observing confidentiality procedures not to mention names the aim is to better the course content and delivery. Offensive language, spiteful remarks, defamatory, racist or incendiary comments are not an acceptable language for review. Guidelines are followed prior to reviews being published or not. All reviews are a reflection of students’ opinions. By publishing reviews, our school does not necessarily agree with the statements made, but chooses to publish them as they contain reasonable opinions which may help other students to decide whether a course is right for them or not. These guidelines help us ensure that the reviews we publish are accurate, relevant and fair. Observation scheme: Observation of teaching is a formative process where two peers work together and observe each other’s teaching. The observer offers feedback to the colleague who is doing the teaching. As a teacher when my colleagues observe during delivering of my lecture I am given feedback of what was right or wrong and it helps build my confidence, simply because I am able to give them an honest feedback of how they did which comes from an honest feedback. Self-assessment review:Evaluating progress in the workplace is an important part of staying on track and figuring out what needs improvement. As part of the formal performance review process, self-assessments, also known as self-appraisals or self-evaluations, help an employer gauge how an employee views his or her own performance.(Jennifer, 2017)Self-evaluations also let the employee express what they feel are important projects they have completed, tasks and responsibilities they’d like to take on, and provide a channel of open communication about goals, opportunities and development. These things could differ from what an employer sees, so having the assessment from the perspective of the employee could bridge the gap between expectations and performance.(Jennifer, 2017) □ Quality improvement, e.g. quality improvement plan, sharing best practice (Advanced Practitioners, peer observations), staff mentoring, in- service training, creatingopportunities for promotion and personal development. Quality improvement plan:The National Regulations require services to have a Quality Improvement Plan (QIP). The aim of a QIP is to help providers self-assess their performance in delivering quality education and care, and to plan future improvements. The QIP also helps regulatory authorities with the assessment of the service. A Quality Improvement Plan must: include an assessment of the programs and practices at the service against the National Quality Standard and National Regulations identify areas for improvement include a statement about the service’s philosophy (Snapshot, 2017) Staff mentoring:As a teacher I mentor my learners always; I especially mentor new  trainees getting them to shadow my work or their peers, I guide them through trainings, ensuring that I support them by providing feedbacks, my role as a teacher varies I am seen as an advisor, counsellor, to a junior or trainee in my profession. In service training:A national in-service training programme will ensure that all teachers are fully qualified in the subject they are teaching.Teachers require in service training opportunities to acquire the necessary skills. c. Examine how assessment is monitored within the quality cycle, its purpose, the recording of it etc. (add a paragraph on how you ensure that the data from your learners are valid). Points to be considered (at least 3 from each paragraph): □ Quality cycle, e.g. respond to student feedback, identify opportunities for change, implement change and evaluate, identify modification of future delivery, measure impact of change Respond to student’s feedback: Student feedbacks are used to evaluate and maintain quality assurance and quality improvement; the system is assessed and monitored. However, assessment can be monitored within the quality cycle through various techniques and measurement which include, respond to student’s feedback as a result of their direct involvement in the planning, implementation, control and monitoring of the quality system. This will enable the quality planning committee or Internal Quality Assurer (IQA) to know how the system is working, changes that may require, modifying the programmes, teaching, learning, assessment approaches and steps for continuous improvement. The results will be defined and appropriately documented in the quality assurance books for future references. The feedback from the students will identify opportunity for change in the system, plan improvement to standard operating procedures and training. This will enhance the quality skill of the students. More so the findings identified from feedback or through monitoring team which resulted to changes in the system will be implemented and evaluated to ensure that its inline to quality policy and quality objectives; with aim of modifying future delivery process and procedures in terms of quality assurance within the quality cycle. Identify opportunities for change: Feedback received from students is used to update and plan an improvement into standard operating procedures and training. This will enhance the quality skill of the learners. Further the findings identified from feedback or through monitoring team which resulted to changes in the system will be implemented and evaluated to ensure that it aligned to quality policy and quality objectives. This