Being Bilingual: The effects and impact of second language acquisition on the individual and society. Abstract The aim of this research is to ascertain the benefits of bilingualism alongside the impact that learning a second language can have on both the induvial and the society in which they are integrated within. The factors and variables that influence
This paper reviews how the issues of language aptitude in second language acquisition (SLA) has been investigated and developed over a period of time. To be begin with, the construct of language aptitude and how its operationalization has experienced changes over the time in SLA is addressed. Secondly, empirical studies examining the association between foreign language aptitude and instructional approach for grammar, feedback, as well as language learners’ speaking ability are respectively reviewed. Thirdly, the interaction between foreign language aptitude and early learners as well as late ones is also taken into consideration. Also, the connection between aptitude and motivation, a well-researched individual difference (ID) factor, is reviewed. Eventually, pedagogical implications and future directions are mentioned.
Key words: language aptitude, individual difference, SLA
Among ID factors, motivation and language aptitude are the most attractive sources for SLA research. Language aptitude, a notion relating to cognition, is defined as a “predictor” of learners’ success in language learning. Wesche’s (1981) paper was one of the first articles who utilized the participants’ language aptitude to match them with appropriate training approaches and proved positive results. Conducted nearly three decades later, Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study was different from Wesche’s (1981) article in a way that Hwu and Sun (2012) were interested in examining how language aptitude mediated the effectiveness of instructional methods. Between these two papers, remarkable studies have been conducted regarding language aptitude and SLA. Therefore, with the aim to bridge the gap and clarify the development of issues of language aptitude, this paper begins by providing details of the two main studies. Then, the development of aptitude and its operationalization is explored. Next, the link between language aptitude and grammar instructional approach is examined. Additionally, the connection between aptitude and feedback is reviewed. Also, the association between language aptitude and learners’ speaking ability also received some attention from SLA researchers, which is also addressed in the paper. In addition, how aptitude differently interacts and has impacts on young learners as well as late learners is investigated. Finally, the conclusion along with pedagogical implications and possible future directions are made.
A broad picture of language aptitude: Wesche (1981) and Hwu and Sun (2012)
Taking language aptitude into consideration, in the much-cited seminal article, Wesche (1981) measured language aptitude of the participant who were federal public servants and matched them with appropriate training situations. The adult participants were asked to sit for a language aptitude test consisting of five subtests of MLAT and two subtests of LAB (the sound discrimination and sound symbol association). Afterwards, based on the criterion of language aptitude, the participants were divided into one of the three groups of Audio-visual Method, Analytical approach, or Functional approach. According to Wesche (1981), Audio-visual Method was the core method and applied with students who had high overall ability and acceptable scores on the subtests of LAB. For those who were not assigned to the core method, they would go with either one of the two alternative approaches (analytical or functional). More specifically, the participants whose scores on Word in Sentences and Spelling Cues were high were matched with analytical approach. For those who performed well on memory, auditory, and phonetic coding abilities were categorized into group receiving functional approach. The results from Wesche’s (1981) seminal article demonstrated that the participants expressed satisfaction with the teaching approach they had been assigned to in general. Particularly, the participants assigned appropriate approach did not only show positive attitude and motivation to practice the target language outside the classroom setting; they also expressed lower level of anxiety in class. Overall, the example of Wesche (1981) clearly pointed out the practical and educational purposes of language aptitude test. Also, Wesche’s (1981) study proved that matching language learners with suitable teaching approach based on their language aptitude would have positive impacts on their language learning.
Conducted many years later and sharing some differences from the seminal article of Wesche (1981), Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study was done to investigate how language aptitude could mediate the effects of language instruction. Hwu and Sun (2012) conducted the study with university student in the US who were studying Spanish as a second language. L2 Spanish learners participating in the study were asked to complete language aptitude test, including: memory for text, associate memory (MLAT), and grammatical sensitivity (MLAT). Then, they were pretested with two types of assessment, which were written sentence production and written sentence correction. After the language aptitude test and the pretest, the participants were divided into three different groups: the control group which received no treatment, deductive (DE) group, and explicit-inductive (EI) group. Regarding the target feature, the Spanish verb gustar was chosen to focus because it has been considered as a problematic language feature for Spanish learners. For the two experimental groups, they received the treatment with five lessons in which each of the lesson lasted around forty to fifty minutes, while the control group received no treatment. Afterwards, the participants were asked to finish the immediate posttest and two delayed posttests. The results from Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study pointed out four main findings. Firstly, the two experimental groups showed overall improvement in the immediate posttest although experiencing decrease in the second posttest and slight increase in the last posttest. Secondly, the results pointed out that the two instructional groups performed equally well in both assessment tasks. Thirdly, it was found that in two experimental groups, there was a significant relationship between the learners’ gain scores and their memory-for-text ability. Lastly, the results indicated that the participants of EI group showed significant improvement in comparison with their counterpart, DE group, in both production and correction tests. This finding led to the conclusion that EI approach would be beneficial for learners with high ability of memory for text.
