Essay Writing Service

1 Star2 Stars3 Stars4 Stars5 Stars (No Ratings Yet)
Loading...

The Effects on Satiation and Satiety level Following the Consumption of Gari aGas Generator System for Jet Acoustic Facilitynd Black Eye-pea Beans

do not necessarily reflect the views of UKDiss.com.

Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgements Abstract 1 Introduction 1.1 Satiety and

ABSTRACT

A gas generator, a device for generating gas and also may be used to drive a turbine or to create gas from pressurized gas source when storing a solid or liquid is undesirable or impractical. The term often refers to a device that uses a rocket propellant to generate large quantities of gas that is typically used to drive a turbine and also to provide thrust as in a rocket engine. In aero acoustics, jet noise is the field that focuses on the noise generation caused by high-velocity jets, such noise is known as broadband noise and extends well beyond the range of human hearing and is also responsible for some of the loudest sounds ever produced by mankind. The upper stage of GSLV MkIII the next generation launch vehicle of ISRO is powered by a cryogenic engine called CE-20. The engine is first of its kind that works in gas generator cycle. CE-20 engine works on “Gas Generator Cycle” The generator system requires a Spark Plug for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine and an electro-pneumatic action valve that  is a control system for pipe organs, whereby air pressure, controlled by an electric current and operated by the keys of an organ console, opens and closes valves within wind chests, allowing the pipes to speak. A thermocouple, dependent on temperature, and finally a pressure transducer, often called a pressure transmitter, a transducer that converts pressure into an electrical signal. The project aims to synchronize all the four components so that they work in sync with a minimum latency to meet the needs of the jet acoustic facility. Thus, maintaining a constant Mach number and thrust of the GSLV-M3. The cold flow and hot flow tests results will be useful in comparing and arriving at a reasonable estimate for the actual scale

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Abstract          i

Contents          ii

List of Figures         v

List of Tables         vi

      SDSC SHAR                                                                                               vii

  • Introduction             1-11      
  1.        Aim of the project     1
  2.        Realization Of The Project
  • Literature Survey         2-3
  1. GSLV Mark III       2
  2. Cryogenic Engine     4
  • Gas Generator       4-15
  1. 1:100 Hot Flow Test Facility     4
  2. Elements of Gas Generator    4
  1.       Air Supply Unit            5
  2.       Combustion Chamber   5
  3.       Kerosene Injector Assembly   6
  4.       Acetylene Injector Assembly  7
  5.       Cooling Water System   8
  1. Pneumatic System                9
  1.       Air Supply System      9
  2.       Kerosene Supply system   10
  1.     Gas Generator Ignition                        11
  1.       Acetylene Ignition                                     11
  2.       Bypass ignition            12
  1.       Main Ignition     12                                            14
  • Pipes And Instrumentation Diagram            16-18
  • Operational Sequence      18
  1.    Working
  • PIC Microcontroller                19-22
  1.            PIC18F87K22                  19
  1.       Special Microcontroller Features
  2.       Peripheral Highlights
  1.            PIC Microcontroller Kit    20
  1.       System Specifications
  2.       Mikro Bus
  3.       ADC Click
  4.       UART Via RS-232
  5.       LCD 2×16
  6.       GLCD 128×64
  7.       LM-35
  8.       Output Voltages
  • Transducers            32-35
  1.  Thermocouple Type K      32
  2.  Electro Pneumatic Valve    33
  3. Spark Plug      34
  4. Pressure Transducer     35
  • Software Requirements
  1. Python
  1.       Python IDLE
  1. Raspberry Pi
  2. Graphical User Interface
  3. Proteus Design Suite
  1.       Sequence For Execution
  1. MP Lab IDE
  1.       Sequence Of Steps
  1. Mikro Program Suite
  2. Mikro C
  • Simulation & Synthesis Results    37-59
    1. Proteus Simulation     37
    2. Python Simulation         52
    3. PIC assembly Code     59
  • Conclusion      60
  • References      61
  1.               Temperature Valves & Mixture Ratio  64

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.   Description           Page No.

Fig 2.1 GSLV M3                              2

Fig 2.2 Cryogenic Engine                             4

Fig 3.1 Gas Generator                             6

Fig 3.2 Combustion Chamber               6

Fig 3.3 Injector Assembly       7

Fig 3.4 Injector Parts        7

Fig 3.5 Flame Tube        8

Fig 3.6 Air Chamber        10

Fig 3.7 Assembled View of Kerosene Injector    15

Fig 3.8 Injector Assembly Mount On Main Header   15

Fig 4.1 P&I Diagram Of Gas Generator     18

Fig 5.1 PIC 18F87K22       21

Fig 5.2 PIC Block Diagram       22

Fig 6.1 PIC Pro Kit        23

Fig 6.2 Dual Power Supply Unit      24

Fig 6.3 Dual Power Supply Schematics     24

Fig 6.4 Mikro Bus Female       25

Fig 6.5 Mikro Bus Male       25

Fig 6.6 Mikro Bus Pin Description      26

Fig 6.7 ADC Click        27

Fig 6.8 ADC Click schematic      27

Fig 6.9 RS 232        28

Fig 6.10 LCD         28

Fig 6.11 LCD connector       29

Fig 6.12 LCD Pins        29

Fig 6.13 GLCD         30

Fig 6.14 GLCD Pins        30

Fig 6.15 LM 35         31

Fig 6.16 Output Voltage Terminal      31

Fig 7.1 Thermocouple junctions      32

Fig 7.2 Thermocouple Block Diagram     32

Fig 7.3 Thermocouple Reference      33

Fig 7.4 Pneumatic Valves       34

Fig 7.5 Spark Plug        35

Fig 7.6 Pressure Transducer       35

Fig 7.7 Pressure Transducer Model      36

Fig 8.1 UART Sender       37

Fig 8.2 LCD         38

Fig 8.3 ADC         39

Fig 8.4 GLCD         42

Fig 8.5 ADC On UART       44

Fig 8.6 LM 35         48

Fig 8.7 Horizontal Valve       50

Fig 8.8 Flame 1        50

Fig 8.9 Flame 2        50

Fig 8.10 Flame 3        51

Fig 8.11 Valve          51

Fig 8.12 Valve 1        51

Fig 8.13 Valve 2        51

Fig 8.14 Sparkn2        51

Fig 8.15 Sparkn        51

Fig 8.16 Spark         51

Fig 8.17 Vertivalve        51

Fig 8.18 Spark         51

Fig 8.19 Picture1        52

Fig 8.20 Python Logo        73

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table No.  Description       Page No.

Table 1 Features Of  PIC18 Family      20

Table 2 Thermocouple Voltages(mv)     33

SDSC SHAR

About SDSC SHAR :

Sriharikota, a remote inaccessible island, was acquired in the year 1969 to establish a national range for launching of multistage rockets and satellite launch vehicles. Features like nearness to the Equator, largely uninhabited island, and good launch azimuth corridor for various missions, situated on the east coast of India, identifies SHAR as an ideal spaceport. Sriharikota is located 18 km east of Sullurupeta, a small town on Chennai – Kolkata National Highway between Nellore and Chennai. Sriharikota covers an area of about 43,360 acres (175 sq.km) with a coastline of 50 km.

SHAR, popularly known as “Spaceport of India”, is located at Sriharikota a spindle shaped island. This space centre was renamed as Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR on September 5, 2002 in memory of Prof. Satish Dhawan, former Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

SDSC SHAR embarked its journey into space by launching RH-125 from Sriharikota on October 9, 1971. Launch facilities were set up in early eighties, for the first generation ISRO satellite launch vehicles, namely SLV-3 and ASLV. SDSC SHAR houses the necessary infrastructure for launching sounding rockets, satellite launch vehicle missions (PSLV/ GSLV/ LVM3) to Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO), Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO), controlled reentry missions & deep space missions.

Description: SHAR

About SMP & ETF :

Solid Motor Performance and Environmental Test Facilities (SMP & ETF) is mainly responsible for conducting static testing of solid rocket motors, both at sea-level and simulated high altitude conditions. It also caters to the environmental testing requirements of solid rocket motors and their subsystems which include Vibration, Shock, Constant Acceleration, and Thermal/Humidity. The following are the test facilities:-

Sea-level Static Test Facilities

High Altitude Test Facility

Vibration Test Facility

Thermal Soak & Humidity Test Facility

Constant Acceleration Test Facility

Aero Acoustic Test Facility (AATF)

Proof Pressure Test Facility

For Sea level static Testing, Single component and six component test stands are designed and developed in house to measure the axial thrust and side force components. The rocket motors are extensively instrumented to measure various parameters such as chamber pressure, axial thrust, and temperature on motor case and nozzle and strain, etc.

High Altitude Test Facility is meant for simulating high altitude vacuum conditions for testing upper stage rocket motors. In this high altitude test facility Vacuum ignition of motor, Motor subsystem performance in vacuum, Nozzle qualification for full flow conditions and Motor tail-off thrust characteristics are validated.

Description: SHAR

In vibration test facility, an electro-dynamic shaker is used for testing of rocket motor and their subsystems by simulating required longitudinal and later vibration.

Simulating low temperature, high temperature, temperature cycling and different humidity conditions on the rocket motors and their subsystems is carried out in Thermal Soak & Humidity Test Facility.

Simulating acceleration loads on the rocket motor is conducted at Constant Acceleration Test Facility.

Aero Acoustic Test Facility (AATF) is used for simulating the acoustic levels during liftoff of the launch vehicle. Water injection system has been employed to suppress the acoustic levels, the water injection parameters like injection pressure, location of injection, angle of injection, mass flow rate of water has been extensively studied for suppressing the acoustic loads.

As part of qualification programme Proof Pressure test or burst tests are conducted on newly realized hardware or to gain confidence of an old hardware or even to evaluate the failure mode of the hardware.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

To establish the acoustic characteristics of GSLV-M3 during its lift-off from SLP, cold flow model tests are being conducted at present using 1:100 scale with Nitrogen as driving fluid. From the literature, it is learnt that heated jets and its acoustic characteristics need to be studied for understanding the Strouhal number criterion and also the exit location of water injection in order to achieve better attenuation levels. The length of the potential cores will be different for the cold and hot supersonic over expanded jets. To achieve optimum attenuation level water is to be injected at the end of the potential core. Further, difference in acoustic level of two jets with same velocities for different temperatures occurs at low frequencies. However from the literature it is learnt that the attenuation levels will be more or less the same for cold and hot jets.

It is proposed to study the acoustic characteristics of heated supersonic jets and the effect of water injection on the suppression characteristics at various nozzle exit velocities keeping the Mach number constant by varying stagnation temperatures. It is planned to conduct this test for the scale down model of 1:100, where mass flow requirement is comparatively less. A Gas Generator system operating with kerosene-air mixture has been realized to generate heated air at 30bar and a temperature range of 600K to 1200K. This report details the Gas generator system and its remote operation.

1.1 Aim of Project

The objective of the project is to operate the Gas Generator System Remotely through an embedded system. As the system is being designed for test module it requires to be changed a multiple times to conduct tests for different parameters and different environments, hence a microcontroller is being used. These tests would provide vital inputs for the forthcoming hot flow model tests using scaled solid rocket motors simulating S200 motors of gsLVM3. Finally, it should be ensured that the working is done with minimum or no delay if feasible. The components in play should be well synced with a proper fluidic flow of code and data acquisition.The GUI should be displayed well so as to facilitate efficient monitoring.

1.2 Realization Of The Project

The project is done using a PIC microcontroller and the GUI is displayed on the Python. The transducers used are synced to the controller using an A/D driver. The output is given to the Relays to achieve the required voltage. The simulation is done using the Proteus 8.6 software driven by the MikroC code. The PIC and the Raspberry Pi can be interfaced to run the process and the GUI simultaneously. The progress is displayed on the LCD and the GLCD of the microcontroller kit. Microcontroller is a better choice when compared to PLC as the project is the downscaled testing version of the gas generator and is easily manipulated. The graphs saved will help in further estimations and calculations of the CE-20 engine.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III:

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III , also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3LVM3 or GSLV-III is a launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

It is intended to launch satellites into geostationary orbit and as a launcher for an Indian crew vehicle. The GSLV-III features an Indian cryogenic third stage and a higher payload capacity than the current GSLV

GSLV MkIII.png

Figure 2.1:GSLV

Vehicle description:-

First Stage:

The S200 solid motors are used as the first stage of the launch vehicle. Each booster has a diameter of 3.2 metres, a length of 25 metres, and carries 207 tonnes of propellant. These boosters burn for 130 seconds and produce a peak thrust of about 5,150 kilonewtons (525 ft) each.

A separate facility has been established at Sriharikota to make the S200 boosters. Another major feature is that the S200’s large nozzle has been equipped with a ‘flex seal.’ The nozzle can therefore be gimballed when the rocket’s orientation needs correction.

In flight, as the thrust from the S200 boosters begins to tail off, the decline in acceleration is sensed by the rocket’s onboard sensors and the twin Vikas engines on the ‘L110’ liquid propellant core stage are then ignited. Before the S200s separate and fall away from the rocket, the solid boosters as well as the Vikas engines operate together for a short period of time.

Second Stage

The second stage, designated L110, is a 4-meter-diameter liquid-fueled stage carrying 110 tonnes of UDMH and N2O4. It is the first Indian liquid-engine cluster design, and uses two improved Vikas engines, each producing about 700 kilonewtons (70 tf).The improved Vikas engine uses regenerative cooling, providing improved weight and specific impulse, compared to earlier rocketsThe L110 core stage ignites 113 seconds after liftoff and burns for about 200 seconds.

Third Stage

The cryogenic upper stage is designated the C25 and will be powered by the Indian-developed CE-20 engine burning LOX and LH2, producing 186 kilonewtons (19.0 tf) of thrust. The C-25 will be 4 metres (13 ft) in diameter and 13.5 metres (44 ft) long, and contain 27 tonnes of propellant.

This engine was initially slated for completion and testing by 2015, it would have been the C25 stage and be put through a series of tests. ISRO crossed a major milestone in the development of CE-20 engine for the GSLV MKIII vehicle by the successful hot test for 640 seconds duration on 19 February 2017 at ISRO Propulsion Complex, Mahendragiri. The test demonstrated the repeatability of the engine performance with all its sub systems like thrust chamber, gas generator, turbo pumps and control components for the full duration. All the engine parameters were closely matching with the pre-test prediction.

The first C25 stage will be used on the GSLV-III D-1 missionin December 2016. This mission will put in orbit the GSAT-19E communication satellite. Work on the C25 stage and CE-20 engine for GSLV Mk-III upper stage was initiated in 2003, the project has been subject to many delays due to problems with ISRO’s smaller cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5 for GSLV MK-II upper stage.

Comparable rockets

  • Angara A3
  • Delta IV
  • Falcon 9
  • H-IIA
  • Long March 3B
  • Titan IIIC

2.2Cryogenic Engine for GSLV MkIII

The upper stage of GSLV MkIII the next generation launch vehicle of ISRO is powered by a cryogenic engine called CE-20. This engine produces a nominal thrust of 200 kN, but has an operating thrust range between 180 kN to 220 kN and can be set to any fixed values between them.The engine is first of its kind that works in gas generator cycle and indigenously developed. The combustion chamber burns liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen at 6 MPa with 5.05 engine mixture ratio. The engine has a thrust-to-weight ratio of 34.7 and a specific impulse of 443 seconds in vacuum. ISRO successfully tested the sea level version of the engine for a cumulative duration of about 1900 s spread over ten hot tests which includes flight duration hot test of 635s on April 28, 2015 and endurance hot test for duration of 800 seconds. CE-20 engine works on “Gas Generator Cycle” which has flexibility for independent development of each sub-system before the integrated engine test, thus minimising uncertainty in the final developmental phase with reduced development time. The high thrust cryogenic engine is one of the most powerful upper stage cryogenic engines in the world. Starting with injector element development for configuration of injector head, the design, realization and testing of the major subsystems viz the gas generator, turbo pumps, start-up system and thrust chamber, have been successfully completed in a phased manner before conducting a series of developmental tests in the integrated engine mode. Apart from the major sub-systems, many critical components like the igniter, control components etc were independently developed and qualified

Figure 2.2: Cryogenic Engine Schematic Diagram

 

CHAPTER 3

GAS GENERATOR

 

Gas Generator is nothing but a can type combustor operating with kerosene-air mixture, which caters heated air at desired pressure, temperature and mass flow rate for hot flow model test. During the ignition phase, pilot flame is established by means of acetylene gas, which is ignited through a high voltage spark source.

Figure 3.1 Gas Generator

3.1  Elements Of Gas Generator

The Gas Generator consists of the sub-systems like Air supply unit, Combustion Chamber, Kerosene Injector assembly, Acetylene Injector assembly, Flame holder tube, Igniter assembly and Cooling water system. Air supply unit is a cylindrical shell, which receives the air from the main air line and supplies to the combustion chamber. Combustion chamber is a cylindrical shell, where the actual combustion takes place.

