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Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Learning

Table of Contents

1. Theories Principles and Models of Learning

1.1. Theories Principles and Models of Learning

1.2. Application of Theories Principles and Models of Learning in Teaching

1.3. Models of Learning Preferences

1.4. The Effect of Taking Account Learning Preferences in Teaching

2. Theories Principles and Models of Communication

2.1. Theories Principles and Models of Communication

2.2. Application of Theories Principles and Models of Communication

3. Theories Principles and Models of Assessment

3.1. Theories Principles and Models of Assessment

3.2. Application of Theories Principles and Models of Assessment

4. Theories and Models of Curriculum Development

4.1. Theories Principles and Models of Curriculum and Development

4.2. Application of Theories Principles and Models of Curriculum Development in Art

5. Theories Principles and Models of Reflection and Evaluation

5.1. Theories Principles and Models of Reflection and Evaluation

5.2. Application of Theories Principles and Models of Reflection and Evaluation in Art

References

1.    Theories Principles and Models of Learning

Theories, principles and models of learning are very important with numerous reasons in a teachers’ daily practice of education and training. Following report discusses, explains and analysis these considering empowerment for student and learning environment can be improved.

1.1.           Theories Principles and Models of Learning

Models of learning theories includes different headings such as;

  • Behaviorism (Pavlov)
  • Cognitivism (Paget)
  • Meaningful Learning Theory (Ausubel)
  • Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
  • Social Constructivism (Vygotsky)
  • Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)

Behaviorism theory which is originated from the results of Pavlov`s experiments on the dogs as the classical conditioning suggests that positive experiences in the environment influences the quality of learning in pupils (Malone, 2002). This theory puts the teacher at the center of the learning process rather than being student centered. Most important practices in this theory are to create detailed guidelines for students by teacher in terms of gaining positive experiences and practice reshaping the current information given. In this case, the teacher may prefer to create games and quizzes on certain information and knowledges as well as reward system to create a sense of achievement which would stimulate the learning experience in the environment as Pavlow did to his dogs by feeding them after the bell. For using this theory, the students should have no information and knowledge and they should take time to understanding of the subject (Petty, 2006), as Bloom`s revised taxonomy suggests in the beginning levels of memorizing and understanding (Krathwohl, 2002). Yet, for the upper levels of thinking skills, implications of this theory might not be very sufficient.

Cognitivism theory suggests students to learn through mental processing of knowledge as Piaget states as a change mental behavior (1964). This theory suggest teachers to create a strategy to keep students focus and in an alert mental state to keep the attention at its highest level with using tools such as; mind mapping, visual aids, presentations and spider maps (Barrouillet, 2015). In this case, learners are able to combine the knowledge and information given with real life events and situations as well as personal experiences, which will create ownership. By this strategy, students are not just a receiver but an active part of knowledge process which balances the personal thoughts and mental levels of understanding with the existing information in the outer world (Walker, 2014).

According to Anderson, there are two different ways of learning as declarative and procedural learning. As a main difference, the difference occurs way of knowledge occurs. For instance, a game can be played as the information, rules and facts needed explained by the teacher which would be the declarative way or the same game can be played in a way that students discover the knowledge by prating the same game till they master it which is a procedural learning (Anderson, 1979).

Recent studies shows that when procedural learning increases the creativity and critical thinking skills by brain activity, declarative learning has the danger of memory based problems such as easy forgetting due to depending on not thinking but memorizing skills. (Ullman, 2016)

Social constructivism theory by Vygotsky and Bruner, suggests that learning might be accelerated as an active process by the self-lead and socializing (McCleod, 2007).  In this sense, learners are not passive elements of teaching environment but active facilitators, connected to the learning process by group works and discussions (Petty, 2006).

Connectivism on the other hand is a recent theory that comes with the digital age. This type of learning suggest that, learners connected to each other by technology creates and environment to support each others learning process. This connection between learners creates and collaboration thought better creativity and decision making. When people are transferring their skills and productivity by writing blogs, emails and delivering online lectures, they also activate their own learning as teaching someone else creates a higher level of learning in the individual. (Nichols, 2003)

1.2.           Application of Theories Principles and Models of Learning in Teaching

To begin with, behaviorism in teaching can be used in ways of rewards and punishments. Yet, this is not an effective way in contemporary practices as the lectures are not highly structured and the student responsibility is not high but the teacher is responsible for learning. In addition, if this theory is used in classroom it does not acknowledge the differences of students.

Cognitivism is a model which can be used at the classroom, this model is used for encouraging curiosity and testing hypotheses for inquiry orientated projects. As this model engages past experiences in the learning teacher can include a scenario to create an environment for students to be familiar with.