There there are some similarities and differences between Wesche’s (1981) seminal article as well as Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study. The first point relates to language aptitude measurement. It could be noticed that the well-known language aptitude tests MLAT (Carroll & Sapon, 1959) and LAB (Pimsleur, 1966) were utilized in the two articles. However, in Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study, the memory for text was added to capture the interaction between learner’s memory for text ability and the gain scores. In other words, the measurement of foreign language ability has changed over time and the role of working memory was attached to the notion of language aptitude. Although MLAT and LAB have been known to be the most validated tools to capture learners’ language aptitude, the advent of other tests such as CANAL-F model (Grigorenko et al., 2000), and LLMA test (Meara, 2005) also brought a variety of language aptitude perceptions and took different components into consideration. The second point is that both Wesche (1981) as well as Hwu and Sun (2012) explored the interaction of foreign language aptitude and instructional approach, there is a difference between these two papers. Wesche (1981) focused on matching learners with suitable instructional approach and looked at the general results, whereas Hwu and Sun (2012) investigated how language aptitude of learners could mediate the effects of instructional methods. Regarding this area, many studies have been conducted to find out the interaction between language aptitude and second language acquisition and instruction (Erlam, 2005; Sheen, 2007; Smemoe & Haslam, 2012; Winke, 2013; Yilmaz, 2013; Hwu & Sun, 2014; and so on). For the third point, although the participants of Wesche’s (1981) article as well as Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study were all adults, the interaction between language aptitude and learners’ ages is also worth tracing. To begin with, the construct of foreign language aptitude and its operationalization will be addressed in the next part of the paper.
The construct of language aptitude and its measurement
Language aptitude is known as a predictor of language learners’ rate and success. It was once questioned whether the notion of language aptitude overlapped with intelligence. According to Skehan (1998), there was some partial overlapping between these two constructs. Taking MLAT – a type of language aptitude test as an example, Skehan (1998) stated that MLAT’s grammatical sensitivity and analytical abilities subtests overlapped with intelligence. Although there are overlaps between the two constructs, language aptitude and intelligence are still conceptualized as two different notions (Ortega, 2009). Regarding operationalization, foreign language aptitude is measured by a test with a variety of subtests to touch upon different elements of aptitude. More specifically, many tests have been developed to capture learners’ language aptitude. Owing to the high rate of validity, MLAT and LAB were not only used by Wesche (1981) but it was also utilized by Hwu and Sun (2012). Besides these two major types of tests, CANAL-F test and LLMA test are also utilized to measure language aptitude in many studies, for instance Erlam (2005) and Winke (2013). In addition, through the development of foreign language aptitude’s operationalization, working memory gradually involved in the notion of aptitude and it has been considered as a component of language aptitude, leading to the fact that tests measuring working memory capacity have been developed and applied in research.
Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT)
As the outcome of five-year research, Carroll and Sapon (1959) released MLAT with the expectation of distinguishing between good and bad language learners. MLAT, the first test measuring language learners’ aptitude, was designed to have five sections. In the first section of the test, number learning, test-takers were provided auditory practice to learn numbers from one to four hundred in a new language. Then, they were asked to translate fifteen numbers into English. The second section, spelling clues, measured how a test-taker would chose a printed phonetic script for a word they heard. The third part of MLAT asked test-takers to choose a word which had nearest meaning in their L1. The forth part, measuring grammatical sensitivity, required subjects to choose an option which played the same role as an underlined word. The last section, paired associates, was designed to measure leaners’ rote learning ability. Through five sections of MLAT, Carroll and Sapon (1959) mentioned that foreign language aptitude was perceived as a construct with four main components: phonetic coding ability, grammar sensitivity, inductive language learning ability, and associative memory respectively.