3.1.1 1:100 Hot Flow Test Facility for studying GSLV-M3 Lift-off

Kerosene Injector is the one, which supplies the kerosene to the combustion chamber. There are 3 injectors mounted on a header at the center of the combustion chamber. Acetylene injector is the one, which supplies acetylene gas for providing pilot flame inside the chamber. Flame holder tube is a divergent conical passage, which has perforations all around for uniform distribution of air in turn resulting in better mixing in the combustion chamber. It acts as a flame holding unit through aerodynamic flame stabilization. Igniter assembly is mounted on the combustion chamber and its tip is mounted aside the acetylene injector with a small gap of 1mm maintained between them.

Cooling water system is a Jacket type cooling system, i.e. the combustion chamber is surrounded by another cylindrical shell to cool the combustion chamber. Water is circulated once through for effective cooling in counter flow direction.

 

3.2.2 Air Supply Unit

Air Chamber is a cylindrical shell , which receives the air from the main air line and supplies to the combustion chamber. The regulated air supply from the proportional control valve is fed to the air chamber.

3.2.3 Combustion Chamber

Combustion chamber is a cylindrical shell, where through mixing of kerosene and air takes place. Combustion chamber flange has a step on its face to hold the flame tube

3.2.4 Kerosene Injector assembly

The kerosene injectors are mounted on a toroid, which in turn is connected to the kerosene supply line. The injectors are meant for supplying the kerosene into the combustion chamber in a finely atomized state. The injectors used are simplex type injectors or Pressure- swirl injectors. In this injector, the kerosene is caused to swirl by tangential slots.

3.2.5 Acetylene Injector Assembly

The acetylene injector assembly is mounted in the combustion chamber exactly at the center of the kerosene injector assembly. The acetylene is supplied by this injector at a pressure of 0.2 bar for the initial ignition phase for establishing the pilot flame.

Fig. 3.4: Injector Parts

 

3.2.6 Flame Tube

The flame tube is a divergent conical passage, which has perforations all around for uniform distribution of air in the combustion chamber. The flame tube is designed in such a way that it sustains at higher combustion temperatures.

The flame tube is divided into three zones along the flow direction, they are called as

  1. Primary zone
  2. Intermediate zone
  3. Dilution zone

3.2.7 Cooling Water System

Cooling water system is a Jacket type cooling system, i.e. the combustion chamber is surrounded by another cylindrical shell in which water flows continuously to cool the combustion chamber.

3.3  PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

The pneumatic system comprises of the

  • Air supply system
  • Kerosene supply system
  • Acetylene supply system

3.3.1Air supply system

Air is supplied to the Gas Generator at 300bar pressure. Air from the 300bar storage module is regulated to a operating pressure of 30bar by means of a pressure regulator.

3.4  Kerosene supply system

This system pressurizes kerosene by means of Nitrogen to 45 bar and supplies the kerosene to the combustion chamber though a proportional control valve. Kerosene is stored in a storage tank.

3.4.2 Requirement of N2

Nitrogen gas is used to pressurize kerosene to a pressure of 45 bar. Nitrogen is stored at 300bar pressure and it is regulated to operating pressure of 45bar by means of a pressure regulator.

3.5 GAS GENERATOR IGNITION

It is planned to operate the Gas Generator in remote mode using electro -pneumatic valves and proportional control valves as shown in the P&I diagram. The gas generator operation is carried out in three phases as below;

         Phase –I : Acetylene Ignition

  • Phase –II : By-Pass Ignition (Air at 5bar)
  • Phase –III : Main Ignition (Air at 30bar)

3.5.1 Phase I-Acetylene Ignition

For initial ignition purpose acetylene is used to fire the kerosene air mixture. For this acetylene is sent to the combustion chamber through a electro pneumatic valve at 0.2bar pressure. Acetylene is ignited by an igniter, which supplies sparks continuously from a high voltage source. The Air/Fuel Ratio for acetylene is reported to be12.14.

3.5.2  Phase II-Bypass Ignition

In the Acetylene ignition phase, once the acetylene flame is stabilized then the Kerosene proportional control valve is operated to supply kerosene into the combustion chamber. Subsequently the By Pass air-line valve is opened which supplies air The kerosene is supplied to the combustion chamber ,Once kerosene air mixture catches fire, the acetylene flame is put-off.

3.5.3 Phase –III  Main Ignition

In the bypass mode, once the flame stabilizes the kerosene proportional control valve is operated to a position corresponding to flow of kerosene flow and then the main air line valve is operated to allow air at 30bar pressure. Subsequently the bypass air-line valve is closed.

CHAPTER 4

PIPES AND INTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM

 

A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID) is a detailed diagram in the process industry which shows the piping and vessels in the process flow, together with the instrumentation and control devices.

Superordinate to the piping and instrumentation flowsheet is the process flow diagram (PFD) which indicates the more general flow of plant processes and equipment and relationship between major equipment of a plant facility.

A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID) is defined by the Institute of Instrumentation and Control as follows:

A diagram which shows the interconnection of process equipment and the instrumentation used to control the process. In the process industry, a standard set of symbols is used to prepare drawings of processes. The instrument symbols used in these drawings are generally based on International Society of Automation (ISA) Standard S5.1

The primary schematic drawing used for laying out a process control installation.

They usually contain the following information:

  • Process piping, sizes and identification, including:
  • Pipe classes or piping line numbers
  • Flow directions
  • Interconnections references
  • Permanent start-up, flush and bypass lines
  • Mechanical equipment/ Process control instrumentation and designation (names, numbers, unique tag identifiers), including:
  • Valves and their identifications (e.g. isolation, shutoff, relief and safety valves)
  • Control inputs and outputs (sensors and final elements, interlocks)
  • Miscellanea – vents, drains, flanges, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers and increasers
  • Interfaces for class changes
  • Computer control system
  • Identification of components and subsystems delivered by others

P&IDs are originally drawn up at the design stage from a combination of process flow sheet data, the mechanical process equipment design, and the instrumentation engineering design. During the design stage, the diagram also provides the basis for the development of system control schemes, allowing for further safety and operational investigations, such as a Hazard and operability study (HAZOP). To do this, it is critical to demonstrate the physical sequence of equipment and systems, as well as how these systems connect.

P&IDs also play a significant role in the maintenance and modification of the process after initial build. Modifications are red-penned onto the diagrams and are vital records of the current plant design.

They are also vital in enabling development of;

  • Control and shutdown schemes
  • Safety and regulatory requirements
  • Start-up sequences
  • Operational understanding.

P&IDs form the basis for the live mimic diagrams displayed on graphical user interfaces of large industrial control systems such as SCADA and distributed control systems.

pid gas generator

Figure 4.1:P & I Diagram of Gas Generator Pnumatic System

CHAPTER 5

OPERATIONAL SEQUENCE

 

The code first checks the cylinder pressures in order to check for leakages and any other hazards that might occur. The stable pressures are noted and cross checked with the optimum safe levels. The two valves are then open to let the gases into the mixing chamber where the minimum Air Fuel ratio of 12.14 is maintained Acetylene is the fuel and air is supplied to provide for combustion. After a Pressure of 60 bar is reached with the proper air fuel ration the mixture is kept at a standstill and the valves are closed. Simultaneously the Nitrogen gas valve is opened to pressurize the kerosene up to 45 bar so as to create the required thrust for the kerosene fuel. Now, the gases in the mixing chamber are let into the combustion chamber to create a pilot flame. A high voltage spark plug of 230V ac supply is used for ignition. The pilot flame is stabilized up to 1200K after which the kerosene is pumped into the chamber to create a steady flow in the gas generator. Finally the pressure readings and temperature readings are noted  so as to judge the working and characteristics of  the hot flow model.First the combustion temperature and the presuure flow of kerosene is kept in constant observation to ensure unhindered  functioning as the kerosene gas keeps the flame alive .Next the combustion  temperature and hot flow gas flame pressure  is noted,thus ensuring that there is constant thrust at the output which is the main aim of this model. These observations provide the results and future inputs needed to develop the life size model made.

Figure 5.1 Sequence

 

 

5.1WORKING:

The Embedded C code is run on the MikroC platform and the hex file is then dumped onto the microcontroller kit. The kit is stacked with a four channel ADC driver where the inputs of the transducers are given. As needed 2 inputs and 2 for output. Then the code is run, the input voltages from the transducers are then tallied with tables according to their make and the respective values are displayed on the LCD screen. Simultaneously, the GUI is displayed in the GLCD that is mounted. The relay continues and the sequence is repeated. The output is sent to the relay switches where the voltage is amplified to meet the requirement. The valves and the spark plug require a digital output .After one cycle, the results are tabulated for future reference and the graphs are marked so as to attain a constant sloped curve.

CHAPTER 6

PIC MICROCONTROLLER

 

Microcontroller is a chip that combines the microprocessor with one or more other components. These components contains memory, ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter),DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter), parallel I/O interface, serial I/O interface, timers and counters. The microprocessor responses to arithmetically operate the binary data which likes a CPU in a computer. However, its speed, general purpose registers, memory addressing and instruction set are very low compare with a CPU. Therefore, it can be illustrated as a low level CPU. The memory is used for storing the data, programming instruction and results. It also provides these information to other units. So that the microcontroller can be processed by a pre-written instruction without computer or any other devices. The ADC and DAC can do convert signal between analog signal and digital. The analog signal usually is a voltage number in a range. Such as a temperature sensor, it can converts the temperature value to a specific voltage value. Then, this voltage value can be converted to digital value as binary via ADC. In addition, the parallel I/O interface and serial I/O interface supply one or more ports for connecting sensors on the microcontroller.The timers and counters of microcontroller provide a specific frequency. This frequency determines how process speed in this programmer.

5.1 PIC18F87K22 FAMILY

Low-Power Features:

• Power-Managed modes:

– Run: CPU on, peripherals on

– Idle: CPU off, peripherals on

– Sleep: CPU off, peripherals off

• Two-Speed Oscillator Start-up

• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor

• Power-Saving Peripheral Module Disable (PMD)

• Ultra Low-Power Wake-up

• Fast Wake-up, 1s Typical

• Low-Power WDT, 300 nA Typical

• Ultra Low 50 nA Input Leakage

• Run mode Currents Down to 5.5A, Typical

• Idle mode Currents Down to 1.7A Typical

• Sleep mode Currents Down to Very Low 20 nA,

Typical

• RTCC Current Downs to Very Low 700 nA,

Typical

Table 1:Features of PIC18F Family

 

5.2 Special Microcontroller Features:

• Operating Voltage Range: 1.8V to 5.5V

• On-Chip 3.3V Regulator

• Operating Speed up to 64 MHz

• Up to 128 Kbytes On-Chip Flash Program Memory

• Data EEPROM of 1,024 Bytes

• 4K x 8 General Purpose Registers (SRAM)

• 10,000 Erase/Write Cycle Flash Program Memory, Minimum

• 1,000,000 Erase/write Cycle Data EEPROM Memory, Typical

• Flash Retention: 40 Years, Minimum

• Three Internal Oscillators: LF-INTRC (31 kHz),MF-INTOSC (500 kHz) and HF-INTOSC

• Self-Programmable under Software Control

• Priority Levels for Interrupts

• 8 x 8 Single-Cycle Hardware Multiplier

• Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT):- Programmable period from 4 ms to 4,194s (about 70 minutes)

• In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) via Two Pins

• In-Circuit Debug via Two Pins

• Programmable:

– BOR

– LVD

Figure 5.1 PIC18F87K22

5.3 Peripheral Highlights:

• Up to Ten CCP/ECCP modules:

– Up to seven Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules

– Three Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) modules

• Up to Eleven 8/16-Bit Timer/Counter modules:

– Timer0 – 8/16-bit timer/counter with 8-bit programmable prescaler

– Timer1,3 – 16-bit timer/counter

– Timer2,4,6,8 – 8-bit timer/counter

– Timer5,7 – 16-bit timer/counter for 64k and 128k parts

– Timer10,12 – 8-bit timer/counter for 64k and 128k parts

• Three Analog Comparators

• Configurable Reference Clock Output

• Hardware Real-Time Clock and Calendar (RTCC) module with Clock, Calendar and Alarm Functions

• Charge Time Measurement Unit (CTMU):

– Capacitance measurement for mTouch™ sensing solution

– Time measurement with 1 ns typical resolution

– Integrated temperature sensor

• High-Current Sink/Source 25 mA/25 mA (PORTB and PORTC)

• Up to Four External Interrupts

• Two Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) modules:

– 3/4-wire SPI (supports all four SPI modes)

– I2C™ Master and Slave modes

• Two Enhanced Addressable USART modules:

– LIN/J2602 support

– Auto-Baud Detect (ABD)

• 12-Bit A/D Converter with up to 24 Channels:

– Auto-acquisition and Sleep operation

– Differential input mode of operation

• Integrated Voltage Reference

Figure 5.2 Block Diagram

 

 

 

 

 

 

PIC MICROCONTROLLER KIT

                                                  Figure 6.1 PIC Pro kit

 

PIC18F87K22 is the default microcontroller

it has 16 MIPS operation, 128K bytes of linear program memory, 3896 bytes of linear data memory, and support for a wide range of power supply from 1.8V to 5V. It’s loaded with great modules: 69 General purpose I/O pins, 24 Analog Input pins (AD), internal Real time clock and calendar (RTCC), support for Capacitive Touch Sensing using Charge Time Measurement Unit (CTMU), six 8-bit timers and five 16-bit timers. It also has ten CCP modules, three Comparators and two MSSP modules which can be either SPI or I 2C.

 

6.1 System Specification:

Power Supply : 7–23V AC or 9–32V DC or via USB cable (5V DC)

Board Dimensions : 266 x 220mm (10.47 x 8.66 inch)

Weight : 475g (1.0472 lbs)

Power Consumption : ~90mA at 5V when all peripheral modules are disconnected

Power supply

Board contains switching power supply that creates stable voltage and current levels necessary for powering each part of the board. Power supply section contains two power regulators: MC34063A, which generates VCC-5V, and MC33269DT3.3 which creates VCC-3.3V power supply, thus making the board capable of supporting both 5V and 3.3V microcontrollers. Power supply unit can be powered in two different ways: with USB power supply, and using external adapters via adapter connector (CN19) or additional screw terminals (CN18). External adapter voltage levels must be in range of 9-32V DC and 7-23V AC. Use jumper J2 to specify which power source you are using, and jumper J1 to specify whether you are using 5V or 3.3V microcontroller. Upon providing the power using either external adapter, or USB power source, you can turn the board on using SWITCH 1

         Figure 6.2:Dual power supply unit

Figure 6.3:Dual power schematic

 

 

6.2 Mikrobus™

Easier connectivity and simple configuration are imperative in modern electronic devices. Success of the USB standard comes from it’s simplicity of usage and high and reliable data transfer rates. As we in MikroElektronika see it, Plug-and-Play devices with minimum settings are the future in embedded world too. This is why our engineers have come up with a simple, but brilliant pinout with lines that most of today’s accessory boards require, which almost completely eliminates the need of additional hardware settings. We called this new standard the mikroBUS™. EasyPIC PRO™ v7 is a development board which supports mikroBUS™ with three on-board sockets.

Figure 6.4:Mikrobus female

As you can see, there are no additional DIP switches, or jumper selections. Everything is already routed to the most appropriate pins of the microcontroller sockets. mikroBUS™ host connector Each mikroBUS™ host connector consists of two 1×8 female headers containing pins that are most likely to be used in the target accessory board. There are three groups of communication pins: SPI, UART and I 2C communication. There are also single pins for PWM, Interrupt, Analog input, Reset and Chip Select. Pinout contains two power groups: +5V and GND on one header and +3.3V and GND on the other 1×8 header

Figure 6.5:Mikrobus Male pins

The mikroBUS™ socket comprises a pair of 1×8 female headers with a proprietary pin configuration and silkscreen markings. The pinout (always laid out in the same order) consists of three groups of communications pins (SPI, UART and I2 C), six additional pins (PWM, Interrupt, Analog input, Reset and Chip select), and two power groups (+3.3V and GND on the left, and 5V and GND on the right 1×8 header). The spacing of pins is compatible with standard (100 mil pitch) breadboards

Figure 6.6:Pin description

The mikroBUS™ standard defines mainboard sockets and add-on boards used for interfacing microcontrollers or microprocessors (mainboards) with integrated circuits and modules (add-on boards). The standard specifies the physical layout of the mikroBUS™ pinout, the communication and power supply pins used, the size and shape of the add-on boards, the positioning of the mikroBUS™ socket on the mainboard, and finally, the silkscreen marking conventions for both the add-on boards and sockets. The purpose of mikroBUS™ is to enable easy hardware expandability with a large number of standardized compact add-on boards, each one carrying a single sensor, transceiver, display, encoder, motor driver, connection port, or any other electronic module or integrated circuit. Created by MikroElektronika, mikroBUS™ is an open standard — anyone can implement mikroBUS™ in their hardware design, as long as the requirements set by this document are being met.