Social Learning Theory assumes that the classroom can be used as a social construction where students to collaborate in groups and work in teams to model responses and expectation altogether. This theory in combination to social constructivism can be used in forms of journaling and empirical activities to create supportive and cooperative learning.

Multiple Intelligence theory can be very effectively applied in classroom as it acknowledges difference types of learning styles and puts the student in the center of learning system by self-directed learning. This theory in parallel to Brain-based learning can be used in teaching space as creating regular changing and multi-sensory environment.

Another additional theory is Flow theory can be used in the classroom to integrate students to their flow states by assessing their challenging and capability limitations to keep them not bored and apathy but in the state of flow.

As most of these theories are just theories, they can be used in combination to each other depends on the capacity and requirements of the students to create an environment of learning for different types and preferences to acknowledge all the needs in accordance to Independent Learning Plan (ILP). This plan is addressing the different learnings needs of different individuals and the teacher`s capacity to identify them. As teachers acknowledges the different needs they would also set different SMART goals for each individual and find the combination of different theoretical implications at the classroom. (Petty, 2006)

1.3.           Models of Learning Preferences

Models of learning preferences are a theory based on NLP settings. This theory says that there are different styles of learning such as visual, auditorily, kinesthetic etc. it is not generally one per each person, but a combination of two or three different kinds with one suppressive. In accordance to the Honey and Mumford`s four main styles of learning as actives, reflectors, theorists and pragmatics. The students can be classified in variety of categories (Rogers, 2001). Even though, there are surveys to do so, it is important to acknowledge that, in the general teaching instead of individual learning preferences to be acknowledge it is more valuable to address all the learning preferences in a higher level.

Surely, on this sense, it is important for teacher to test the majority of the classroom on the difference learning preferences, yet moreover in crowded classrooms to combine different learning style of groups is very important to balance the group dynamics.

1.4.           The Effect of Taking Account Learning Preferences in Teaching

Learning preferences are very important to acknowledge in the classroom as it would require different techniques to be combined a maximized learning. This practice in classroom would not only support the flow of the students but also motivate them in further efforts. These practices would engage students actively and create a multi-sensory environment as the more senses included the more students will remember.

For this purpose, the multisensory teaching style should be used especially in teaching of art. Students should be able to touch the different materials and then visually supported by showing them previous examples by auditory explanations. Also in this sense, drawing lessons can be combined with classic music or teaching instrument playing can also combined with the nice pictures on presentations. On the main sense, as Britain is a very rich nation by its heritages, organizing museum trips and visiting the historical monuments would be an alternative way of multisensory teaching. In addition, the artistic values of cities may be very effective to motivate the learning by introducing the current operas and concerts to the students.

In addition, inclusive learning mode should be applied at the learning environment, where students are continuously stimulated by engaging questions. On the other hand, as teaching is not a one way path in return, pupils should ask questions and give feedbacks. (Powell and Tummons, 2011)

2.    Theories Principles and Models of Communication

2.1.           Theories Principles and Models of Communication

Models of communication can be classified in three aggressive, assertive and passive behaviors. Aggressive behavior may have been used for years yet it would decrease the motivation. In this sense, passive behavior may also cause the lack of authority. Positive motivation, sense of humor, effective body language using eye contact, understanding and technical skills are the important ways of communication.

We should also use debate and demonstration to improve confidence. From this aspect, Willingness to Communicate Framework by Burgeon (1976), suggests that, confidence is not a fixed behavior but a flow in the concept.

2.2.           Application of Theories Principles and Models of Communication

Models of communication can be applied in the classroom in regards to learning styles. As different students have different styles of learning, the communication application should appeal to all as well. These theories acknowledge that, communication is essential for learning motivation and applications in the classroom are supposed to respect these as well.

For instance, the teacher should sit on the level of students as it would indicate to a motivational body language. If the teacher is standing most of the time it would indicate to an aggressive behavior, so same level eye contact should be a practice of communication.

3.    Theories Principles and Models of Assessment

3.1.           Theories Principles and Models of Assessment

Assessment is mostly about reflection and dialogue on the learning process. There are four main models of assessment.

– Observation Model

– Survey Model

– Performance Task Model

– Portfolio Model

3.2.           Application of Theories Principles and Models of Assessment

For instance, traffic light tool is an important assessment tool. In the sense of art education, this tool has an application of color coding for different tasks to be assessed by the students in form of traffic lights. When giving a lecture, students should give feedback on the levels of measurement in struggling. This would not only adjust the teachers’ behavior on students but would also make the students feel better on their own condition to be acknowledged.

In addition, the teachers’ role as a communicator would be based on not certain breaks at the lecture but the teacher would constantly support the student in suitable times.