will ultimately forms modification of future delivery of process and procedures in terms of quality assurance within the quality cycle. quality-assurance-cycle Source:(, 2017) □ Self-assessment, e.g. informal session and course evaluation, formal self-assessment review, using feedback from others to inform practice. Informal session and course evaluation: This can be carried out through informal session and course evaluation within the organisation or institution; as Quality Control and improvement within the quality cycle is vital. More so, assessment of the student is one of the quality control tools use to achieve the quality objective..For example, training conducted by the IQA verifier or on the job-evaluation. It can also be achieved through Formal self-assessment review: By carrying out the SWOT analysis (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity available and Threat foretell). This self-assessment can be evaluated and analysed by using the feedback from others to inform practice and improve for effective teaching and learning. Using feedback from others to inform practice:The important role play by IQA and EQA in the maintain quality assessment cannot be overemphasised. The Internal Quality Assurer (IQA) makes an informed decision(s) regarding the practice of and decisions made by the assessment team to maintain standards. Sometimes, the IQA may also be nominated as Centre Contact. He or she ensures that all assessors are trained and hold the most appropriate qualifications in line with the relevant codes of practice, identifies future training needs of assessors, ensures that assessors are fully briefed, understood the quality policy and procedures, monitors the centre’s assessment practice and procedures by carrying out interim and summative sampling and regular standardisation meetings. External Quality Assurer (EQA) on the other hand monitors the centre’s policies and procedures to ensure they meet the requirements of the awarding organisation in terms of qualification and regulatory requirements. Though, the role of EQA is not just about ensuring compliance, it is also about supporting centre staff, and giving advice and guidance to help them improve. However, EQA advises and supports centre staff on an ongoing basis, approves centres to offer qualifications, communicates with centre staff and the awarding organisation on relevant issues relating to the quality control, and ensures the centre staff standardise their practice. As part of the quality assurance and quality improvement, the validation of the learners’ data and their assessment data in comparison with standards must not be overlooked. Therefore, their personal data such as date of birth must be validated through, for instance, passport, birth certificate, and residence address through utilities bearing their current addresses and ensure that the original documents are used to validate the photo copies submitted. At the same time, the assessment data and criteria are aligned to awarding body standards and qualification requirements. Internal quality assurance cycle Depending upon the subject, the IQA cycle will usually be followed as in the diagram. The cycle will continue to ensure the training and assessment process is constantly monitored and improved if necessary. Throughout the cycle, standardisation of practice between internal quality assurers should take place; this will help ensure the consistency and fairness of decisions, along with the support given to assessors. Feedback should also be obtained from learners and others involved in the assessment process.(Gravells, 2009-2017) Please add on IQA’s and EQA’s role in maintaining quality in assessment. Valid data from learners: e.g. Personal data: original documents Assessment data: against standards Word count: 800 Task 4: Plan-participate-record-evaluate a minimum of 20 hours of appropriate professional development opportunities that meet your development needs and improve your wider professional practice PDP and CPD log Alternative methods: recording through audio or video, professional discussion, group reflection using video and web2 technologies, blogs, wikis, professional learning networks, action learning sets approach or ‘video clubs’ approach, collaborative approaches, using self-video in own teaching. Part B (1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4) Task 5: Undertake research into theories, principles and models of learning that can be related to your area of practice, learners and subject. Use this research to analyse those theories and models that can be related toyour teaching, learning and assessment. Task 6: Draw on examples taken from your teaching practice to help explain ways in which theories, principles and models of learning can be applied to your teaching, learning and assessment. Points to be considered: Theories (at least 2), e.g. procedural v declarative knowledge (Anderson) –skills development (Gagne), scaffolding learning (Bruner/Vygotsky), knowing that/knowing how (Ryle), Inductive(Bruner) v deductive (Ausubel) approachessituated approaches to learning (Lave and Wenger), banking concept of education (Freire) (At least one) competency based models, learning as change in behaviour, learner-based models (Dewey/Rogers), constructivist approaches, Formal v non- formal learning (Erraut). Models of learning preferences (at least 2),e.g. Honey and Mumford and Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, Coffield