6.3ADC click:

ADC Click is an accessory board in mikroBus™ form factor. It includes a 12-bit Analog-toDigital Converter MCP3204 that features 50k samples/second, 4 input channels and lowpower consumption (500nA typical standby, 2µA max). Board uses SPI communication interface. It is small in size and features convenient screw terminals for easier connections. Board is set to use 3.3V power supply by default. Solder PWR SEL jumper to 5V position if used with 5V systems

Figure 6.7:ADC click

Reading Analog Inputs

There are four analog input screw terminals for each of the supported A/D channels. We added two more terminals for GND reference. Each analog input voltage is converted to appropriate 12-bit digital value, which can be read using industry standard SPI communication interface.

SMD Jumpers

There are two zero-ohm resistors (SMD jumpers): PWR SEL is used to determine whether 5V or 3.3V power supply is used, and REFERENCE to select either VCC or 4.096V as the voltage reference.

Figure 6.8:ADC click board Schematic

6.4 UART via RS-232

The UART (universal asynchronous receiver/ transmitter) is one of the most common ways of exchanging data between the MCU and peripheral components. It is a serial protocol with separate transmit and receive lines, and can be used for fullduplex communication. Both sides must be initialized with the same baudrate, otherwise the data will not be received correctly. RS-232 serial communication is performed through a 9-pin SUB-D connector and the microcontroller UART module. In order to enable this communication, it is necessary to establish a connection between RX and TX lines on SUB-D connector and the same pins on the target microcontroller using DIP switches. Since RS-232 communication voltage levels are different than microcontroller logic levels, it is necessary to use a RS- 232 Transceiver circuit, such as MAX3232

Figure 6.9:RS-232

 

6.5 LCD 2×16 characters

Liquid Crystal Displays or LCDs are cheap and popular way of representing information to the end user of some electronic device. Character LCDs can be used to represent standard and custom characters in the predefined number of fields. EasyPIC PRO™ v7 provides the connector and the necessary interface for supporting 2×16 character LCDs in 4-bit mode. This type of display has two rows consisted of 16 character fields. Each field is a 7×5 pixel matrix. Communication with the display module is done through CN14 display connector. Board is fitted with uniquely designed plastic display distancer, which allows the LCD module to perfectly and firmly fit into place.

 

Figure 6.10:LCD

Figure 6.11:LCD Connector

 

Connector pinout”

GND and VCC – Display power supply lines

Vo – LCD contrast level from potentiometer P1

RS – Register Select Signal line

E – Display Enable line

R/W – Determines whether display is in Read or Write mode. It’s always connected to GND, leaving the display in Write mode all the time.

D0–D3 – Display is supported in 4-bit data mode.

D4–D7 – Upper half of the data byte

LED+ – Connection with the backlight LED anode

LED- – Connection with the backlight LED cathode

Figure 6.12:LCD pins

 

6.6 GLCD 128×64

Graphical Liquid Crystal Displays, or GLCDs are used to display monochromatic graphical content, such as text, images, human-machine interfaces and other content. EasyPIC PRO™ v7 provides the connector and necessary interface for supporting GLCD with resolution of 128×64 pixels, driven by the KS108 or similar display controller. Communication with the display module is done through CN16 display connector. Board is fitted with uniquely designed plastic display distancer, which allows the GLCD module to perfectly and firmly fit into place. Display connector is routed to PORTB (control lines) and PORTD (data lines) of the microcontroller sockets. Since PORTB is also used by 2×16 character LCD display, you cannot use both displays simoutaneously. You can control the display contrast using dedicated potentiometer P4. Display backlight can be enabled with SW4.2 switch, and PWM-driven backlight with SW4.3 switch.

Figure 6.13:GLCD

Connector pinout

CS1 and CS2 – Controller Chip Select lines

VCC – +5V display power supply

GND – Reference ground

Vo – GLCD contrast level from potentiometer P4

RS – Data (High), Instruction (Low) selection line

R/W – Determines whether display is in Read or Write mode.

E – Display Enable line

D0–D7 – Data lines

RST – Display reset line

Vee – Reference voltage for GLCD contrast potentiometer P3

LED+ – Connection with the backlight LED anode

LED- – Connection with the backlight LED cathode

Figure 6.14:GLCD pins

 

6.7 LM35 – Analog Temperature Sensor

The LM35 is a low-cost precision integrated-circuit temperature sensor, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±¼°C at room temperature and ±¾°C over a full -55 to +150°C temperature range. It has a linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor and less than 60 μA current drain. As it draws only 60 μA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. EasyPIC PRO™ v7 provides a separate socket (TS2) for the LM35 sensor in TO-92 plastic packaging. Readings are done with microcontroller using single analog input line, which is selected with a J4 jumper.

Figure 6.15:LM35

6.8 Output voltages

EasyPIC PRO™ v7 contains two additional pairs of screw terminals which can be used to get power supply output for your external devices. There are two available output voltages: 5V and 3.3V. Depending on which power source you use (adapter, laboratory power supply, or USB), maximum output currents can vary. Power consumption of the onboard modules can also affect maximum output power which can be drawn out of the screw terminals. Big power consumers, such as Ethernet, or even GLCD with backlight can alone drastically reduce the maximum output power. On-board switching power supply can give maximum of 600mA of current if used with adapter or laboratory power supply. When used with USB power supply it can give no more than 500mA. Purpose of the output voltage terminals is not to be the main power source of big consumers, but more a power source for remote small consumers.

Figure 6.16: Output terminals

CHAPTER 7

TRANSDUCERS

7.1 Thermocouple Type K

Thomas Seebeck discovered if metals of two different materials were joined at both ends and one end was at a different temperature than the other, a current was created. This phenomenon is known as the Seebeck effect and is the basis for all thermocouples

Figure 7.1:Thermcouple junctions

A thermocouple is a type of temperature sensor, which is made by joining two dissimilar metals at one end. The joined end is referred to as the HOT JUNCTION. The other end of these dissimilar metals is referred to as the COLD END or COLD JUNCTION. The cold junction is actually formed at the last point of thermocouple material

Image result for k type thermocouple fabrika pdf

Figure 7.2: Thermocouple block dirgram

 

Type K:

Type K is recommended for use in oxidizing and completely inert environments. Because it’s oxidation resistance is better than Types E, J, and T they find widest use at temperatures above 1000F. Type K, like Type E should not be used in sulfurous atmospheres, in a vacuum or in low oxygen environments where selective oxidation will occur. The temperature range for Type K is -330 to 2300F and it’s wire color code is yellow and red.

 

Figure 7.3:Thermocouple reference

MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RANGE:

Thermocouple Grade – 328 to 2282°F – 200 to 1250°C

Extension Grade 32 to 392°F 0 to 200°C

LIMITS OF ERROR (whichever is greater)

Standard: 2.2°C or 0.75% Above 0°C 2.2°C or 2.0% Below 0°C Special: 1.1°C or 0.4%

BARE WIRE ENVIRONMENT: Clean Oxidizing and Inert;

Limited Use in Vacuum or Reducing;

Wide Temperature Range; Most Popular Calibration

REFERENCE JUNCTION AT 0°C

Table 2: Thermocouple Voltages

 

7.2 ELECTRO PNEUMATIC VALVE:

Electro-pneumatic control consists of electrical control systems operating pneumatic power systems. In this solenoid valves are used as interface between the electrical and pneumatic systems. Devices like limit switches and proximity sensors are used as feedback elements.

Seven basic electrical devices commonly used in the control of fluid power systems are

1. Manually actuated push button switches

2. Limit switches

3. Pressure switches

4. Solenoids

5. Relays

6. Timers

7. Temperature switches

Other devices used in electro pneumatics are

1. Proximity sensors

2. Electric counters

DSC_8910

Figure 7.4:Pnumatic valves

Features :

Bubble tight shut off

Mounts in any position

Vibration resistance up to 9g

Suitable for high speed cycling

Speed up to 200 cycles/ min

Life > 5 million cycles

Media

Air, Inert Gases, Water, Free Flowing Liquids, Oil, Diesel, Kerosene, LPG, CNG

Orifice Size

25 Nominal Bore

Pressure Range(Bar)

5-400

 

 

7.3 SPARK PLUG:

A spark plug  is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine. A spark plug has a metal threaded shell, electrically isolated from a central electrode by a porcelain insulator. The central electrode, which may contain a resistor, is connected by a heavily insulated wire to the output terminal of an ignition coil or magneto. The spark plug’s metal shell is screwed into the engine’s cylinder head and thus electrically grounded. The central electrode protrudes through the porcelain insulator into the combustion chamber, forming one or more spark gaps between the inner end of the central electrode and usually one or more protuberances or structures attached to the inner end of the threaded shell and designated the side, earth, or ground electrode.

 

Figure 7.5:Spark Plug

Operating Voltage:24 V

Current: 0.5 A

Resistance: 80 OHM

7.4 PRESSURE TRANSDUCER:

Model Number : DRUCK UNIK 5000

The new UNIK 5000 is a high performance configurable solution to pressure measurement. The use of microma chined silicon technology and analogue circuitry enables best in class performance for stability, low power and frequency response. The new platform enables you to easily build up your own sensor to match your own precise needs. This high performance, configurable solution to pressure measurement employs modular design and lean manufacturing techniques to offer:

Figure 7.6:Pressure Transducer

Features

• Ranges from 70 mbar (1 psi) to 700 bar (10000 psi)

• Accuracy to ±0.04% Full Scale (FS) Best Straight Line (BSL)

• Stainless Steel construction

• Frequency response to 3.5 kHz

• High over pressure capability

• Hazardous Area certifications

• mV, mA, voltage and configurable voltage outputs

• Multiple electrical & pressure connector options

• Operating temperature ranges from –55 to 125°C (-67 to 257°F)

Image result for DRUCK UNIK 5000

Figure 7.7:Pressure Transducer Model

 

Measurement:

Operating Pressure Ranges

Gauge ranges Any zero based range 70 mbar to 70 bar (1 to 1000 psi)

Sealed Gauge Ranges Any zero based range 10 to 700 bar (145 to 10000 psi)

Absolute Ranges Any zero based range 100 mbar to 700 bar (1.5 to 10000 psi)

Differential Ranges

Wet/Dry Uni-directional or bi-directional 70 mbar to 35 bar (1 to 500 psi)

Wet/Wet Uni-directional or bi-directional 350 mbar to 35 bar (5 to 500 psi)

Line pressure: 70 bar max (1000 psi)

Barometric Ranges Barometric ranges 350 mbar (5.1 psi)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 8

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

8.1 PYTHON:

Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. Its high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, make it very attractive for Rapid Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting or glue language to connect existing components together. Python’s simple, easy to learn syntax emphasizes readability and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which encourages program modularity and code reuse. The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are available in source or binary form without charge for all major platforms, and can be freely distributed.

Figure 8.1:Python logo

Often, programmers fall in love with Python because of the increased productivity it provides. Since there is no compilation step, the edit-test-debug cycle is incredibly fast. Debugging Python programs is easy: a bug or bad input will never cause a segmentation fault. Instead, when the interpreter discovers an error, it raises an exception. When the program doesn’t catch the exception, the interpreter prints a stack trace. A source level debugger allows inspection of local and global variables, evaluation of arbitrary expressions, setting breakpoints, stepping through the code a line at a time, and so on. The debugger is written in Python itself, testifying to Python’s introspective power. On the other hand, often the quickest way to debug a program is to add a few print statements to the source: the fast edit-test-debug cycle makes this simple approach very effective.

8.1.1 Python IDLE:

IDLE is Python’s Integrated Development and Learning Environment.

Figure 8.2 Python 3.3

IDLE has the following features:

  • coded in 100% pure Python, using the tkinter GUI toolkit
  • cross-platform: works mostly the same on Windows, Unix, and Mac OS X
  • Python shell window (interactive interpreter) with colorizing of code input, output, and error messages
  • multi-window text editor with multiple undo, Python colorizing, smart indent, call tips, auto completion, and other features
  • search within any window, replace within editor windows, and search through multiple files (grep)
  • debugger with persistent breakpoints, stepping, and viewing of global and local namespaces

configuration, browsers, and other dialogs

 

Figure 8.3 Python Shell

 

8.2 RASPBERRY PI 3:

The Raspberry Pi 3 is the third generation Raspberry Pi. It replaced the Raspberry Pi 2 Model B in February 2016. Compared to the Raspberry Pi 2 it has:

  • A 1.2GHz 64-bit quad-core ARMv8 CPU
  • 802.11n Wireless LAN
  • Bluetooth 4.1
  • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • 1GB RAM
  • 4 USB ports
  • 40 GPIO pins
  • Full HDMI port
  • Ethernet port
  • Combined 3.5mm audio jack and composite video
  • Camera interface (CSI)
  • Display interface (DSI)
  • Micro SD card slot (now push-pull rather than push-push)
  • VideoCore IV 3D graphics core

Figure 8.4 Raspberry Pi Model B

 

The Raspberry Pi 3 has an identical form factor to the previous Pi 2 (and Pi 1 Model B+) and has complete compatibility with Raspberry Pi 1 and 2.

We recommend the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B for use in schools, or for any general use. Those wishing to embed their Pi in a project may prefer the Pi Zero or Model A+, which are more useful for embedded projects, and projects which require very low power.

 

8.3 Graphical user interface(GUI)

The graphical user interface , is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs), which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard.

The actions in a GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.[Beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices, smartphones and smaller household, office and industrial controls.

Figure 8.5 GUI

 

8.4 Proteus Design Suite

The Proteus Design Suite is an Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tool including schematic capture, simulation and PCB Layout modules. It is developed in Yorkshire, England by Labcenter Electronics Ltd with offices in North America and several overseas sales channels. The software runs on the Windows operating system and is available in English, French, Spanish and Chinese languages.

Proteus (PROcessor for TExt Easy to USe) is a fully functional, procedural programming language created in 1998 by Simone Zanella. Proteus incorporates many functions derived from several other languages: C, BASIC, Assembly, Clipper/dBase; it is especially versatile in dealing with strings, having hundreds of dedicated functions; this makes it one of the richest languages for text manipulation.

Its strongest points are:

  • powerful string manipulation;
  • comprehensibility of Proteus scripts;
  • availability of advanced data structures: arrays, queues (single or double), stacks, bit maps, sets, AVL trees.
  • The language can be extended by adding user functions written in Proteus or DLLs created in C/C++.

8.4.1 Sequence For execution:

1Create a new project-

Figure 8.6 Proteus Step1

2. Set a PCB Layout

Figure 8.7 Proteus Step2

 

3. Select the Family as PIC18 and controller as PIC18F87K22

Figure 8.8 proteus Step3

4Dump the .hex file in the program file box

Figure 8.9 Proteus Step 4

8.5 MPLAB IDE

MPLAB IDE is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications on Microchip’s PIC and dsPIC microcontrollers. It is called an Integrated Development Environment, or IDE, because it provides a single integrated environment to develop code for embedded microcontrollers

Microchip has a large suite of software and hardware development tools integrated within one software package called MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE). MPLAB IDE is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications on Microchip’s PIC and dsPIC microcontrollers. It is called an Integrated Development Environment, or IDE, because it provides a single integrated environment to develop code for embedded microcontrollers.

8.5.1 Sequence of Steps

1.Open  MPLab X IDE

Figure 8.9 MpLab Step 1

2. Create a new project

Figure 8.10 MpLab Step 2

3. Select the PIC18 family and select PIC18F87K22  controller

Figure 8.11 MpLab Step 3

4. Select the hardware tools

Figure 8.12 MpLab Step 4

5. Select the compiler as XC8

Figure 8.13 MpLab Step 5

6. Create a file and enter the program

Figure 8.14 MpLab Step 6

 

 

 

7. After entering the program, select run and build the project

Figure 8.15 MpLab Step 7

8. Check whether the program has no errors

 

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloads11.PNG

Figure 8.16 MpLab Step 8

 

MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows, is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging. MPLAB IDE also serves as a single, unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. Moving between tools is a snap, and upgrading from the free software simulator to hardware debug and programming tools is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools.