PLAB (Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery)
Following the same approach as Carroll and Sapon (1959), Pimsleur’s (1996) PLAB included six sections, which were Grade Point Average (GPA), interest in foreign language learning, vocabulary, language analysis, sound discrimination, and sound-symbol association. With these six sections of language aptitude test, Pimsleur (1996) perceived language aptitude as a construct with three components: verbal intelligence (learners’ word knowledge and the ability of analytical reasoning), auditory ability (ability of receiving and information processing auditorily), and learners’ motivation. Dörnyei and Ryan (2015) pointed out some similarities between how Carroll and Sapon (1985) and Pimsleur (1996) conceptualized the notion of foreign language aptitude. In particular, Pimsleur’s (1996) verbal intelligence component was the same as what Carroll and Sapon (1985) addressed as inductive language learning ability and grammatical sensitivity. Also, auditory ability of Pimsleur (1996) was similar to Carroll and Sapon’s (1985) phonetic coding ability (Dörnyei & Ryan, 2015). The major difference was that Pimsleur (1996) conceptualized the learners’ GPA and their level of motivation as a component of language aptitude, which was not supported by Gardner and MacIntyre (1992) as Gardner and MacIntyre (1992) believed that motivation and language aptitude should be two different individual difference factors. In short, the advent of LAB test has brought a new dimension to the construct of language aptitude. Foreign language aptitude did not solely consist of four components as Carroll and Sapon (1959) has mentioned; learners’ GPA and motivation should also be considered as add-on features predicting the success of language learners.
Following the approach of Carroll and Sapon (1959), LLAMA test was built by Meara (2005) with the aim to measure foreign language aptitude. Specifically, the commonly-used version of LLAMA was called “LLAMA suite” which consisted of four subtests. The first subtest, vocabulary learning task, was perceived to be the same as Carroll and Sapon’s (1959) vocabulary learning task. The second subtest was to measure how a participant was able to recognize effectively segments of an oral language which they have previously provided with; this subtest was believed to be different from Carroll-tradition. The third subtest, called sound-symbol correspondence, required test-takers to match syllable sounds in an unfamiliar language. The forth subtest was grammatical inferencing task with visual stimuli with the hope of making the test suitable with participants with different L1s. Although LLAMA test provided new insights of means to measure language aptitude, the developer Meara (2005) recommends that the test should not be used in high-stake situations due to its low validity.
Cognitive Ability for Novelty in Language Acquisition-Foreign (CANAL-F test)
Approaching foreign language aptitude from a novel perspective, Grigorenko (2000) conceptualized language aptitude as the ability to handle novelty and ambiguity when it came to L2 learning. For this perception, Grigorenko (2000) proposed a new test type which captured different abilities in comparison with Carroll and Sapon (1959). According to what Dörnyei and Ryan (2015) reviewed, CANAL-FT focus on five knowledge acquisition processes which were selective encoding, accidental encoding, selective comparison, selective transfer, and selective combination. In terms of language level, this type of test was operationalized at four aspects of lexical, morphological, semantic, as well as syntactic. Despite supplying new perception of language aptitude, the validity of CANAL-FT was proved to be less validated than MLAT (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2002).
Overall, it could be observed that the tests capturing language learners’ aptitude have considerably developed throughout the years. On the one hand, the advent of various tests gradually added meaningful components, which helped SLA researchers understand aptitude more thoroughly. Also, it provided a variety of tools for researchers to operationalize the language aptitude construct; MLAT has no longer been the only choice. On the other hand, although many different types of tests were developed and utilized in research, MLAT still holds the superiority due to the high level of validity. This could be noticed through the two studies of Wesche (1981) and Hwu and Sun (2012) in which MLAT were utilized. More specifically, although Hwu and Sun (2012) conducted the study nearly three decades after the seminal article of Wesche (1981) and no matter that there were many test types to choose from, MLAT was still Hwu and Sun’s (2012) choice. However, it is essential to mention that memory for text was used in Hwu and Sun’s (2012) paper. It is worth addressing how the link between language aptitude and memory as well as how memory has been perceived as a component of language aptitude.