et al critique of learning styles, learning preferences dependent on context (Entwistle), Metacognition ability to set explicit, challenging goals, to identify strategies to reach these goals and to monitor progress towards goals. Word count: 800 Points to be considered:  Applied theories, principles and models, e.g. linking aspects of existing practice with theories, developing teacher’s personal theories of learning, developing competency-based programmes, Individual Learning Plans (ILPS), product- focused learning outcomes, SMART targets, applied use of constructivist approaches, e.g. card sorts, graphic organisers, matching and labelling type activities. Response to learning preferences, e.g. importance of multisensory approach to engage all learners, to challenge their dominant preference to maximise learning, to introduce alternative learning approaches, enabling individuals to see and to question their long-held habitual behaviours (Sadler Smith) and to understand strengths and weaknesses, to develop a range of learning strategies. Word count: 1200 Evidence: Background research and">Essay Defining Induction: Induction begins with observations and seeks to find or generate new theory from emerging data. This is more common with quantitative research the use research questions to narrow the scope of the study, Brunner Inductive: As a teacher I support the learners by presenting them with ideas in other to help them independently find a solution, I also peer them in small groups, to undertake activities, with the aim of them researching and coming up with their answers individually or collectively as a group. Actively using own imagination, creativity and intuition within their job role in health & social care. I apply this theory into my practice because as a teacher I serve as a facilitator resource provider and co inquirer, I encourage my learners to construct their own conceptualizations while exposing them to the content suggested at that grade or level. It allows students to pursue certain topics in depth. It permits students to ask and investigate their own questions. (Bruner, 1983) What they already know and build upon it. Defining Deduction: Deductive approach can be explained by the means of hypotheses, which can be derived from the propositions of the theory. Deductive approach is concerned with deducting conclusions from premises or propositions aimed and testing observations and research. Ausubel deductive approach: Ausubel believed that learning proceeds in a top-down, or deductive manner. Ausubel’s theory consists of three phases, (1 presentation of an advance organizer, 2 presentation of learning task or material, 3 strengthening the cognitive organization). The main elements are – Clarify aim of the lesson. Present the organizer. Relate organizer to students’ knowledge. Make the organization of the new material explicit. Make logical order of learning material explicit. Present material and engage students in meaningful learning activities. Relate new information to advance organizer. Promote active reception learning. The concept map is a tool that science teachers can use to determine the nature of students’ existing ideas, the map can be used to make evident the key concepts to be learned and suggest linkages between the new information to be learned and what the student already knows. Concept maps can precede instruction, and be used by the teacher to generate a meaningful discussion of student ideas. (R, 2003) As an health and social care teacher I apply Ausubel’s deductive theory in to my practice by assessing my learners ideas and linking them to new information’s during training we do roleplay so as to help them promote active receptive learning, we are hands on I use the necessary equipment to aid learning hoist and bed to manoeuvre, slings, banana board to move the users from chair to bed etc. learners job roles involve hands on in training one of them plays the user and is hoist these way they are engaged and its meaningful relevance to their practices. Lave and Wenger Situated approaches learning: Lave & Wenga believes that learning could take place anywhere and time not just only in training and apprenticeship, we learn daily from what we see around us our environment we copy what we see or hear, gain access to modes of behaviour, which we eventually develop and practice examples religious congregations, athletes training together, faculty and students in studies etc. culture, social world, which they called Legitimate peripheral participation (LPP). Relational, historical conceptions have emerged from this exercise exploring person and activities. Transforming persons into a practitioner with newcomers becoming old timer if they are actively in a skilled knowledge developing identity example a trained Doctor begins to practice tied to motivated by the growing use value of participation community of practice have historical development cycles, reproducing themselves. (Wenger, 1991) As a teacher of health and social care practice I relate with situated learning for myself or learners as we do have trainings’ and apprentice, shadowing observing other qualified senior professionals or colleague within our field, it requires being exposed frequently and requires skills and engaging hands on to be able to practice. Competency based models:  As teacher it is imperative to be observant of the learning capability of our learners, we do this through initial assessment, formal or informal assessment because their learning capacity has direct impact on their behaviour. Ironically, as teacher, I need to provide a range of teaching, knowledge and learning experiences to learners that will group their various behaviours to achieve learning outcomes and individual goals. In deciding the learners’ competency based models, various models can be applied, such as Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Humanism and Constructivism; within the context of this task, I will discuss on Cognitivism.  