8.6 Mikro Program Suite

8.6.1 Sequence of steps

1. Select the PIC18 Family and MCU as PIC18FK22

 

Figure 8.17 Program Suite

2. Select the .hex file and dump it into the PIC18F87K22

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloads2.PNG

Figure 8.18 Program Suite

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.7 MikroC

8.7.1 Sequences of steps:

1. Create a new project

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloadsmikro1.PNG

Figure 8.18 Mikroc step 1

2. Select the project type as Standard project

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloadsmikro2.PNG

Figure 8.19 Mikroc step2

 

 

3.  Name the project and select the device as PIC18F87K22 and set device clock at 16MHz.

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloadsmikro3.PNG

Figure 8.20 Mikroc step3

4. Include all the libraries

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloadsmikro4.PNG

Figure 8.21 Mikroc step4

 

 

 

5. Enter the program and save the file before compiling.

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloadsmikro5.PNG

Figure 8.22 Mikroc step 5

6. Then build the program, or use Ctrl+F9

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloadsmikro6.PNG

Figure 8.23 Mikroc step 6

7. Check for errors and after check whether the program build is successful.

C:UsersVARSHA SHESHDownloadsmikro7.PNG

Figure 8.24 Mikroc step 7

 

CHAPTER 9

SIMULATION AND SYNTHESIS RESULTS

 

8.1 Proteus Simulation

 

UART Sender:

 

Description: D:projectscreenshotsUART.PNG

Figure 8.1:UART

UART Sender code:

int i=0;

char uart_rd;

void main() {

Uart1_Init(9600);

Delay_ms(100);

Uart1_Write_Text(“HELLO ISRO”);

uart_rd = ‘sadfgj’;

for(i=0;i<10;i++)

{

UART1_Write(uart_rd);

}

while(1);

}

LCD:

Description: D:projectscreenshotslcd.PNG

Figure 8.2:LCD

LCD Code:

sbit LCD_RS at RB0_bit;

sbit LCD_EN at RB1_bit;

sbit LCD_D4 at RB2_bit;

sbit LCD_D5 at RB3_bit;

sbit LCD_D6 at RB4_bit;

sbit LCD_D7 at RB5_bit;

sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISB0_bit;

sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISB1_bit;

sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB2_bit;

sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB3_bit;

sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB4_bit;

sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB5_bit;

void main() {

LCD_Init();

LCD_out(1,1,”Hello”);

}

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ADC :

 

Description: D:projectscreenshotsadcmain.PNG

Figure 8.3:ADC

ADC Code:

// ADC click module connections

sbit Chip_Select_Direction   at TRISE0_bit;

sbit Chip_Select             at LATE0_bit;

// eof ADC click module connections

// Lcd module connections

sbit LCD_RS at LATB4_bit;

sbit LCD_EN at LATB5_bit;

sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;

sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;

sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;

sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit;

sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISB4_bit;

sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISB5_bit;

sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_bit;

sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_bit;

sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_bit;

sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_bit;

// End Lcd module connections

unsigned int measurement, lastValue;

// Get ADC values

unsigned int getADC(unsigned short channel) {    // Returns 0..4095

unsigned int tmp;

Chip_Select = 0;                               // Select MCP3204

SPI1_Write(0x06);                              // SPI communication using 8-bit segments

channel = channel << 6;                        // Bits 7 & 6 define ADC input

tmp = SPI1_Read(channel) & 0x0F;               // Get first 8 bits of ADC value

tmp = tmp << 8;                                // Shift ADC value by 8

tmp = tmp | SPI1_Read(0);                      // Get remaining 4 bits of ADC value

//   and form 12-bit ADC value

Chip_Select= 1;                                // Deselect MCP3204

return tmp;                                    // Returns 12-bit ADC value

}

// Write measured values to Lcd

void processValue(unsigned int pv, unsigned short channel) {

char i, lcdRow, lcdCol;

if (channel < 2)                 // If ADC channel 0 or 1 is selected

lcdRow = 1;                    //   write in the first Lcd row

else                             // If ADC channel 2 or is selected

lcdRow = 2;                    //   write in the second Lcd row

if (channel % 2 > 0 )            // If even ADC channel is selected

lcdCol = 13;                   //   select Lcd column 13

else                             // If odd ADC channel is selected

lcdCol = 4;                    //   select Lcd column 4

// Converting the measured value into 4 characters

// and writing them to the Lcd at the appropriate place

i = pv / 1000 + 48;              // Get thousandth digit of the ADC result

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol, i);      // Display it on Lcd

pv = pv % 1000;

i = pv / 100 + 48;               // Get hundreth digit of the ADC result

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol+1, i);    // Display it on Lcd

pv = pv % 100;

i = pv / 10 + 48;                // Get tenth digit of the ADC result

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol+2, i);    // Display it on Lcd

pv = pv % 10;

i = pv + 48;                     // Get ones digit of the ADC result

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol+3, i);    // Display it on Lcd

}

void main() {

ANCON0 = 0;                      // Configure ports as digital I/O

ANCON1 = 0;

ANCON2 = 0;

Lcd_Init();                      // Initialize Lcd

Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);             // Clear display

Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);        // Cursor off

measurement = 0;                 // Initialize the measurement variable

Chip_Select = 1;                 // Deselect MCP3204

Chip_Select_Direction = 0;       // Set chip select pin to be output

// Initialize SPI1 module at 250kHz, data sampled at the middle of interval

SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER_OSC_DIV64, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW, _SPI_LOW_2_HIGH);

Lcd_Out(1,1,”C0=      C1=”);     // Display channel 0 and 1 ID on Lcd

Lcd_Out(2,1,”C2=      C3=”);     // Display channel 2 and 3 ID on Lcd

while (1) {

measurement = getADC(0);       // Get ADC result from Channel 0

ProcessValue(measurement,0);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(10);                  // Wait 10ms

measurement = getADC(1);       // Get ADC result from Channel 1

ProcessValue(measurement,1);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(10);                  // Wait 10ms

measurement = getADC(2);       // Get ADC result from Channel 2

ProcessValue(measurement,2);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(10);                  // Wait 10ms

measurement = getADC(3);       // Get ADC result from Channel 3

ProcessValue(measurement,3);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(10);                  // Wait 10ms

}

}

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GLCD:

Description: D:projectscreenshots18FGLCD.PNG

Figure 8.4:GLCD

 

GLCD Code:

 

char GLCD_DataPort at PORTD;

sbit GLCD_CS1 at LATC5_bit;

sbit GLCD_CS2 at LATC4_bit;

sbit GLCD_RS  at LATC3_bit;

sbit GLCD_RW  at LATC2_bit;

sbit GLCD_EN  at LATC1_bit;

sbit GLCD_RST at LATC0_bit;

sbit GLCD_CS1_Direction at TRISC5_bit;

sbit GLCD_CS2_Direction at TRISC4_bit;

sbit GLCD_RS_Direction  at TRISC3_bit;

sbit GLCD_RW_Direction  at TRISC2_bit;

sbit GLCD_EN_Direction  at TRISC1_bit;

sbit GLCD_RST_Direction at TRISC0_bit;

void main()

{

glcd_init();

do

{

Glcd_FILL(0xFF);

Delay_ms(1000);

Glcd_FILL(0x00);

Delay_ms(1000);

Glcd_Rectangle(5,5,40,40,1);

Delay_ms(3000);

Glcd_Fill(0x00);

Delay_ms(1000);

Glcd_circle(50,50,10,1);

Delay_ms(1000);

}

while(1);

}

ADC on UART:

Description: D:projectscreenshotsUART-ADCtest.PNG

Figure 8.5:ADC on UART

 

 

ADC on UART code:

// ADC click module connections

sbit Chip_Select_Direction   at TRISE0_bit;

sbit Chip_Select             at LATE0_bit;

// eof ADC click module connections

// Lcd module connections

sbit LCD_RS at LATB4_bit;

sbit LCD_EN at LATB5_bit;

sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;

sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;

sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;

sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit;

sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISB4_bit;

sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISB5_bit;

sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_bit;

sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_bit;

sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_bit;

sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_bit;

// End Lcd module connections

unsigned int measurement, lastValue;

// Get ADC values

unsigned int getADC(unsigned short channel) {    // Returns 0..4095

unsigned int tmp;

Chip_Select = 0;                               // Select MCP3204

SPI1_Write(0x06);                              // SPI communication using 8-bit segments

channel = channel << 6;                        // Bits 7 & 6 define ADC input

tmp = SPI1_Read(channel) & 0x0F;               // Get first 8 bits of ADC value

tmp = tmp << 8;                                // Shift ADC value by 8

tmp = tmp | SPI1_Read(0);                      // Get remaining 4 bits of ADC value

//   and form 12-bit ADC value

Chip_Select= 1;                                // Deselect MCP3204

return tmp;                                    // Returns 12-bit ADC value

}

// Write measured values to Lcd

void processValue(unsigned int pv, unsigned short channel) {

char i, lcdRow, lcdCol;

{

if (channel < 2)                 // If ADC channel 0 or 1 is selected

{lcdRow = 1;                    //   write in the first Lcd row

Uart1_Write_Text(“a”);

}

else                             // If ADC channel 2 or is selected

{ lcdRow = 2;                    //   write in the second Lcd row

Uart1_Write_Text(“b”);

}

if (channel % 2 > 0 )            // If even ADC channel is selected

{ lcdCol = 13;                   //   select Lcd column 13

Uart1_Write_Text(“c”);

}

else                             // If odd ADC channel is selected

{lcdCol = 4;                    //   select Lcd column 4

Uart1_Write_Text(“d”);

}

// Converting the measured value into 4 characters

// and writing them to the Lcd at the appropriate place

// Uart1_Write_Text(” measurement “);

//Uart1_Write(j);

Uart1_Write_Text(“=”);

i = pv / 1000 + 48;              // Get thousandth digit of the ADC result

Uart1_Write(i);

Delay_ms(10);

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol, i);      // Display it on Lcd

pv = pv % 1000;

i = pv / 100 + 48;               // Get hundreth digit of the ADC result

Uart1_Write(i);

Delay_ms(10);

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol+1, i);    // Display it on Lcd

pv = pv % 100;

i = pv / 10 + 48;                // Get tenth digit of the ADC result

Uart1_Write(i);

Delay_ms(10);

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol+2, i);    // Display it on Lcd

pv = pv % 10;

i = pv + 48;                      // Get ones digit of the ADC result

Lcd_Chr(lcdRow, lcdCol+3, i);    // Display it on Lcd

Uart1_Write(i);

Delay_ms(10);

Uart1_Write_Text(”   “);

}

// if(j==3)

// {j=0;}

}

void main() {

ANCON0 = 0;                      // Configure ports as digital I/O

ANCON1 = 0;

ANCON2 = 0;

Lcd_Init();                      // Initialize Lcd

Uart1_Init(9600);

Delay_ms(100);

Uart1_Write_Text(“HELLO ISRO “);

Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);             // Clear display

Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);        // Cursor off

measurement = 0;                 // Initialize the measurement variable

Chip_Select = 1;                 // Deselect MCP3204

Chip_Select_Direction = 0;       // Set chip select pin to be output

// Initialize SPI1 module at 250kHz, data sampled at the middle of interval

SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER_OSC_DIV64, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW, _SPI_LOW_2_HIGH);

Lcd_Out(1,1,”C0=      C1=”);     // Display channel 0 and 1 ID on Lcd

Lcd_Out(2,1,”C2=      C3=”);     // Display channel 2 and 3 ID on Lcd

while (1) {

measurement = getADC(0);       // Get ADC result from Channel 0

ProcessValue(measurement,0);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(1000);                  // Wait 10ms

measurement = getADC(1);       // Get ADC result from Channel 1

ProcessValue(measurement,1);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(1000);                  // Wait 10ms

measurement = getADC(2);       // Get ADC result from Channel 2

ProcessValue(measurement,2);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(1000);                  // Wait 10ms

measurement = getADC(3);       // Get ADC result from Channel 3

ProcessValue(measurement,3);   // Writes measured value to Lcd

Delay_ms(1000);                  // Wait 10ms

Uart1_Write_Text(”     get: “);

}

}

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LM35 :

Figure 8.6:LM35

 

LM35 Code:

sbit LCD_RS at RE2_bit;

sbit LCD_EN at RE3_bit;

sbit LCD_D4 at RE4_bit;

sbit LCD_D5 at RE5_bit;

sbit LCD_D6 at RE6_bit;

sbit LCD_D7 at RE7_bit;

sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISE2_bit;

sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISE3_bit;

sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISE4_bit;

sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISE5_bit;

sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISE6_bit;

sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISE7_bit;

int t;

char b;

char lcd[]=”000 degree”;

void main() {

clc;

ADCON1=0x04;

Lcd_Init();

Lcd_cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF) ;

do

{

Lcd_cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);

Lcd_out(1,1,”temp:”);

t=ADC_Read(0);

t=t*0.4887;

b=t%10;

Lcd[2]=b+’0′;

t=t/10;

b=t%10;

Lcd[1]=b+’0′;

t=t/10;

b=t%10;

Lcd[0]=b+’0′;

Lcd_out(2,1,lcd);

Delay_ms(100);

}while(1);

}

Final Simplified PIC 18F87K22 Code:

#include <xc.h>

#define p1 0 //threshold value(0-4095) mapped to acetylene pressure 0.2bar

#define p2 0 //threshold value(0-4095) mapped to air pressure 30bar

#define p3 0 //threshold value(0-4095) mapped to mixing chamber pressure 60bar

#define p4 0 //threshold value(0-4095) mapped to kerosene and nitorgen mixture pressure 45bar

#define t1 0 //threshold value(0-4095) mapped to temperature 1200k

#pragma config XINST = OFF

int analogread(int);

void main(void)

{

TRISA = 0XFF; //set port A as input

TRISC = 0XE0; //set 5pins on port C as output

ANCON0 = 0X1F; //set AN4 to An0 as analog inputs

ADCON2 = 0XBA; //set justification, timing and prescaling

while(analogread(0)<p1); //wait till acetylene pressure becomes 0.2bar

LATC = 0X01; //open epv504

while(analogread(1)<p2); //wait till air pressure becomes 30bar

LATC = 0X03; //open epv506

while(analogread(2)<p3); //wait till mixing chamber pressure becomes 60bar

LATC = 0X04; //open epv505, close epv504, close epv506

while(analogread(3)<p4); //wait till kerosene nitrogen mixture pressure becomes 45bar

LATC = 0X0C; //switch on spark plug

while(analogread(4)<t1); //wait till temperature becomes 1200k

LATC = 0X18; //open epv503, close epv505

}

int analogread(int x)

{

unsigned int ADCvalue;

ADCON0bits.CHS=x; //select channel for adc (acetylene pressure)

ADCON0bits.ADON=1; //turn on ADC

ADCON0bits.GO = 1; // start adc

while(ADCON0bits.DONE==0); //wait till done becomes 1

ADCvalue = ADRESH<<8; //left shift ‘adresh’ and store it

ADCvalue = ADCvalue|ADRESL; //add adresl value

ADCON0bits.ADON = 0; //turn off adc

return ADCvalue; //send adc value

}

GUI IMAGES:

horizvalve

Figure 8.7:Horizvalve

flame4

Figure 8.8:Flame1

flame3

Figure 8.9:Flame2

flame2

Figure 8.10:Flame2

flame1

Figure 8.11:Flame3

valve2

Figure 812:Valve

valve1

Figure 8.13:Valve1

valve

Figure 8.14:Valve2

sparkn2

Figure 8.15:Sparkn2

sparkn

Figure 8.16:Sparkn

spark

Figure 8.17:Spark

vertivalve

Figure 8.18:Vertivalve

 

 

Picture1Figure 8.19:Picture1

Figure picture2

Figure Picture3

8.2 Python Simulation:

import openpyxl

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

from tkinter import *

import time

def ign():

while True:

image2 = canvas.create_image(198, 550, anchor=NW, image=filename5)

Satiation 1.2 Mechanisms of Satiety 1.3 Measurements of Satiety 1.4 Glucose Response and Satiety 1.5 Dietary Fibre and Satiety 1.6 Protein and Satiety 1.7 Protein and Fibre Combinations on Satiety 1.8 Gari Overview 1.9 Overview of Black – Eyed – Pea Beans – Legumes 1.9.1 Nutritional Values 1.9.2 Minerals and Vitamins 1.10 Overview of Couscous 2 Study Design 2.1 Quantitative 2.2 Participants – Recruitment 2.3 Dietary Treatments 2.4 Inclusion Criteria 2.5 Exclusion criteria 2.6 Test Meals 2.7 Study Visits 2.8 Study Outcomes: Subjective Satiety Scores 2.9 Food Intake 2.10 Gastrointestinal Tolerance 2.11 Data Analysis 3 Results 3.1 Gastrointestinal Tolerance 4 Discussion 4.1 Limitations 5 Conclusion 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Appendices  List of Tables Table 1 Participants Demographics Table 2 VAS Scores for Gari and Couscous Test Meals Table 3 Participants Total Energy kcal for Gari and Couscous Table 4 Total Protein for Gari and Couscous Meal Table 5 Dietary Fibre for Gari and Couscous Table 6 Summary of Monounsaturated Fat for Gari and Couscous Table 7 Summary of Polyunsaturated Fat for Gari and Couscous Table 8 Average Nutrients for Gari and Couscous (Postprandial)

List of Figures

Figure 1 Graph Representing Energy kcal for Gari and Couscous Figure 2 Graph Representing Total Protein for Gari and Couscous Figure 3 Graph Representing Total Fibre for Gari and Couscous Figure 4 Graph Representing Total Monounsaturated Fat for Gari and Couscous Figure 5 Graph Representing Total Polyunsaturated Fat for Gari and Couscous Figure 6 Graph Representing Average MUFA and PUFA Figure 7 Chart Representing Average Energy Consumption Figure 8 Percentage VAS Satiety Levels for Gari and Couscous Figures 9 VAS Satiety Levels for Gari Figures 10 VAS Satiety Levels for Couscous

Abstract

Obesity has attained pandemic proportions with related major health problems and economical burdens worldwide. Therefore, it is vital to understand dietary issues that affect appetite and food intake both in short- and long-term. Thus, the purpose was to evaluate and establish the evidence and determine the effects of dietary intake of high fibre and protein meal of Gari and beans (black eye-pea) and compared to a moderate fibre meal (couscous) on subjective appetite and energy intake at a successive meal. Methodology: randomised controlled trial cross-over treatments where participants were asked to fast over night and consumed a standardised breakfast (toast and butter). Upon arrival at the Food Academy at lunch, they were asked to consume one of the treatments Gari and black eyed pea ad libitum meal.  Assessment of appetite and physical comfort was completed immediately using 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. This procedure was replicated during the second visit for the consumption of control meal (couscous) after one week washout period. Results: There was no significant differences in mean scores at 0 minutes (p>0.05) before treatment, whereas significant differences were noted for subsequent intake 24 hour between the test meal (gari) and control couscous (p<0.05). There was no effect of treatment regarding gastrointestinal measurements. However there were significant differences in appetite scores between gari and couscous meal (p<0.05). Conclusion: gari was shown to offer enhanced subjective satiety over 150 minutes by decreasing subsequent food intake compares to couscous with the bean causing minimal gas and bloating in healthy participants.