Working memory as a component of language aptitude
It could be observed that in the development of MLAT, Carroll and Sapon (1959) took associative memory – a dominant memory form in psychology into investigation. However, the perspectives of memory have experienced dramatical changes over time. Baddely (2007) stated the fact that working memory was linked to the development of mentioned perspectives. Specifically, Collins and Marsden (2016) reviewed how working memory connected to language learning. Firstly, working memory enabled learners to retain the amount of sound and visual form information. Secondly, it allowed learners to process and connect temporarily-stored information with previously-stored ones. Lastly, working memory played a role of controlling where to direct perceptual attention and had influence on what had been temporarily-stored or rehearsed. In terms of means to measure language learners’ working memory capacity, different types of tests have been utilized, such as span tasks, nonword repetition tasks, and so on (Skehan, 2013). According to Miyake and Friedman (1998), working memory was conceptualized as a component of foreign language aptitude; there have been many studies conducted to examine the interaction between working memory and L2 learning. Particularly, Kormos and Safar (2008) examined the relationship between phonological short-term memory, working memory capacity, and learners’ Cambridge test performance. Kormos and Safar (2008) indicated that working memory was vital to learners at beginner level. With pre-intermediate learners, phonological short-term memory played an important role in test performance. Also, Hummel (2009) explored the impacts of phonological memory on L2 proficiency. Hummel’s (2009) results suggested that phonological memory significantly correlated with L2 vocabulary performance. With the same focus on language aptitude components, Winke (2013) found that rote memory contributes the most and working memory the least in language aptitude. In short, the previously reviewed studies have strengthened the importance of working memory, a component of language aptitude, in SLA. The interaction between aptitude and SLA will be explored in a more detailed way in the next parts
Foreign language aptitude and SLA
The purpose of Wesche’s (1981) seminal article was to match adult learners with suitable training approaches depending on their language aptitude. Conducted years later, Hwu and Sun (2012) explored the interaction between language aptitude and instructional approaches. In other words, the two papers investigated how learners’ language aptitude interacted with learning situations. To trace the development between the two mentioned articles, this part respectively reviews the connection between language aptitude instructional approaches of grammar, feedback, and L2 speaking ability.
The interaction of language aptitude and instructional approaches of L2 grammar
Between the article of Wesche (1981) in which the overall effectiveness of suitable training approaches was demonstrated and the study of Hwu and Sun (2012) which examined the mediation between language aptitude and different instructional approaches, several studies have been conducted to explore this aspect of language aptitude, providing insights into the facilitative effectiveness of L2 grammar instructional approaches and learners with different level of aptitudes.
More specifically, Erlam (2005) examined the relationship between three instructional approaches (deductive, inductive, and structured input instruction) and language aptitude of the participants studying L2 French in New Zealand. To measure the participants’ language aptitude, Erlam (2005) utilized sections of MLAT (language analytic ability and phonemic coding ability), working memory test, and object pronouns in L2 French as the target feature. The learners were divided into three groups receiving different teaching methods: deductive instruction, inductive instruction, and structured input instruction. Overall, Erlam’s (2005) study indicated that deductive approach was the most superior, following by structure input approach and inductive approach. For the deductive group, no significant correlation was revealed between language aptitude and test scores. According to Erlam (2005), it could be interpreted that deductive approach, in which explicit rules and focus-on-form activities were applied into teaching, seemed to bring benefits to all language learners regardless their language aptitude. For the inductive and structured input instruction groups, Erlam (2005) proved that these two methods were beneficial to learners with high analytical ability and the evident correlations were shown in their written performance. Also, Erlam (2005) suggested that structured-input instruction was beneficial for learners with good working memory capacity regarding target feature production.
As previously mentioned, the results of Hwu and Sun (2012) indicated that the participants receiving EI instruction significantly improved when being compared with those in DE group, leading to the conclusion that EI approach would be beneficial for learners with high ability of memory for text. With the same data set of Hwu and Sun (2012), Hwu, Pan, & Sun’s (2014) was conducted with similar aim of exploring the interaction between language aptitude and instructional approaches. However, the latter study perceived language aptitude as a term with many components instead of solely focusing on memory for text ability that the former study had done. The results from Hwu, Pan, & Sun (2014) demonstrated the positive impacts of language aptitude on learners’ performance. Also, Hwu, Pan, & Sun (2014) suggested that low aptitude learners performed significantly better with deductive condition in the correction test.
Generally, the studies of Erlam (2005), Hwu and Sun (2012), as well as Hwu et al. (2014) brought some findings for effective instructional approaches regarding L2 grammar. Specifically, it was suggested that learners with high analytic ability would be beneficial from either inductive or structured-input method. Besides, structured-input approach was also proved to benefit learners with good working memory capacity. On the other hand, deductive approach was proved to be suitable with learners whose language aptitude was low. However, according to Erlam (2005), the working memory measurement applied in the study was not flawless as it only captured information processing rather than information storage and processing.