Another application of this assessment might be to provide constant assessment among the students. So the students can exchange their outputs of the lecture to each other and give each other feedbacks as in form of a positive language labelled as `Even Better If…` condition. This would not only support the social exchange theory aspect of learning but also would encourage the same level feedback loops to be grounded.

4.    Theories and Models of Curriculum Development

4.1.           Theories Principles and Models of Curriculum and Development

Tyler`s Curriculum development provides 4 steps.

  • What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
  • What educational experiences can be provided are likely to attain purposes?
  • How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
  • How can we determine whether the purposes are being attained?

Generally, curriculum development, planning and implementation are the rules and practices that must be followed in education. It is the process of training the students to realize their learning goals.

The curriculum has a number of important values that the students want to give to the students, such as the aims and objectives, which are aimed at improving the skills of the students: justice, equality, sharing, trusting, understanding, solidarity, loyalty, loyalty, cooperation, honesty. Being clear and understandable, being truthful, being trustworthy, stopping to say, controlling, controlling your behavior, taking responsibility for your behavior, having self-confidence, apologizing when necessary.

Be patient and determined, tolerate, know not to wait, be respectful and humble, behave in the way that others want to treat themselves, value other people’s personalities, observe the position, characteristics and situation of the participant.

To give importance to family unity, to make sacrifice, to trust, to be merciful,

being responsible to oneself, environment; to stand in line, to be consistent and trustworthy, to take the consequences of your behavior. Being a hardworking person, solidarity, observing rules and laws, doing business associations, sharing.

In the curriculum, everyone aims to improve himself by learning to achieve a higher achievement and self-improvement. However, in some cases the changes in the environment affect learning and play an important role on the student, and Skinner and Watson report that behaviorism theory can be predicted and controlled (Skinner, 1974).

4.2.           Application of Theories Principles and Models of Curriculum Development in Art

My specialty is improved. In the curriculum “Art Education” is necessary for educating the creative power and potential of the individual, for aesthetic thinking and conscious organization. Art is necessary because the individual is able to adjust social relations, to cooperate and assist, to choose and express truth, to enjoy the pleasure of starting and finishing, and to be productive. Today, the general aim of contemporary art education is to support the student in terms of intellectual, emotional and social development in the direction of capacity and to try to respond to his personal requests.

The curriculum is thought to be the process that the courses are designed for because of community changes. Art is one of them. art is not only an aesthetic purpose, but also educational and educational purposes are important concepts to be considered in this sense. Besides these general purposes, contemporary art education has certain specific purposes:

It allows to raise individuals who study, study, inquire, tolerate, broad, free and thoughtful. They define the artistic activities (artistic activities) and the dimensions of creativity and they are the intellectual The ability to acquire artistic skills related to spiritual, cognitive, intellectual activities enables the person to find his identity in the future to prove himself.

Art in the curriculum; Computing, commercial, industry, textiles, automotive industry, social care sector and many more who want to work in the field have been developed to direct students. As the curriculum develops, trainers use resources to provide different interactive learning methods to support students. It provides independent learning development opportunities. Students are encouraged to be more curious and aware of the environment that will help them develop more flexible and organizational skills to feel better. In the necessity of art education, the emancipation of the people, the domination of the nature, the satisfaction of the spiritual needs of the individuals, the effort to create a balanced, modern, sensitive society. Art education provides free expression possibilities for individuals.

It should be known that this training can be realized through art and business education, while creating a civilized society with the same qualities, while aiming to make individuals’ talents operate, creative, self-confident, productive, aesthetic.

Art education is an inevitable necessity for all communities and countries, regardless of their general level.

In our industrializing, urbanizing world, individuals gradually lose their human talents and the dominance of the monotonous rapid life created by mechanization at their root can restrict the relaxation possibilities of the people. Industrialization takes the efforts of people to create themselves. This situation can cause a break in their lives, imbalance and alienation.

The general purpose of societies around the world is civilization.

For this reason, passing through the art and technology process is an inevitable reality. One of the most important conditions of a balanced and healthy society is “art education”. In a work on the subject, Herbert Read explains: “That is the necessity of art and education is going to lose to the balance of artless societies.” (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica) (1933-36)

The subject’s subjective internal vision, imagery, thoughts and feelings visualize with art. This very subjective situation is an outward transformation, an embodiment and an important requirement for man to tell others. No matter what artwork, the purpose of conveying the audience is to tell the action of creation. Art education; to help the person make aesthetic judgments while teaching new forms to feel, to enjoy and to direct their excitement in the right ways. That is to say, art education is not about raising artists; cognitive, sensory and emotional training needs of every person whom he or she has to train to creativity.