1         Introduction

Obesity is one of the most severe public health issues worldwide affecting children and adults with critical social, physical and psychological consequences (CDC, 2016). To be overweight and obese is a complex disorder encompassing excessive body fat usually due to the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and is commonly measured using body mass index (BMI) with physiologic factors like: gender; race; age; puberty; size; health; socioeconomic status; parenting style, food composition; portion size; food choice; anxiety; stress and physical inactivity (Pietrabissa et al., 2012). Despite various interventions held and projected to curb obesity, its prevalence is still rising (WHO, 2013) as lack of endorsement exist regarding intake imbalance of energy requirements (Anderson et al., Bellisle 2003; Blundell 2006) due to food quality. Upholding intake equilibrium and a healthy weight is vital; however, satiety and satiation are elaborated schemes controlling desire for food and regulation of ingestion quantity based on nutritional content of macronutrient composition and several other bioactive constituents (Yeomans and Chambers, 2011; Tremblay and Bellisle, 2015). Moreover, complex physiological mechanisms subsist in the body to sustain homeostasis (Woods & D’Alessio, 2008).

1.1       Satiety and Satiation

Satiation can be described as a series of processes that suggest an end to a period of eating and a path that causes one to stop eating, whereas satiety is the state of restraint over additional food intake once a phase of eating is finished (Blundell et al., 2010). It is the feeling of fullness that endures after eating, suppressing the timing of further consumption of a subsequent meal, given satisfaction to appetite as well as determining the portion size of the meal; hence, a major determinant of total energy intake (Blundell et al., 2010).  Although satiety and satiation are simple to define (Blundell, 2006), they are problematic to quantify (de Graaf et al., 2004) because diverse results can be attained depending on the question posed, the study design, and the age and gender of the participants (Anderson et al., 2002, 2003, 2004, Akhavan et al., 2007, 2010, 2011and Bellission et al., 2007, 2008), blurring conclusions (Blundell, 2010).The theoretical structure “Satiety Cascade” for investigating the various dynamics affecting progression was projected by John Blundell and team (Blundell et al., 1987) and has been frequently updated in sequence to incorporate scientific advancements. In the viewpoint of the upward prevalence of obesity worldwide, it is crucial to know how energy balance and bodyweight are managed. The difficulty in balancing energy intake and expenditure is essential to survival, and complex physiological mechanisms have been found purposefully do this, as well as the control of appetite (Hall et al., 2012). The results of the ingested energy, feeds into specific parts of the brain that regulate energy intake, in response to the sensory and cognitive perceptions of what was consumed, and enlargement of the stomach (Veldhorst et al., 2008). These signals are integrated by the brain, and satiation is stimulated. When nutrients get to the intestine and are absorbed, numerous hormonal signals are again integrated in the brain which induces the release of satiety. Adding up to these episodic signals, satiety is also influenced by the instability of hormones, like leptin and insulin, which suggest the intensity of fat stored in the body (Blundell et al., 2012). Satiation and satiety can be calculated expressly using food intake or indirectly by ratings of personalised sensations of appetite (Havermans et al., 2009). Commonly, universal study design in measuring satiation or satiety over a short period is with a test preload in which the variables of concerned are carefully controlled. This is monitored by participants scoring stages of their appetite sensations, such as fullness or starvation, intermittently and then, after a programmed time break, a test meal at which energy intake is recorded. Prolong-term experiments could propose foods of identified composition to be consuming ad libitum and use measures of energy intake and/or appetite ratings as pointers of satiety. The assessment of satiation and satiety is complicated by the fact that more factors besides these internal pointers might impact appetite and energy intake. Examples are, physical factors, like bodyweight, age or sex, or behavioural factors such as diet or the influence of other people present. Thus, the conventional studies on satiation and satiety are accomplished in the laboratory, where confounders could be safeguarded as much as possible, and are, therefore, of short duration. The effectiveness of satiating power varies amongst various macronutrients because of nutrient-specific hierarchy, even with an identical energy load. For instance, proteins display the maximum potency with carbohydrates (CHO) possessing more satiating power than dietary fats (Veldhorst et al., 2008). However, several mechanisms might contribute to the eminent satiating significance of protein, such as amplified Diet Induced Thermogenesis, the effects of circulating amino acids, and the discharge of satiety-related intestinal signals like GLP-1 and PYY (). The increase of glycaemia that trails the ingestion of CHO is considered to accounts for satiety. CHO foods that cause a sharp elevated peak in post-ingestive glycaemia may be less satiating compares to low Glyceamic Index (GI) which generates moderate but sustained elevation in glycaemia hours following consumption (Poppitt, 2013). The supposition of combining the two most satiating macronutrients (protein and fibre) would mean an additive or even synergistic effect because each macronutrient and food form carries satiety effects by self-ruling means. While an inadequate number of researches have explored this combination, there is little focused on gari and black eye-pea beans.  Any meal has the potential of influencing appetite, thus, it is important to ascertain whether, for a given amount of energy, particular variables have the possibility to promote or reduce satiation or satiety. Much investigation has been conducted on effects of different foods, drinks, food constituents and nutrients on satiety. Overall, the quality of a food or drink that appears to have the most impact on satiety is its energy density () that is the amount of energy it holds per unit weight (kJ/g, kcal/g). Whilst energy density is controlled, the macronutrient composition of foods does not show to have a major impact on satiety. In reality, fatty foods give higher energy density than high-protein or high-carbohydrate foods, and similarly, foods with the highest water content are inclined to have the lowest energy density. Nevertheless, many studies have evidenced that energy from protein gives more satiation than energy from carbohydrate or fat. Further, certain types of fibre have been evidenced to boost satiation and satiety (Rolls, 2000 and Gibbons et al., 2013). Notwithstanding the reality of complex physiological mechanisms to equate intake to requirements, there are several influences on eating behaviour beyond satiation and satiety. These comprise: portion amount, appeal, palatability and range of foods and drinks offered; the physiological result on the body because of physical activity and sleep; and other external influences such as viewing television and the effect of social circumstances (Biddle and Mutrie, 2008). Micro-nutrients like calcium and vitamins can engage in a modulatory function in satiety. This is evident in calcium supplementation for instance in overweight consumers whose plasma concentration significantly boosted the satiety-related hormone PYY (Jones et al., 2013), whereas, multi-vitamin supplements decrease hunger sensations amongst women who are obese and undergoing weight loss program (Major et al., 2008). Additionally, non-nutritive components of foods and beverages, like caffeine and capsaicin, can enhance satiety by activating the systematic Nervous System (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005). Notably, individuals differ during responses to nutrient-related satiety. Indeed, the Satiety Cascade recognises the value of the body’s fat-free mass and establishes a person’s metabolic rate directly as it in turn creates a biologically basis for the drive to eat and therefore modulates all facets of appetite, together with hunger, satiation, and satiety (Blundell et al., 2012; Blundell et al.,2015). Because satiation and satiety are necessary in managing energy intake, inter-individual differences in the potency of these indicators and reactivity to their effects could affect potential of obesity. This inconsistency has been researched at a genetic, physiological and behavioural level and might be helpful to use in strategies to avoid obesity. On the whole, it is noticeable that, though the progression of satiation and satiety has the potential to control energy intake, many do not give attention to the signals produced (Veldhorst et al., 2008).   Figure 1:1 the Satiety Cascade Sourced: Adapted from Blundell et al., 2010 satietyfigure1

1.2       Mechanisms of Satiety

The process involved in satiety work together with the whole length of the gastrointestinal tract and involves chewing and saliva production, nutrient absorption time, gastric distention and stretch, gut hormone discharge ileal brake, transit time and fermentation. From the onset to the late phases of the post-ingestive interval of satiety, there are numerous contributing influences like sensory and cognitive factors that are compelling directly following intake. Gastric causes, such as post-intake stretch and fall in ghrelin, plus the release of diverse hormones, like Cholecystokinin (CCK), Glucagon-Like Peptide-1(GLP-1) and Peptide YY (PYY) adds to early post-meal satiety followed by elevated circulating levels of nutrients -glucose and amino acids primarily the release of hormones such as insulin sustain satiety pending the return of hunger and the start of the subsequent meal. The body fat mass, through the release of the satiating hormone leptin, and the body fat free mass that establishes the Resting Metabolic Rate, greatly modulate satiety via the following peptides CCK; GLP-1and  PYY. Below is the hunger ratings status of ghrelin hours after the consumption of high CHO test meals in comparison with high fat meals. Figure Sourced: Adapted from (Gibbons et al., 2013) 

1.3       Measurements of Satiety

The yardstick for calculating satiety subjectively uses a visual analog scale (VAS). The use of both multi-point equilateral ratings and 100 mm lines locked with different ends have been certified and therefore good standard for satiety scoring.  Objectively, satiety can be measured using this technique because it poses the participant questions that define hunger, fullness, desire to eat, satisfaction and has them put a mark on the line, to the left end meaning “not at all” and the right “the most I’ve ever been”. There are numerous biomarkers correlated with the measurement of satiety but it is difficult to substantiate the quantity and frequency as well as establishing the reason a particular eating pattern.  The capturing of satiety is multifaceted and uses multiple time points, consisting time and size of last meal, nutrient content, caloric density, taste, and activity level.  Apart from controlling all of the preceding points, the cognitive aspect of eating is one that a researcher has the least control over, also social eating, emotional eating, and availability of foods. In order to control aspects of this variability, researchers implement procedures such as making treatments at random, using overnight fasting before arrival, and having each partaker is in charge of their own control with a crossover design (Flint et al., 2000).

1.4       Glucose Response and Satiety

The grading of glycemic index (GI) of a meal is the measurement of a carbohydrate on a scale of 0 to 100 regarding the immediate raise on blood sugar levels over a 2 hour period after ingestion compared to glucose. The scoring offers a grading for diverse foods, but this assessment is biased, in that, there is no consideration regarding the portion size of the particular food consumed. Thus, the glycemic loads is representative for portion size of the meal by using the GI of a food and multiplied by the grams of existing carbohydrate within a portion. The glycemic response (GR) is then the result that the carbohydrate-containing food has on blood glucose concentration all through the digestion progression.  The rate at which food carbohydrates are absorbed and digested results in differences in postprandial glycemic responses with the likelihood to impact satiety and appetite. Carbohydrates that are digested and absorbed slower, subsequently results in a slow but sure rise in blood glucose and have been identified to suppress appetite (Bornet et al., 2007 and Thomas et al., 2007) but findings are inconsistent as the rate and degree of carbohydrate digestibility may partly describe the mechanisms (Sands et al., 2009). Differentials in glycogen stores have also been put forward as an appetite controller. The glucostatic and glycogenostatic schools of thought presume that low blood glucose and depletion of glycogen stores advances to heightened hunger and energy intake (Chaput and Tremblay, 2009). Glucose signalling is known to be similar to leptin signalling as far as its capacity to regulate energy intake and that the current obesity epidemic could be connected to decrease neuroendocrine sensitivity outcome which is less efficient for glucose signal and so higher energy intake (Mobbs et al., 2005). Evidence assert that, high GI foods have the potency to lower plasma glucose, raises hunger ratings, and incite areas linked with reward and craving in the brain (Lennerz et al., 2013).    The capability to extract a lower blood glucose response after a first, low GI meal and also an identical second meal has been phrased the “first-meal” and “second-meal effect”, correspondingly. Besides this GI effect, there is also colonic fermentation and delayed gastric emptying, associated with low GI foods that causes slowly digestible or “lenta” due to fermentable fibre and resistant starches, have also established this effect. Nonetheless, these diverse mechanisms have no effect on all aspects of glycemic control and likewise ingestion (Brighenti et al., 2006; Hlebowicz et al., 2007; Sandhu and Lim, 2008).

1.5       Dietary Fibre and Satiety

Dietary fibre (DF) is an indispensable nutrient in any diet and can promote optimal health in the prevention of cardiovascular health, gut health and weight control. Embodied in the definition above is the concept of that fibre is enclosed within plants as plant based foods basically contain fibre and when they are consumed as one gains. The categorization of fibres is not as straightforward as soluble versus insoluble since many foods contain a mixture of both (Slavin, 2013) and intake has been highly connected with normal body weight both in animal models as well as in humans (Isken et al., 2010; Tucker & Thomas, 2009 and Du H et al., 2010).  There are numerous theories about mechanisms on how fibre could be modulating body weight (Wanders et al., 2011). These proposals include: displacement of high energy dense foods; increasing chewing promoting greater secretion of saliva and gastric juices resulting in higher distension; delayed gastric emptying; interrupted nutrient uptake or digestion; and fermentation (Slavin & Green, 2007). All of the projected processes also include the adaption of various gut hormones which activates a physiological action (Beck et al., 2009; Blom et al., 2005; Cani et al., 2009 and Parnell & Reimer, 2009).

1.6       Protein and Satiety

Protein is a requisite macronutrient for all mortals, including humans. The human body needs protein as a source of essential amino acids as foundational blocks of cells and represents the major structural component of all cells in the body. Protein needs mainly energy input of 20-30% into their developments, whereas fat and carbohydrate require less, at 0-3% and 5-10%, correspondingly. Hence, the fundamental basis that has been proven in connection with its satiating macronutrient, even though the mechanism(s) supporting this is yet to be clarified. One persistent mechanism about protein is its ability to generate the largest thermo-genesis value throughout digestion and absorption compared to fat or carbohydrate. Numerous experiments have shown a larger output of thermic energy after protein consumption compared to fat or carbohydrate. In a 15% protein against a 30% protein meal, the 30% expended 34 kj /hour more than the 15% meal (Johnston et al., 2002 and Westerterp-Plantenga, 2003). Amino acids are potentially divided because they are bound to metabolise. β- hydroxybutyrate is a essential ketone body that has been proven to decrease food intake (Johnstone et al., 2008) whereas, Leucine and lysine are amino acids that coexist and are associated with improved satiety effects, both of which are ketogenic amino acids, available in whey and might be a mechanism of satiety studied for whey (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2012).  Although protein is known to induce greater effects on thermo-genesis, its effectiveness relies also its source. An assessment on pork and soy meal to high carbohydrate meal revealed pork having a greater thermic expenditure of 3.9% above the carbohydrate meal when weighed against only 1.9% for the soy meal.  Even though thermo-genesis could impact energy expenditure unaided, this in part might explain the evidence behind the yielding of high satiety scores and probable weight loss over a cause of time. Other studies have demonstrated a rise in satiety when partly replaced fat or carbohydrate with greater protein, both at a single meal and within a 24-hour period (Lejeune et al., 2006). As well, High protein lunch offers more satisfaction, less pre-dinner appetite, and less pre-dinner craving compared to a high carbohydrate lunch. 31% extra calories was eaten at dinner with the high carbohydrate lunch compare to the high protein lunch. Studies on satiety have not been conclusive on the differences of animal protein compared to vegetable protein regarding satiety. The mechanism for protein-induced satiety has so far not been fully explained so the variation between animal protein and vegetable protein leads to a number of puzzling differences that make the results obscure. Notwithstanding detail explanations of what mechanisms are at play, both animal and plant proteins eaten at higher levels in the diet have been linked to increased satiety, declined food intake and greater weight loss (Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2012 and Barnard et al., 2005).

1.7       Protein and Fibre Combinations on Satiety

The premise of mixing the two highest satiating macronutrients would mean an additive or even synergistic effect, because each macronutrient and food form releases satiety effects by independent mechanisms. For instance, a high protein, high fibre snack bars eaten two times a day between meals ended in reduced successive meal intake (Williams et al., 2006).