The interaction of language aptitude and feedback
Although not directly relating to the study of Wesche (1981) and that of Hwu and Sun (2012), feedback – a form of responses to language learners’ production containing an error, has always been an attractive area to SLA researchers. More specifically, some studies (Han, 2002; Lyster, 2004) have been done with the attempt to explore the impacts of corrective feedback on language acquisition. Regarding the relationship between language aptitude and feedback, remarkable studies have been conducted, providing a great deal of facilitative effectiveness of feedback on learners with different aptitude levels. The findings ranged from general benefits of oral feedback to high aptitude learners (Dekeyser, 1993; Havranek & Cesnik, 2001) to details benefits of written corrective feedback and learners with high analytic ability (Sheen, 2007; Yilmaz, 2013).
More specifically, Dekeyser (1993) explored how variables of previous achievement, language aptitude, anxiety, and motivation had impacts on oral feedback. The study was conducted in classroom setting with high school students whose L1 was Dutch and studying French as L2. The participants were asked to complete grammatical sensitivity test, questionnaires of extrinsic motivation and anxiety, as well as fill-in-the-blank Grammar test as grammatical achievement measurement. Regarding feedback, it was operationalized as general error correction in which the instructors correct the learners’ errors. Dekeyser’s (1993) study indicated that error correction was beneficial with learners who had one of the following criterion: high previous achievement, high language aptitude, high level of extrinsic motivation, or low level of anxiety. In other words, from the view of connection between language aptitude and feedback, Dekeyser’s (1993) provided some positive correlation between these two factors. However, there are some drawbacks of Dekeyser’s (1993) study. Firstly, Dekeyser (1993) did not clearly divide feedback into different categories. Secondly, no specific linguistic features were focused in Dekeyser’s (1993); instead, the study covered and analyzed all linguistic features that were corrected by the teachers.
Another study exploring the interaction between corrective feedback and language aptitude was done by Havranek and Cesnik (2001). The participants of Havranek and Cesnik’s (2001) study consisted of 207 learners at different proficiency levels, ranging from ten years old to university students; they were told to complete verbal and nonverbal intelligence test, questionnaires of motivation, anxiety, and attitudes towards speaking English as well as oral correction. Similar to Dekeyser’s (1993) study, Havranek and Cesnik (2001) operationalized feedback as general oral correction. However, in Havranek and Cesnik’s (2001) study, oral correction did not only come from the teacher; correction from peers was also counted. The results of the study demonstrated that learners with high language ability and positive attitude towards feedback were beneficial from oral correction. Havranek and Cesnik’s (2001) evidence regarding aptitude-interaction was in line with what had been proved by Dekeyser (1993). In other words, there was clear evidence that corrective feedback benefited learners with high language ability. Nevertheless, there are some critics for Havranek and Cesnik’s (2001) study. Firstly, the participants were mixed-aged and mixed-level; therefore, it was unlikely to conclude that oral correction was equally useful for the participants. Secondly, similar to Dekeyser’s (1993), this study did not categorize corrective feedback into different types. Moreover, Havranek and Cesnik (2001) did not focus on one specific target structure. Instead, all structures have been taken into analyzing.
To address the mentioned shortcomings of Dekeyser (1993) as well as Havranek and Cesnik (2001), Sheen (2007) conducted a study in which the notion of corrective feedback and language aptitude were narrowed down. Particularly, Sheen’s (2007) study explored the connection between written corrective feedback and language analytic ability. The participants taking part in the study consisted of ESL learners at intermediate level of six classrooms; they were divided two three groups: control group and two experimental groups. Regarding feedback of the former experimental group, language error was pointed out and a correct linguistic feature was provided. For the latter experimental group, besides that the error was also pointed out as well as a correct element was supplied, the metalinguistic explanation was also given. Instead of taking all linguistic features into consideration as previous studies, Sheen (2007) focused on English articles. The finding of Sheen (2007) pointed out that corrective feedback was effective to ESL learners in general. Also, Sheen’s (2007) result suggested that high analytic ability learners were beneficial from both types of feedback. However, metalinguistic feedback benefitted them more evidently. One given explanation provided by Sheen (2007) was that language analytic ability was perceived as learner’s ability to acquire explicit knowledge; therefore, they were more beneficial from feedback with metalinguistic awareness provided.