5.    Theories Principles and Models of Reflection and Evaluation

5.1.           Theories Principles and Models of Reflection and Evaluation

Evaluation, one of the most important steps of program development, objective, value, which factor is to be taken into account and which will be kept under control, standards, type of assessment to be used and data collection tools. The main purpose of the evaluation is to decide that the program is to be continued, terminated or audited and that the value of the program

The expert of the authority to make the assessment must be a scientist in the field. Because evaluation is so important that it cannot be left to the eyes of a random person. It should be able to analyses program policies and utilization situations in a most reasonable way, which will enable them to fulfil their technical and academic knowledge. At the same time, the evaluator should be a good mentor or consultant. The opinions given by the person who has the position and knowledge to make this assessment have a vital role to play. When evaluating, it is wise to think about the positive side and how to improve it. Evaluate the outcome expected to be positive or negative, then develop an action plan to improve it.

The actual expected target for the utilization-oriented plan evaluation is to define usefulness, profitability, feasibility, sensitivity, ethics and what is right. The advantage of this is that it encourages different ways of thinking about how an activity or other lesson can make it more diffuse. It allows the educator to think about what needs to be changed to improve and improve the course.

5.2.           Application of Theories Principles and Models of Reflection and Evaluation in Art

Up to this time, the traditional arts education understanding has been caused by some familiarity of the gore-educated teachers and everyone has a well-established understanding of classical art education. This understanding of the new world order gore is insufficient. In order to be able to keep up with technological progress and achieve more successful results, the Ministry of Education has begun to re-educate the schools’ educational systems in order to train the creative students with the aim. In training, we went to reconstruction. They began to reorganize the curriculum to include modern and innovative teachers. A team from the prospective teachers, who will be included in the training, started to create expectations. In the field of art as well as in the fields of science have gone to the argument. Tum leads to the reorganization of the teacher candidates’ legislation, from the development of teaching to the practice and teaching experience. Now, innovative, technological advancement and communication have begun to give importance to professional, experienced trainers who train and train.

Expert understanding has advanced to the process of working with modern teachers who have created their own innovative perspective with their theoretical knowledge. Teachers who know how to reflect the information of schools and institutions on beneficiary are preferred by students. In our industrializing, urbanizing world, individuals gradually lose their human talents and the dominance of the monotonous rapid life created by mechanization at their root can restrict the relaxation possibilities of the people. Industrialization takes the efforts of people to create themselves. This situation can cause a break in their lives, imbalance and alienation.

For this reason, inclusion of talented prospective teachers who will influence the personal development of the pupils in a more positive way is for us as one of the main aims. This development in the field of education, of course, also shows the pain in the field of art.

Art was only a restricted space applied to paper and canvas. The industry has begun to show itself in every field – in design, in internet programs – in advertising areas, in decoration, in textiles, in the field of automotive industry. Therefore, art’ more space has been put on the training areas. In this sense, as an art teacher, the use of my pupils in my homework and project experiences, which will enlarge the creative emotions will be returned as a reflection on me.

References

Anderson, J. (1979) ‘A General Learning Theory and its Application to Schema Abstraction11’. Academic Press, 13, pp. 277–318. doi: 10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60085-7.

Barrouillet, P. (2015) ‘Theories of cognitive development: From Piaget to today’, Developmental Review, 38, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2015.07.004.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002) ‘A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview’, Theory Into Practice, 41(4), pp. 212–218. doi: 10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2.

Malone, J. (2002) ‘I. P. Pavlov: classical conditioning’, in Theories of Learning: A Historical Approach., pp. 55–91.

McCleod, S. (2007) ‘Vygotsky – Simply Psychology’, Simply Psychology.

McGarr, O. (2010) ‘Education for sustainable development in technology education in Irish schools: a curriculum analysis’, International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 20(3), pp. 317–332. doi: 10.1007/s10798-009-9087-7.

Nichols, M. (2003) ‘A theory for eLearning’, Educational Technology and Society, pp. 1–10.

Petty, G. (2006) ‘Evidence based teaching’, Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes, pp. 115–136.

Piaget, J. (1964) ‘Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(3), pp. 176–186. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660020306.

Powell, S. and Tummons, J. (2011) Inclusive practice in the lifelong learning sector. Exeter.

Rogers, J. (2001) ‘Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles’, in Adults Learning, p. 24.

Skinner, B. F. (1974) ‘Designing higher education’, Daedalus. JSTOR, pp. 196–202.

Ullman, M. T. (2016) ‘The Declarative/Procedural Model’, in Neurobiology of Language, pp. 953–968. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407794-2.00076-6.

Walker, G. (2014) ‘The significance of Jerome Bruner’, International Schools Journal, 33(2), pp. 8–16.



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