1.8       Gari Overview

Gari is a popular West African food staple made from cassava tubers. Cassava, (Manihot esculenta) is a drought-tolerant, starchy, root crop, cultivated in the tropical climates. It is usually consumed in a variety of forms among many families in many parts of subtropical African, Latin America and Asia (Asiedu, 1990; EL-Sharkawy, 2003; Okechukwu and Okoye, 2010). Cassava compares only to the sweet potato as the most notable starchy root crop and it is accepted globally for its trade values as starchy crop, food and animal feed crop. This starchy root acts as a source of industrial starch granules, the main ingredient in chemical processing of ethanol. It is also good for gluten free products and a source of pastries flour. Gari processing occurs when grated cassava roots are compressed and fermented prior to frying to generate a “semi-dextrin food stuff” (Akinlosoye and Babarinde, 2009). This method of heating during the roasting processing is for preservation as it removes the cyanide gas, eliminates enzymes and microorganisms and creates pleasant flavours (IITA, 2005; Montagnac, et al., 2009). The end product is in the form of creamy-white granular flour with a slightly fermented flavour and sour taste, and gelatinized as a result of fermentation (ITA, 2005). Nutritional Values Values per 100 grams: Calories 357 kcal; Total Fat 0.15 g; Total Carbohydrate 89.3 g; Protein 1.26 g; Fibre 7.1g Minerals and Vitamins Potassium: 33 mg; sodium: 1 mg; Vitamin A: IU 0IU; Vitamin C: 0mg; Calcium: 71mg; Iron: 2.6mg

1.9       Overview of Black – Eyed – Pea Beans – Legumes

Black eyed peas/beans (Vigna unguiculata subsp unguiculate) are a major source of protein and part of the legume family. Legumes are loaded with a number of nutrients like protein, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibre and also a considerable level of vitamins and minerals (Coasta et al., 2006). It is pale in colour with an outstanding black spot, medium-sized and grown around the world. They are mostly available dried, frozen and canned and packed with several health benefits. The composition of slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fibre, protein and reasonable energy density present a number of positive traits for a more satiating diet and assistance in weight management (McCrory et al., 2010).

1.9.1      Nutritional Values

Values per 100 grams are as follows: Calories 90 kcal; Total Fat 0.4 g; Total Carbohydrate 19 g; Protein 13.22 g and Fibre 11.1 g

1.9.2      Minerals and Vitamins

Potassium: 1148 milligrams; sodium: 48 milligrams; Zinc: 8-11 milligrams; Non-heme iron: 6%; Vitamin C: 1.3 mm; calcium: 41 mg; Folate: 356 mcg and Vitamin A : 26 IU per portion of 171 –g serving. Due to the mixture of solubility and insolubility nature of the fibre content in legumes, given it a variety of helpful effects (Guillon and Champ, 2002) and can also fuel the release of gut hormones linked to satiety such as GLP-1 (Cani et al., 2009).

1.10  Overview of Couscous

Couscous is originally pronounced as ‘Koose-Koose’ is an indigenous dish identified among Northern Africans and is considered to have evolved during the 11th century. Its cultivation originates commonly around North Africa, Southern Europe, and Syria as well as around the Mediterranean Sea, whereas around the States, production takes place in Dakota and Montana, and southern Saskatchewan and Alberta around Canada, (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2007a). Couscous is a wheat base produce from and is versatile in use for bread, cookies, cakes, noodles, and pasta and rich in carbohydrates and fibre there by boosting it nutritional value (Sestili et al., and FAOSTAT, 2014). However, a variety of grains such as barley, millet, sorghum and corn are used in producing couscous worldwide (Coskun, 2013). Hypothesis-: That, the consumption of Gari with Beans (black eye-pea) will induce satiation and sustains satiety levels in an individual for longer and also regulate the postprandial appetite and appetite-related GI responses in healthy normal-weight individuals. Aim-: To ascertain, collate, evaluate and establish the evidence of impact on the postprandial effects of dietary fibres and proteins on overall satiety and appetite regulation levels. Objectives-: The proposed study is to determine the effects of dietary intake of high fibre and protein meal of Gari and beans (black eye-pea) and compared to a moderate fibre meal (couscous) on subjective appetite and energy intake at a successive meal on satiation and satiety levels by establishing whether the consumption will increase the fullness levels of in an individual in order to evaluate the effects on postprandial satiation and satiety.

2         Study Design

The study was randomised controlled trial cross-over design, with participants serving as their own control. This methodology was considered due to its effectiveness in relation to a similar study conducted by Blundell and colleagues on quantitative measurement and   standardisation of experimental methodologies that can measure food intake objectively by identifying the effects of diverse foods on satiation and satiety. The team investigated and identified how novel foods and food additives might support satiety in an aid to managing appetite (Blundell et al., 2010).

2.1       Quantitative

This is mostly aimed at analyzing assumption that has been framed in advance in the form of a theory. It is more logical and data-led approach which offers a measure of what society think from a statistical and numerical point of view. Quantitative research can collect a large amount of data that can be easily structured and manipulated into reports for analysis (Flick, 2015). Moreover, using quantitative data has the benefits of justifiability, due to the rigorousness in data collection and the appropriateness of methods and critical analysis to effective its reliability and likewise the application of RCT with its longitudinal dimensions, allows the examination of causal relations between interventions and outcomes (ACAPS, 2012: 6). As well, Crossover design helped with overcoming the dissimilarity in participants by maintaining the participants as matched as possible, in effect turn into their own ‘test’ and ‘control’. Overall, the design helped make study to be robust; reliable; valid; causal inferences by providing strong empirical evidence for the study. The randomisation ensured there no allocation bias and confounding of unknown variables were minimised as the study was tailored to prove the satiety impact specifically following the consumption of gari (Boutron et al., 2008; Thorpe et al. 2009). Finally, visual analogue scales (VAS) was adopted due to its validity rating by various appetite research groups. In line with this validation, the Leeds group created a device – Electronic Appetite Rating System (EARS), a handheld device for data capturing by using an already existed VAS to enable the assessment on motivation for eating by allowing participants to record their experiences and appetite reliably and conveniently in a chronological tracking of appetite ratings (Stubbs et al., 2000; Flint et al., 2000).

2.2       Participants – Recruitment

Participants were recruited via face–to-face and college emails. Through discussion, a date was agreed upon following screening to elicit the health status, allergies and dietary intake habits of interested individuals. Eligibility to participate was based on meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Prior to carrying out the test investigation, signatures on informed consent (Appendix A) were obtained. Upon acceptance, email was sent to each participant regarding instructions on the standardised breakfast before the study visits. Subsequently, participants were asked to keep a record of 24 hour recall dietary intake and consumption of the standardised breakfast prior to the second treatment of the study visit.

2.3       Dietary Treatments

A total of 14 participants were enrolled for the study where each participant had two test visits: Gari (fibre + carbohydrate – 30g = 50 kcal) and black eye-pea beans (protein + fibre – 200g = 264 kcal) as the test meal and Couscous (carbohydrate + fibre) with black eye-pea beans (protein + fibre) as the control meal. The study was carried out over a period of two weeks with one week wash period in between. The participants were asked to fast overnight and consumed a standardised breakfast prior the test (toast bread with tea). At lunch time, the participants were asked to consume Gari and black eyed pea beans a meal and Couscous with black eyed pea beans the subsequent week. Furthermore, participants were requested to keep a 24 hour dairy record after consuming each of the test meals for post energy intake analysis. Prior to serving meal, they were asked read through the participation information sheet and signed the consent forms and also to assess their hunger, fullness and desire to eat level by completing the 100 mm visual analog scale. This paper exercise was repeated immediately after consumption up until three hours aftermath where assessments on hunger, satisfaction, desire to eat and overall satiety as well gastrointestinal levels were surveyed.

2.4       Inclusion Criteria

Participants were screened through a casual face-to-face discussion and then enrolled subject to being healthy and between the ages of 18 – 50. They comprised of male and female students with a healthy weight with maintain weight for last 3 months; non-dieting, not on medications; non breakfast skippers had no record of gastrointestinal disease and were not adhering to any dietary restrictions. Additionally, the study was carried out according to the guidelines laid down and all procedures relating human participants and was approved by the University of Liverpool John Moores Ethics Committee.

2.5       Exclusion criteria

Prospective participants excluded if they had any food allergies or conditions where dietary fibre would have exacerbate their condition. Therefore, any: food intolerance, distaste for beans; restrained dietary habits; any history of disease or any significant past medical history including gluten intolerance, on medications regularly; and do not usually eat breakfast or lunch.

2.6       Test Meals

Subjects received two isocaloric meals over the two visits. Both meals were prepared in equivalence with weight, calories, total fat (Table 2-2). The gari meal contained 0.2 grams of protein and 1.4 grams of fibre and the black-eye-pea beans contained 15 grams of protein and 8.2 grams of fibre, whereas the control meal – couscous – contained 2.2 grams of protein and 0.7 grams of fibre. These meals were prepared in a food grade test kitchen (Food Academy) using commercially available products and served at the appropriate temperature upon participant’s arrival.

2.7       Study Visits

Fasted participants (approximately 4 hours since breakfast) arrived at the Food Academy between 11:45 a.m. and 12:00 p.m. for both tests.  Both visits included baseline standardised breakfast prior to test meal. The test meals were served for lunch in a relaxed environment. Also, all leftovers were collected and weighed and data recorded. There was one week wash period separating both visits in an attempt to ensure participants are in a steady condition due to baseline observations elimination of all effects from previous test. Participants were provided with instructions for the completion of the visual analog scale (VAS) form, baseline appetite assessment as well as gastrointestinal survey. The Appetite sensations were rated by VAS at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after baseline.  Participants were asked to keep a 24 hour dairy record after consumption of both test meal.

2.8       Study Outcomes: Subjective Satiety Scores

100 mm validated Visual Analog Scales (VAS) was used to measure the subjective satiety ratings (Flint et al., 2000) and served as the principal outcome of the study. Participants were asked to rate their feelings for four satiety related endpoints by questioning: Hunger (How hungry do you feel? 0 mm-I am not hungry at all, 100 mm- I have never been more hungry; Satisfaction (How satisfied do you feel? 0 mm- I am completely empty, 100 mm- I cannot eat another bite; Fullness (How full do you feel? 0 mm- I am not at all full, 100 mm- I am totally full; Prospective food intake (How much do you think you could eat? 0 mm- Nothing at all, 100 mm- a lot (Appendix C).

2.9       Food Intake

The energy intakes for both test meals were measured using total kcals for overall energy contained in each at approximately (497). Leftovers were weighed to establish how much was consumed to assist in the calculation of total calories consumed.  The 24 hour recorded dietary intakes following consumption test were analysed with Diet-plan 7 for the determination of energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein, and fibre and sodium intake.

2.10  Gastrointestinal Tolerance

The gastrointestinal tolerance of both meals was also measured by subjective scales (Bonnema et al., 2010) by asking specific questions like gas or bloating, nausea, flatulence, diarrhea/loose stools, constipation, gastrointestinal cramping and gastrointestinal rumbling to assess subjective gastrointestinal tolerance on a 4-point Likert scale. The scale adopted a 0-3 rating with 1none, 2- mild, 3- moderate and 4- severe (Appendix 1).

2.11  Data Analysis

Furthermore, all data were statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23.0 software for Windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA) and Paired t-tests were used to determine the effect on overall energy intake following the consumption of gari and beans as well as couscous and beans diet by measuring the differences in hunger response between the two meals. A statistical significance of p<0.05 was used in analysing all statistical procedures. Test meals were analysed using Diet-plan 7 software for the determination of the effects on energy intake, carbohydrate, fat, protein, and fibre content and the overall satiety as well as satiation levels Pallant, 2016).

3         Results

 Table 1 summarises the demographics of the 14 participants: (2 men and 12 women) (n= 14) that took part in the first test (Gari meal) with the average age of 22 (± 2.85 SD) and were perusing Nutrition and Sport Science. However, only twelve completed the subsequent test (Couscous meal). Due to unanticipated scheduling conflicts, two of the selected participants declined participation during the second visit. According to Babbie (2010), when participants drop-out of an experiment; it is termed as experimental mortality or attrition as it can severely compromise a study’s validity, especially when the drop-outs rate varies in comparison to treatment and control group. Hence, <5% loss has been suggested to contribute little bias whereas >20% can potentially pose a threats to validity.   Components within table 2 shows the collated data on satiety levels of both test meals prior to pre and post ingestion using VAS scores measurements in verifying the subjective feelings in determining whether gari meal recorded the greatest satiety  effect on peak postprandial responses in substantiating low satiety level and low satiation effect of couscous meal.  There was a significant difference in mean scores (p<0.05) time × treatment interactions (p<0.05) observed with average hunger scores between the test meals. At 120 minutes, gari was the only treatment that had significantly lower desire to eat in comparison to couscous meal (p<0.05) as following the treatment, increases in time noted increases with the perceived hunger scores.                       Tables (3 – 8) as well as figures (2 – 6) show the breakdown of the two caloric contents, total and average grams of micronutrients of treatments meals: (a) Gari & black-eye-pea beans and (b) Couscous with black-eye-pea beans. The portion size for the gari treatment contained 30g (dried) and consisted of 108 kcal, 0.1 g fat, 0.2 grams of protein and 1.4 grams of fibre, MUFA 0+g, PUFA 0+g and Potassium (K) 133 mg and the black-eye-pea beans portion size was 200g, contained 338 kcal, 15 grams of protein and 8.2 grams of fibre, fat 16.4, MUFA 5.8, PUFA 2.1 and Potassium (K) 562 mg. The portion size for the couscous was 30g (dried), 60g (cooked) and consisted of 107g kcals, 4.3 grams of protein and 1.3 grams of fibre, 0.6 g fat, MUFA 0.1g, PUFA 0.3g and Potassium (K) 92 mg.   Figures (1) and (7, 8, 9, 10) below shown significant variations with a common trend for all the four means at each time point regarding satiety measures for both test meals by indicating a significant increase of progression: lower for hunger at (p=0.01) and prospective food consumption and higher for satisfaction and fullness with the couscous meal compared to the gari mean at (p=0.02). Furthermore, vast differences in mean food intake were evident for both subsequent intakes for rest of the day and 24 hour ingestion postprandial for the gari meal compares to couscous were noted.      Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form            

3.1       Gastrointestinal Tolerance

There was no major difference in the sum of GI symptoms overall as reported occurrences was normal with both meal. However, only three participants confirmed gas and bloating with the beans, however, that is not statistically important.