This focuses on the mind, and more specifically, mental process such as thinking, knowing, memory, and problem-solving, with the goal of opening the “black box” of the human mind, the process of which is deemed valuable and necessary for learning to occur. Knowledge is approached as scheme structures, and learning is viewed as a change in the learner’s plans, or the redefining of prior knowledge. Cognitive empowerment of my learners is one of my fundamental roles as a teacher, bring out their potentials, develop their memory to give them learning independency and solve future challenges. Model of learning Metacognition ability to set explicit: Metacognition ability to set explicit model of learning preference is used. Merriam-Webster described metacognition as “awareness or analysis of one’s own learning or thinking processes”. It is the ability to know who you are and plan for future. It plays a major role in successful learning, it is important to study metacognitive activity and development to determine how learners can be taught to better apply their cognitive resources. In my practice in using this model, I use Individualized Learning Program (ILP) to set individual learning goals and aligning them to learning outcomes. This empowers my learners to explicitly set their goals. I use this model because it enables my learners to benefit from teaching and influences the use and maintenance of cognitive strategies. It also provides the learner with both knowledge of cognitive processes and strategies to apply in achieving their individual set goals. As discussed above, learners have difference ways of learning but most important is to identify strategies to reach the set goals, learning outcomes and to monitor progress towards the goals. Therefore, when learners are assisted to explore their own thinking and learning processes, they are drawn to think about the effectiveness of the strategies they used to achieve the learning goals they set.  Hence, planning what to do, monitoring progress towards achieving it and evaluating the outcome can help learners to take more control over their thinking and learning processes and equip them with learning to learn skills. For instance, to develop personal learning goals involves the stages of identifying personal learning goals (and strategies to achieve them), monitoring progress, reporting on progress made and refining or developing new goals.   Challenging Goals: According to Barney and Griffin, organizational goals serve four basic functions; (they provide guidance and direction, facilitate planning, motivate and inspire employees, and help organizations evaluate and control performance). How it plans to get there. Organization’s goals for guidance; promote planning to determine how goals will be achieved.  Goals can be motivational and increase performance. Evaluation and control measures goals if not fit can be amended, goals should be evaluated periodically. Goals need to be flexible enough so that organizations can respond to dynamic environments change set realistic and attainable one this is to keep employees motivation. Unattainable or unrealistic goals in the long or short run, employees become unmotivated.  Objectives should be measurable and specific; linked to rewards that are valued by employees and associated with specific time periods. Goal setting is related to profit and performance; improved productivity in 95 percent of the organizations. It also led to a 16 percent increase in worker productivity. Additionally, 61 percent of organizations surveyed used goal-setting theory specifically to increase performance. Organizations that set goals experienced higher levels of annual profit than those that did not. Goal setting is a powerful way to increase organizational effectiveness and employee performance.(© 2017 Advameg, 2017)   APPLICATION OF THEORIES, PRINCIPLES AND MODELS As a teacher I need to develop personal theories of learning. Applying Schon,s reflective theory of practice which is reflection-in-action or reflection –on-action, Greenaway theory of learning which emphasised on plan do and review. As earlier stated above, I developed myself through various theories, principle and models of Donald Schon’s, David Greenaway in order to empower my learners on various ways of achieving their individual learning goals. As a teacher, I apply constructivist approaches in teaching and training of my learners. Constructivist teaching is based on the principle that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in the process of meaning and knowledge construction as different to reflexively receiving information (Lecturing approach centeredness). According to Brader-Araje and Jones (2002), it defines it as “the idea that development of understanding requires the learners to actively engage in meaning

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