4         Discussion

In line with the concept of satiation and satiety, this study hypothesised on the satiety effect of gari and black-eye-pea beans and the probability in reduction of energy intake following ingestion. Thus, this affected the total food intake at following meal(s) throughout the day – leading to a reduction in total energy consumption all through the day. Hence, over time, these declines could result in weight loss or management eventually. The utilisation of a set of validated question VAS was the best instrument in capturing these subjective feelings of satiety except there are multiples of issues concerning food intake that ought to be measured and managed. Amongst such are: the emotional, hedonic, incentive and social aspects of eating, controlled in the cortex and limbic systems, which have the capacity to reverse the hypothalamic nutrient-sensing control of food intake (Berthound, 2007). Evidently, the result of this investigation confirmed the hypothesis that, the satiety impact of  gari and black-eye-pea beans meal in comparison with couscous black-eye-pea meal with high fibre content are interconnected confirming the high  ratings for satiation impact of high fibre. In that, the satiating impact of gari affected couscous as some participants were unable to finish their gari meal, but were able to finish the couscous meal despite both having standardised portion size. Thus, major disparities were established between the two test meals for all the satiety ratings as it peak high hunger levels with couscous when evident considerable variation was observed. At 0 minutes, there was no significant difference in fullness levels for both gari and couscous meal at (p>0.05) and likewise at 30 minutes post ingestion for both test meals. However, there were some significant differences in the mean scores for the fullness level for gari meal (p=004) as oppose to couscous regarding the mean decrease 2 hours time point following consumption. Again, the same significant decrease was observed at the hunger level with gari meal at (p=005) over couscous at the same time point.  Meanwhile, at the satisfaction level, significant differences were noted with gari consumption at (p>0.05) during 120 – 150 minutes phases at (p=005) and (p=004) over couscous consumption. Hence, the values at the satiety level concluded that, gari consumption sustained the increase of (p<0.05) in comparison with couscous over the decrease level of satiety from 60 -150 minutes time points at: (p=0.01) and (p=0.02).  Furthermore, disparities were observed during the subsequent and post energy intake 24 hours (p<0.05) after the consumption of gari compares to couscous; indicating long-term satiety distinctions between the two meals.  Generally, dissimilarities in protein and fibre content have been evidenced to have varying conclusions on overall satiety ratings, yet, higher ratings of fullness have been linked with reduced energy intake throughout day (Holt et al., 2001). Diets containing protein source have been established to have the potential to impact satiety effects which in consequence aids with weight management due to amino acid content  dependant on source being complete or incomplete (Anderson et al., 2004 Costa et al., 2006). So far, there are still uncertainties surrounding the functions of individual amino acids on satiety mechanisms yet, there has been some variations indicated for each amino acid in energy expenditure throughout amino acid catabolism (van Milgen, 2002).  Even though animal protein are considered to be of high quality due to its potency for all the limiting amino acids necessary for the body,  legumes on the other hand contains the highest content of lysine and threonine as oppose to other plant-sourced proteins, with  its correlation to amplified satiety ratings (German et al., 2010; Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2012). Despite the usual associations of gas and bloated-ness with the consumption of beans, only two participants evidenced such occurrences. Whether intrinsic or supplemented, the ingestion of fibre has been significantly linked with low body weight with animals and humans equally (Isken et al., 2010; Tucker et al., 2010; Du H et al., 2010). The systems of actions for fibre on satiety for the beans in this experiment comprise: displacement of higher energy dense foods, delayed gastric emptying owing to the integral structure of the fibre-containing whole legumes, absorption and fermentation. Previous investigations have proven that the chief predictor for satiety potential is portion size As such; both the portion size and the calorie content for this study were equally set. Yet, differences were found between the satiety scores for the two meals (Wanders et al., 2011& Slavin & Green, 2007). Though many demonstrations exist in support of satiety enhancement through food intake reduction within a short time frame in the anticipation of weight loss; there is still unconvincing scientific evidence in support despite existing evidence however regarding diet rich in high-satiety foods facilitating the maintenance of weight loss. Thus, a project by the DIOGENES tracked 773 obese Europeans from eight countries for 26 weeks following a diet-induced weight loss where evaluation of five maintenance diet circumstances was compared to conclude best maintenance emerges by combining a diet with increased protein content and low GI (Larsen et al., 2010). Besides, whilst many food-associated dynamics affect satiety, responsiveness to satiety signals also varies mostly between individuals. In that, a “low-satiety phenotypes” have been recognized in proportion of obese, nevertheless, normal-weight individuals have been personified by weak changes of appetite sensations subsequent standardised meals (Drapeau et al., 2013). Hence, individuals with a low-satiety phenotype exhibit a higher Resting Metabolic Rate and higher levels of dis-inhibition when measured over those with a “high satiety phenotype” with the former categorised as being prone to overeating and seem as a general markers for susceptibility to universal health issues such as CVD and T2DM. Yet, the causes of these differences have not been identified, although anxiety/stress operates as the probable modulating factors Dalton et al., 2015). Moreover, regardless the availability of vast amount of information; consumers are still unable to discern and optimise their diets as well as intake control but instead, form perceptions from physical cues from psychological states like lack of desire to eat more (Murray and Vickers, 2009). Therefore, for knowledge and understanding of scientific results to be effective and beneficial amongst consumers, there must be improvement in the dissemination with the help of qualified health professionals (Stubbs, 2013). In view of this, several innovative perspectives on satiety and its mechanisms have emerged recent years. For instance, the composition of the gut micro-biota and how nutrients might affect satiety responses and body weight varies amongst obese and lean individuals (Delzenne et al., 2013).  According to Neyrinck et al (2011), evidence on animal studies on high-fat diets noted induced alterations within the composition of the gut micro-biota that help with the development of obesity. Equally, prebiotics, a category of non-digestible/fermentable CHO that increase gut bifidobacteria, decrease food intake in animal models of obesity, also decreases reduces appetite among humans when evening meals rich in dietary fibres with prebiotic properties following the day in correspondence with an increase in the satiogenic peptide GLP-1 (Johansson et al., 2013). Additionally, the administering  of prebiotics supplements to humans raises satiety sensations and decreases energy intake (Cani et al., 2006), stimulates the release of GLP-1 and PYY (Parnell and Reimer, 2009; Verhoef et al., 2011) whereas, in obese persons, reduces body weight, waist circumference, and fat mass (Genta et al., 2009). Although, these findings are vital inputs to appetite regulation study and consumers alike; it still reveals the inconclusive elements about foods and its assertion to offer appetite suppressing benefits based on their potential physiological outcome on the body (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2011). Yet, this evidence is well-timed as many have become more conscious about their health and are relentlessly hunting for the next ‘miracle’ food which can effectively curb appetite consequential in sustained weight loss despite the complexity surrounding appetite regulation and its reliance on a multiplicity of processes entailing physiological, psychological and environmental factors (Sørensen et al., 2003). Notwithstanding, this study evidenced that Gari successfully suppressed appetite and reduced successive energy intake, it reflects only the effects observed amongst a small sample frame and therefore cannot be generalized. However, findings indicate that Gari, a novel food to this community, could have potential in replacing more commonly consumed refined grains in the British diet.  Also, several previous investigations have hypothetically indicated  that appetite suppression and effective decrease in energy intake does not necessarily relies on a particular ‘miracle’ food, but by adapting to an array of enduring dietary practices and physical activity habits (Blair, 2009).

4.1       Limitations

Significant improvement in results could have been achieved and not flawed to an extent considering the implications of the following: the Quantity of beans could have affected the result. Also, the fore knowledge on gari and palm oil could have psychologically impacted on participant’s satiety scores due to food neo-phobia (Tuorila et al., 2001) especially with (palm oil) might have affected their inclination to avoid new foods due to biological mechanism of protection against the ingestion of toxins via new and/or unfamiliar foods might have contributed pre-conceived anxiety regarding consumption of new food since assessment on palatability was not investigated. Furthermore, the reduction in sample size – drop-out –rate might have also influence the result and likewise the general biasness regarding food diary recordings impacting overall 24 hour post ingested meals. Recommendation Evidently, reported results in satiety researches remain mostly inconclusive owing to different methodologies conducted. Thus, future research design must be modified by incorporating measurement of blood glucose levels of participants throughout the study in order to gain an improved understanding of how blood glucose levels might influence the subjective satiety ratings as research on the combination of Gari with and black-eye-pea consumption are limited. As such, more research surrounding Gari will be reasonable in determining if its consumption can effectively suppress appetite in comparison to other refined grains and consequently uphold health within the population.

5         Conclusion

In conclusion, this experiment established a variation in both satiety ratings and subsequent food intake between the two test meals of varying fibre content even though they contained same protein content in context of fullness duration regarding the couscous meal. It was discovered that participants were a bit hesitant to indulge in unfamiliar meal; fearing ingestion might cause adverse interactions consequential in the inability in distinguishing between tangible differences. Moreover, the consumption of the black-eye-peas beans resulted in an episode of gastrointestinal symptoms among three of the participants. To able to draw conclusive suggestions, further studies would be required for confirmation particularly with greater sample sizes to correct potential treatment order interactions. Nonetheless, even though test meals had matched portion size with corresponding carbohydrate load, the subjective satiety scores indicated differences in the satiety potential of gari and couscous, post-ingestion intake was reduced in the case of gari meal than couscous. Through this experiment, a considerable knowledge had been gained from how certain combinations of foods are able to induce satiety. Thus, incorporation of gari in diets could ultimately result in weight reduction and assist in weight management provide agencies and businesses with a platform for discussions on ways to contest obesity and improve manage weight crisis with a variety foodstuff.

6         References

  • ACAPS (2012). Qualitative and Quantitative Research Techniques for Humanitarian Needs Assessment
  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2007). Durum Wheat: 2007-2008 Situation and Outlook[Bulletin]. Manitoba: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
  • Akhavan T, Luhovyy BL, Brown PH, Cho CE, Anderson GH. (2010). Effect of premeal consumption of whey protein and its hydrolysate on food intake and postmeal glycemia and insulin responses in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr.; 91:966–75.
  •  Akhavan T, Luhovyy BL, Anderson GH. (2011). Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake. Int J Obes (Lond); 35:562–9.
  •  Akhavan T, Anderson GH. (2007). Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men. Am J Clin Nutr; 86:1354–63.
  • Akinlosoye, A. A. and Babarinde, M.S. (2009) Design and Fabrication of a Stone-Free Gari Processing Plant”, B. Eng. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.
  • Anderson G, Aziz A, Abou Samra R. (2006). Physiology of food intake regulation: Interaction with dietary components. In: Protein and energy requirements in infancy and childhood. Rigo J, Ziegler EE, editors. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program. 58th vol. Nestle Nestec Ltd, Vevey. Basel (Switzerland): S. Karger AG; p. 133–45.
  • Anderson GH, Woodend D.(2003). Consumption of sugars and the regulation of short-term satiety and food intake. Am J Clin Nutr.; 78: S843–9.
  • Anderson GH, Tecimer SN, Shah D, Zafar TA. (2002). Protein source, quantity, and time of consumption determine the effect of proteins on short-term food intake in young men. J Nutr; 134:3011–5.
  • Anderson GH, Catherine NL, Woodend DM, Wolever TM. (2002). Inverse association between the effect of carbohydrates on blood glucose and subsequent short-term food intake in young men. Am J Clin Nutr; 76:1023–30.
  • Asiedu, J. J. (1990) “Processing Tropical Crops”, ELBS Publishers, London, UK.
  • Babbie, E. R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research, 12th edition. Cengage Learning.
  • Berthound HR. (2007). Interactions between the “cognitive” and “metabolic” brain in the control of food intake: Physiol Behav; 91:486–498.
  • Beck EJ, Tosh SM, Batterham M .J, Tapsell L.C, Huang X. F. (2009). Oat β-glucan increases postprandial cholecystokinin levels, decreases insulin response and extends subjective satiety in overweight subjects. Mol Nutr Food Res; 53:1343-1351.
  •  Bellissimo N, Thomas SG, Goode RC, Anderson GH. (2007). Effect of short duration physical activity and ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term energy intake in boys. Appetite; 49: 644–51.
  •  Bellissimo N, Pencharz PB, Thomas SG, Anderson GH. (2007). Effect of television viewing at mealtime on food intake after a glucose preload in boys. Pediatr Res; 61:745–9.
  •  Bellissimo N, Desantadina MV, Pencharz PB, Berall GB, Thomas SG, Anderson GH. (2008). A comparison of short-term appetite and energy intakes in normal weight and obese boys following glucose and whey-protein drinks. Int J Obes (Lond); 32:362–71.
  • Bellisle F (2003). Why should we study human food intake behaviour? Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease. 13: 189–93.
  • Biddle SJH, Mutrie N. (2008) Psychology of Physical Activity: Determinants, Well-Being and Interventions. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
  • Blair, S.N., (2009). Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. Br. J. Sports Med. 43, 1–2
  • Blom WA, Stafleu A, de Graaf C, Kok FJ, Schaafsma G, Hendriks HF (2005). Ghrelin response to carbohydrate-enriched breakfast is related to insulin. Am J Clin Nutr; 81:367-375.
  • Blundell JE (2006) Perspective on the central control of appetite. Obesity 14 Suppl 4: 160S–163S.
  • Blundell J. (2010). Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight. Nat Rev Endocrinol;6:53–6
  • Blundell, J. (2010). Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods. Obesity Rev; 11, 251–270.
  • Blundell, J.E., de Graaf, C., Hulshof, T., Jebb, S., Livingstone, B., Lluch, A., & Westerterp, M. (2010). Appetite Control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods. Obesity Reviews, 11, 251–270.
  • Blundell JE, Caudwell P, Gibbons P, Hopkins M, Naslund E, King NA, Finlayson G. (2010). Body composition and appetite: fat-free mass (but not fat mass or BMI) is positively associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake in humans. British Journal of Nutrition.; 107: 445-449
  • Blundell JE, Finlayson G, Gibbons C, Caudwell P, Hopkins M. (2015). The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake? Physiology & Behaviour; 152: 473-478
  • Bonnema AL, Kolberg LW, Thomas W, Slavin JL. (2010). Gastrointestinal tolerance of chicory inulin products. J Am Diet Assoc; 110:865-868.
  • Boey D, Lin S, Enriquez RF, Lee NJ, Slack K, Couzens M, Baldock PA, Herzog H, Sainsbury A: (2008). PYY transgenic mice are protected against diet-induced and genetic obesity. Neuropeptides ; 42:19-30
  • Bornet FRJ, Jardy-Gennetier A.E, Jacquet N, Stowell J (2007). Glycaemic response to foods: impact on satiety and long-term weight regulation. Appetite; 49: 535-553.
  • Boutron, I., Moher, D., Altman, D., Schultz, K., Ravaud, P. (2008). Extending the CONSORT Statement to Randomized Trials of Non-pharmacologic Treatment: Explanation and Elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(4), 295-309.
  • Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM. (2006). Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 91:2913-2919.
  • Brighenti F, Benini L, Del Rio D, Casiraghi C, Pellegrini N, Scazzina F, et al. (2006). Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect. Am J Clin Nutr; 83(4): 817–822.
  • Cani PD, Joly E, Horsmans Y, Delzenne NM.(2006). Oligofructose promotes satiety in healthy humans: a pilot study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 60: 567-572
  • Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D, De Backer F, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM (2009).  Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr; 90:1236-1243.
  • Carmagnola S, Cantu P, Penagini R. (2005) Mechanoreceptors of the proximal stomach and perception of gastric distension. Am J Gastroenterol; 100:1704-1710.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Overweight and obesity; Defining overweight and obesity. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/defining.html (Accessed on January 2017)
  • Costa, G, Queiroz-Monici, K, Reis, S, Costa de Oliveira, A. (2006).  Chemical composition, dietary fibre and resistant starch contents of raw and cooked pea, common bean, chickpea and lentil legumes. Food Chemistr ; 94: 327–330.
  • Chaput JP, Tremblay A. (2009). The glucostatic theory of appetite control and the risk of obesity and diabetes. Int J Obes; 33:46-53.
  • Costa, G, Queiroz-Monici, K, Reis, S and Costa de Oliveira, A (2006).Chemical composition, dietary fibre and resistant starch contents of raw and cooked pea, common bean, chickpea and lentil legumes. Food Chemistry; 94: 327–330.
  • Cummings DE, Purnell JQ, Frayo RS, Schmidova K, Wisse BE, Weigle D.S (2001). A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans. Diabetes; 50:1714-1719.
  • Cummings DE, Overduin J (2007). Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake: J Clin Invest; 117:13-23
  • Dalton M, Hollingworth S, Blundell J, Finlayson G. (2015). Weak satiety responsiveness is a reliable trait associated with hedonic risk factors for overeating among women. Nutrients; 7: 7421-7436
  • de Graaf C, Blom WA, Smeets PA, Stafleu A, Hendriks HF.(2004) .Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr; 79:946–61.
  • Delzenne NM, Neyrinck AM, Cani PD. (2013). Gut microbiota and metabolic disorders: how prebiotic can work? British Journal of Nutrition; 109: S81-S85
  • Dockray G. (2004) Gut endocrine secretions and their relevance to satiety. Curr Opin Pharmacol; 4:557–560.
  • Drapeau V, Blundell JE, Gallant AR, Arguin H, Després J-P, Lamarche B, Tremblay A. (2013). Behavioural and metabolic characterisation of the low satiety phenotype. Appetite; 70: 67-72
  • Du H, van der AD, Boshuizen HC, Forouhi NG, Wareham NJ, Halkjaer J, Tjonneland A, Overvad K, Jakobsen MU, Boeing H, et al (2010).  Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women:  Am J Clin Nutr; 91:329-336.
  • El-Sharkawy M.A (2003). Casssava biology and physiolog. Plant Mol Biol 53:621–41.
  • FAOSTAT (2014) Food supply-Crops primary equivalent: FAO of the United Nations [Retrieved]: http://faostat3.fao.org/download/FB/CC/E (Accessed 18 Feb. 2017)
  • Flick, U. (2015) Introducing research methodology: Abeginner’s guide to doing a research projectUnited Kingdom: SAGE Publications.
  • Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE, Astrup A. (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord ; 24:38-48.
  • Genta S, Cabrera W, Habib N, Pons J, Carillo IM, Grau A, Sanchez S. (2009)Yacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humans. Clinical Nutrition; 28: 182-187
  • German, A., Holden, S., Bissot, T., Morris, P., Biourge, V. (2010). A high protein high fibre diet improves weight loss in obese dogs. The Veterinary Journal; 183: 294-297.
  • Gibbons C, Caudwell P, Finlayson G, Webb DL, Hellstrom PM, Naslund E, Blundell JR. (2013). Comparison of postprandial profile of ghrelin, active PLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety. Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism.; 98: E847-E855
  • Griffioen-Roose, S., Mars, M., Finlayson, G., Blundell, J. E., and de Graaf, C. (2011). The effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety. British journal of nutrition106(05), 779-788.
  • Guillon, F, Champ, M. (2002). Carbohydrate fractions of legumes: uses in human nutrition and potential for health. Br J Nutr; 88 Suppl 3:S293–306.
  • Hall, K. D., Heymsfield, S. B., Kemnitz, J. W., Klein, S., Schoeller, D. A., and Speakman, J. R. (2012). Energy balance and its components: Implications for body weight regulation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(4), 989-994. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.036350 [doi]
  • Havel, P. J. (2001). Peripheral signals conveying metabolic information to the brain: Short-term and long-term regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 226(11), 963-977
  • Hlebowicz J,Wickenberg J, Fahlstrom R, Bjorgell O, Almer LO, Darwiche G.(2007). Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial. Nutr J; 6(1): 22.
  • Holt S, Brand-Miller JC, Stitt PA. (2001). The effects of equal-energy portions of different breadson blood glucose levels, feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake. J Am Diet Assoc; 101:767-773.
  • Huda, MS, Wilding JP, Pinkney J.H. (2006). Gut peptides and the regulation of appetite: Obes Rev; 7: 163-182.
  • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (2005) Cassava Utilization: Gari available at http://www.cassavabiz.org/postharvest/Gari01.htm (Accessed December 15, 2016)
  • Isaksson, H, Tillander, I, Andersson, R, Olsson, J, Fredriksson, H, Webb, D, Aman, P. (2012). Whole grains rye breakfast- Sustained satiety during three weeks of regular consumption. Physiology & Behaviour; 105:877-884.
  • Isken F, Klaus S, Osterhoff M, Pfeiffer AF, Weickert MO (2010).  Effects of long-term soluble vs. insoluble dietary fiber intake on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice: J Nutr Biochem; 21:278-284.
  • Jacobs DR, Gallaher DD. (2004). Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: A review. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004; 6:415-423.
  • Johnston, C, Day, S, Swan, P. (2002). Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high protein, low fat diet versus a high carbohydrate low fat diet in healthy young women. J Am Coll Nut; 21:55-61.
  • Johnstone AM, Horgan GW, Murison SD. (2008). Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr ; 87, 44–55.
  • Johansson EV, Nilsson A, Ostman EM, Bjorck IME. (2013). Effects of indigestible carbohydrates in barley on glucose metabolism, appetite and voluntary food intake over 16 h in healthy adults. Nutrition Journal; 12: 46
  • Jones KW, Eller IK, Parnell JA, Doyle-Baker PK, Edwards AL Reimer RA. (2013). Effect of a dairy- and calcium-rich diet on weight loss and appetite during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults: a randomized trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.; 67: 371-376
  • Jones (2014).CODEX-aligned dietary fibre definitions help to bridge the ‘fibre gap’. Nutrition Journal 13:34.
  • Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, et al. (2004).  Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fibre consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr.; 80:1237-1245.
  • Larsen TM, Dalskov SM, van Baak M, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer EFH, Martines A, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Kunesova M, Pihlsgard M, Stender S, Holst C, Saris WHM, Astrup A (2010). Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. New England Journal of Medicine; 363: 2101-2113
  • Lejeune, MP, Westerterp, KR, Adam, TC, Luscombe-Marsh, ND, Westerterp-Plantenga, MS. (2006). Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, 24-h satiety, and energy and substrate metabolism during a high-protein diet and measured in a respiration chamber. Am J Clin Nutr; 83:89 –94.
  • Lennerz BS, Alsop DC, Holsen LM, Stern E, Rojas R, Ebbeling CB, Goldstein JM, Ludwig, DS. (2013). Effects of dietary glycemic index on brain regions related to reward and craving in men. Am J Clin Nutr; 1-7.
  • Ma, J., C.Y. Zhang, G.J. Yan, and C.J. Liu. (2013). Improving yield and quality traits of durum wheat by introgressing chromosome segments from hexaploid wheat. Genet. Mol. Res. 12:6120–6129. doi:10.4238/.December.2.9
  • Margolskee RF, Dyer J, Kokrashvili Z, Salmon KS, Ilegems E, Daly K, Maillet EL, Ninomiya Y, Mosinger B, Shirazi-Beechey SP. (2007).T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci; 104:15075–15080.
  • Major GC, Doucet R, Jacqmain M, St-Onge M, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. (2008). Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Nutrition; 99: 1157-1167
  • Mani, V, Hollis, J, Gabler, N.(2012) Bitter Compounds Decrease Gastric Emptying and Influence Intestinal Nutrient Transport ; Animal Industry Report: AS 658, ASL R2725.
  • McCrory, M, Hamaker, B, Lovejoy, J, Eichelsdoerfer, P(2010).Pulse Consumption, Satiety, and Weight Management. Adv. Nutr; 1: 17–30.
  • Misra M, Miller KK, Tsai P, Gallagher K, Lin A, Lee N, Herzog DB, Klibanski A: (2006). Elevated peptide YY levels in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 91:1027-1033
  • Mobbs CV, Isoda F, Makimura H, Mastaitis J, Mizuno T, Shu I, Yen K, Yang X. (2005). Impaired glucose signaling as a cause of obesity and the metabolic syndrome: The glucoadipostatic hypothesis. Physiology & Behaviour; 85:3–23
  • Montagnac, J. A., Davis, C. R., Tanumihardjo, S.A. (2009). Processing Techniques to Reduce Toxicity and Antinutrients of Cassava for use as a Staple Food. Comprehensive Reviews. Food Science and Technology 8 (1): 17-27.
  • Murray M, Vickers Z.(2009). Consumer views of hunger and fullness. A qualitative approach. Appetite; 53: 174-182
  • Neyrinck AM, Possemiers S, Druart C, Van de Wiele T, De Backer F, Cani PD, Larondelle Y, Delzenne NM. (2011). Prebiotic effects of wheat arabinoxylan related to the increase in bifidobacteria, roseburia and Bacteroides/Prevotella in diet-induced obese mice. Plos One. 2011; 6:e20944
  • Okechukwu DE, Okoye IC (2010). Evaluation of soaking time on the cyanide content of ‘Abacha’ slices. 34th Annual conference and General Meeting Nigerian Institute of Food science and Technology (NIFST). Port- Harcourt Pg 136 -137
  • Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual. 6th ed. London, UK: Open University Press.
  • Parnell JA, Reimer RA (2009). Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr; 89:1751-1759
  • Pietrabissa, G., Manzoni, G. M., Corti, S., Vegliante, N., Molinari, E., and Castelnuovo, G. (2012). Addressing motivation in globesity treatment: a new challenge for clinical psychology. Front. Psychol. 3:317.
  • Poppitt SD.(2013) Carbohydrates and satiety. In: Blundell JE, Bellisle F (Eds). Satiation, satiety and the control of food intake. Theory and Practice. Oxford: Woodhead Publishing.; 166-181
  • Public Works and Government Services of Canada. (2015). Couscous. Retrieved from: http://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alphaeng.html?lang=engandi=1andindex=frbandsrchtxt=SECHERandwhere=(vpfr_bj_words+inc+’SECHER’+)anddom=TBCandcomencdomnsubj (Accessed:  18th February 2017)
  • Rolls BJ. (2000). The role of energy density in the overconsumption of fat. Journal of Nutrition.; 130: 268S-271S
  • Sands AL, Leidy HJ, Hamaker BR, Maguire P, Campbell WW. (2009) Consumption of the slow-digesting waxy maize starch leads to blunted plasma glucose and insulin response but does not influence energy expenditure or appetite in humans. Nutr Res; 29:383-390.
  • Sandhu K, Lim S. (2008). Digestibility of legume starches as influenced by their physical and structural properties. Carbohydrate Polymers; 71:245–252.
  • Sestili, F., E. Botticella, and D. Lafiandra. (2014). TILLING for Improved starch composition in wheat. In: R. Tuberosa, A. Graner, and E. Frison, editors, Genomics of plant genetic resources. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. p. 467–48
  • Sissons, M.J. (2008). Role of durum wheat composition on the quality of pasta and bread: Food 2:75–90.
  • Slavin JL. (2013). Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits. Nutrients; 5:1417-1435.
  • Slavin, J, Green, H.(2007).  Dietary fibre and satiety: Nutrition Bulletin ; 32(suppl 1), 32–42
  • Sørensen LB, Møller P, Flint A, Martens M, Raben A. (2003). Effect of sensory perception of foods on appetite and food intake: a review of studies on humans. International Journal of Obesity; 27: 1152-1166
  • Stubbs, R.J., Hughes, D.A., Johnstone, A.M., Stratton, R.J., Delargy, H.J., King, N.A., & Blundell, J.E.(2000). The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings. British Journal of Nutrition, 84, 405-415.
  • Stubbs J. (2013). Consumer understanding of satiation, satiety and related health claims. In: Blundell JE, Bellisle F (Eds.) Satiation, satiety and the control of food intake. Theory and Practice. Oxford: Woodhead Publishing; 342-356
  • Suzuki K, Simpson KA, Minnion JS, Shillito JC, Bloom SR. (2010).The role of gut hormones and the hypothalamus in appetite regulation. Endocr J; 57:359-372.
  • Thomas DE, Elliot EJ, Baur L. (2007). Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 3: CD005105.
  • Thorpe, K., Zwarenstein, MD, Oxman, MD, et al (2009). A pragmatic–explanatory continuum indicator summary (PRECIS): a tool to help trial designers. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 180(10), E48-E5
  • Tremblay A, Bellisle F. (2015). Nutrients, satiety, and control of energy intake. Applied Physiol Nutr Metab. ; 40(10): 971-979
  • Tucker LA, Thomas KS (2009).  Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. J Nutr 2009; 139:576-581.
  • Tuorila H, LaEhteenmae ki L, Pohjalainen L, Lotti L. (2001). Food neophobia among the Finns and related responses to familiar and unfamiliar foods. Food Qual Prefer. ;12:29-37.
  • van Milgen J. (2002). Modelling Biochemical Aspects of Energy Metabolism in Mammals. J Nutr.; 132:3195–3202.
  • Veldhorst M, Smeets A, Soenen S, Hochstenbach-Waellen A, Hursel R, Diepvens K, Lejeune M, Luscombe-Marsh N, Westerterp-Plantenga M. (2008). Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiology & Behavior.; 94: 300-307
  • Verhoef SPM, Meyer D, Westerterp KR.(2011). Effects of oligofructose on appetite profile, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY3-36 concentrations and energy intake. British Journal of Nutrition; 106: 1757-1762
  • Venn BJ, Mann JI. (2004). Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes: Eur J Clin Nutr; 58:1443-1461.
  • Vilsboll T, Krarup T, Sonne J, et al. (2003). Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: J Clin Endocrinol Metab;   88:2706-2713
  • Wanders AJ, van den Borne JJ, de Graaf C, Hulshof T, Jonathan MC, Kristensen M, Mars M, Schols HA, Feskens EJ (2011). Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev; 12:724-739.
  • WHO. (2013) Resolutions and decisions, sixty-sixth World Health Assembly, 20–27 May 2013. Geneva: World Health Organization; WHA66/2013/REC/1
  • Williams, G., Noakes, M., Keogh, J., Foster P., and Clifton, P. (2006). High protein high fibre snack bars reduce food intake and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles compared with high fat snack bars. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr; 15 (4): 443-450.
  • Woods SC, D’Alessio DA (2008). Central control of body weight and appetite. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93(11 Suppl 1): S37–50.
  • Westerterp-Plantenga, M (2003). The significance of protein in food intake and body weight regulation: Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care; 6(6):635-8.
  • Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Smeets A, Lejeune MP. (2005). Sensory and gastrointestinal effects of capsaicin on food intake. International Journal of Obesity (London); 29: 682-688
  • Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lemmens SG, Westerterp KR. (2012).  Dietary protein – its role in satiety, energetics, weight loss and health: Br J Nutr; 108:S105–S112.
  • Wong, JM, de Souza, R, Kendall, CW, Emam, A, Jenkins, D. J.(2006). Colonic health: Fermentation and short chain fatty acids. J Clin Gastroenterol ; 40:235-243.
  • Yeomans MR, Chambers L. (2011). Satiety-relevant sensory qualities enhance the satiating effects of mixed carbohydrate-protein preloads. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. ; 94: 1410-1417

7         Bibliography

  • Abete I, Parra D, Martinez JA. (2009). Legume-, fish-, or high-protein-based hypocaloric diets: effects on weight loss and mitochondrial oxidation in obese men. J Med Food; 12:100–8.
  • Barnard, N Scialli, A, Turner-McGrievy, G, Lanou, A, Glass, J. (2005).The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Amer J Med; 118:991–997.
  • Baggio LL, Drucker DJ. (2007). Biology of Incretins: GLP-1 and GIP. Gastroenterology; 132:2131–2157.
  • Beglinger C, Degen L, Matzinger D, D’Amato M, Drewe J. Loxiglumide, (2001) a CCK-A receptor antagonist, stimulates calorie intake and hunger feelings in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 280:R1149–R1154
  • Blom WA, Lluch A, Stafleu A, et al.(2006) Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response. Am J Clin Nutr ; 83:211–20.
  • Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. (2003). Low–Glycemic Index Diets in the Management of Diabetes: Diabetes Care; 26 (8):2261-2267.
  • Capriles, V., Coelho, K., Guerra‐Matias, A., and Arêas, J. (2008). Effects of processing methods on amaranth starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index. Journal of Food Science, 73(7), H160-H164.
  • Çelik, İ, Işık, F., and Gürsoy, O. (2004). Couscous, a traditional turkish food product: Production method and some applications for enrichment of nutritional value. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39(3), 263-269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621..00780.x
  • Champ, M. 2013. Metabolic effects of resistant starch. In: Y. Shi and C.C. Maningat, editors, Resistant starch: Sources, applications and health benefits. 1st ed. John Wiley & Sons, p. 229–249.
  • Coskun, F. (2013). Production of couscous using the traditional method in turkey and couscous in the world. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(22), 2609-2615.
  • Debbouz, A., and Donnelly, B. (1996). Process effect on couscous quality. Cereal Chemistry, 73(6), 668-671.
  • Fardet, A., Leenhardt, F., Lioger, D., Scalbert, A., and Rémésy, C. (2006). Parameters controlling the glycaemic response to breads. Nutrition Research Reviews, 19(01), 18-25.
  • Hermsdorff, HH, Zulet MA, Abete I, Martinez J.A.(2011). A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects. Eur J Nutr; 50(1):61-9.
  • Hopkins M, Jeukendrup A, King NA, Blundell J .E. (2011). The relationship between substrate metabolism, exercise and appetite control: does glycogen availability influence the motivation to eat, energy intake or food choice? Sports Med; 41:507-521.
  • Jimenez-Cruz A, Bacardi-Gascon M, Turnbull W, et al. (2003).A flexible, low-glycemic index, Mexican-style diet in overweight and obese subjects with type 2 diabetes improves metabolic parameters during a 6-week treatment period. Diabetes Care;  26:1967– 1970
  • Marty N, Dallaporta M, Thorens B. (2007). Brain Glucose Sensing, Counterregulation, and Energy Homeostasis. Physiology; 22:241-251
  • Moran T.H (2000) Cholecystokinin and satiety: current perspectives. Nutrition; 16:858–865.
  • Skrabanja, V., Liljeberg Elmståhl, H. G., Kreft, I., and Björck, I. M. (2001). Nutritional properties of starch in buckwheat products: Studies in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(1), 490-496
  • The University of Sydney (2015b). GI foods advanced search: Buckwheat. Retrieved from: http://www.glycemicindex.com/foodSearch.php?num=924&ak=detail (Accessed: 20th February 2017)
  • The University of Sydney. (2015c). GI foods advanced search: Fructose. Retrieved from: http://www.glycemicindex.com/foodSearch.php?num=94&ak=detail (Accessed: 20th February 2017)
  • Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. (2002). Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes: Am J Clin Nutr; 76(1):274S-80S.
  • Wong CL, Mollard RC, Zafar TA, Luhovy BL, Anderson GH (2009). Food intake and satiety following a serving of pulses in young men: effect of processing, recipe, and pulse variety. J Am Coll Nutr; 28:543–52.
  • Yong-Cheng, S., and C.C.  Maningat, editors. (2013). Resistant starch: Sources, applications and health benefits. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, West Sussex, UK
  • Zenari L, Marangoni A.(2013). What are the preferred strategies for control of glycaemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Diabetes Obes Metab ; 15 (S2):17-25.

8         Appendices

Appendix 2: 1 Diet Plan Analysis for Gari Meal

       Appendix 2:2 Diet Plan Analysis for Couscous        Appendix 2:3 Diet Plan Analysis for Couscous and Beans        Appendix 2:4 Diet Plan Analysis for Gari and Beans    Appendix 3:1 Paired Sample Statistics (Fullness Level)  Appendix 3:2 Paired Sample Test (Fullness Level)  Appendix 4:1 Sample Paired Statistics (How Much Satiety Level)   Appendix 4:2 Paired Sample Test (How Much Satiety Level)  Appendix 5:1 Sample Paired Statistics (Hunger Level)  Appendix 5:2 Paired Sample Test (Hunger Level)  Appendix 6:1 Sample Paired Statistics (Satisfied Level)  Appendix 6:2 Paired Sample Test (Satisfied Level) 



Recommendation
EssayHub’s Community of Professional Tutors & Editors
Tutoring Service, EssayHub
Professional Essay Writers for Hire
Essay Writing Service, EssayPro
Professional Custom
Professional Custom Essay Writing Services
In need of qualified essay help online or professional assistance with your research paper?
Browsing the web for a reliable custom writing service to give you a hand with college assignment?
Out of time and require quick and moreover effective support with your term paper or dissertation?