One more study of this area was Yilmaz’s (2013), in which the connection between language analytic ability, role of working memory capacity, and two types of feedback (explicit correction and recast) were examined. The participants of Yilmaz’s (2013) study L1 English adults, they were divided into three groups (explicit-correction group, recast group, and control group). Regarding language aptitude test, the participants were asked to complete LLAMA R and operation span task. Also, oral production, comprehension, and recognition tests were applied to measure their performance. Yilmaz (2013) revealed three findings. First, both working memory capacity (WMC) and analytic ability (LAA) were found to have impacts on feedback of the two targeted features. Secondly, recasts were reported either work with low WMC learners or high LAA learners in plural feature. On the contrary, explicit correction worked for both high and low WMC or LAA. Lastly, with learners with high LAA, although recasts and explicit feedback worked, explicit correction showed superior effectiveness.
The interaction of language aptitude and L2 speaking
In one of the variables to investigate the matched versus mismatched analytical participants, Wesche (1981) conducted the achievement test with oral expression ability. For this reason, the connection between language learners’ aptitude and their L2 speaking ability is reviewed. There have not been many studies conducted in this area, and most of the below reviewed studies focus on learners in EFL context. Generally, the findings (Smemoe & Haslam, 2012; Winke, 2013; Saito & Hanzawa, 2016) pointed out an association between language aptitude and ESL/EFL learners, although the connection was not indeed clear due to some reasons such as other variable involving, and so on.
One study of this type was conducted by Smemoe and Haslam (2012) with the goal of exploring the interaction between language aptitude and pronunciation strategies as well as pronunciation achievement usage in ESL and EFL context. There were two groups of participants joining Smemoe and Haslam’s (2012) study: one in EFL context and another in ESL one. Along with PLAB to capture two groups’ language aptitude, pretest and posttest design with two tasks (three sentences with difficult phonemes for English learners and open-ended question responding task) were utilized to test the learners’ pronunciation proficiency. Smemoe and Haslam (2012) found no significant effects of language aptitude nor learning context (EFL/ESL) on learners’ pronunciation strategy usage as well as on pronunciation gains. However, Smemoe and Haslam’s (2012) study indicated several interesting findings. First, the analysis revealed that the ESL-high-aptitude learners and EFL-low-aptitude learners tended to use practicing and hypothesis testing strategies in comparison with ESL-low-aptitude and EFL-high-aptitude ones, which was explained as the different role that language aptitude played in the two learning contexts. In other words, in the EFL context lacking with target language exposure, learners with low level of aptitude used more strategies to make up for the lack of language ability.
One of the hypothesis that Winke (2013) tested was whether language aptitude had impacts on L2 learning both directly and indirectly. The participants were English native adults who were studying Chinese as L2. Each participant was asked to complete MLAT, the working memory span test, the motivation questionnaire, SILL test to measure strategy usage. The results from Winke’s (2013) study suggested that among factors of the model, aptitude, strategy use, and motivation impacted similarly on language learning. In other words, according to Winke’s (2013) research, aptitude did not show any superior effects on second language learning when comparing with other variables. However, Winke (2013) claimed that aptitude had direct impacts on speaking more than it did with other skills.
Also investigating speaking ability of second language learning, Saito and Hanzawa (2016) examined how the variables of length and focus of instruction, frequent L2 conversation, aptitude, and motivation can predict L2 learning outcome of late learners. The data of Saito and Hanzawa’s (2016) study was collected from Japanese EFL learners. The participants, who were university students, were asked to complete a speaking task, questionnaires of length and focus FL instruction as well as motivation, and LLAMA language aptitude test. The results of Saito and Hanzawa’s (2016) study indicated that all the variables (length and focus of instruction, frequent L2 conversation, aptitude, and motivation) related to Japanese EFL learners’ speaking performance, which meant that aptitude did not solely demonstrate any clear evidence relating to oral ability in foreign language learning.
To summarize, the three reviewed studies confirmed the connection between learners’ language aptitude and their L2 speaking performance. The findings pointed out that the interaction between aptitude and L2 speaking did exist; however, aptitude was not the only factor influencing L2 speaking performance. Moreover, three reviewed studies were conducted in EFL context, only one group of Smemoe and Haslam (2012) was learners in ESL context. For this reason, although it has been proved that strategies were used more in EFL context to compensate the lack of natural exposure, there was still lack of evidence to conclude that ESL learners used fewer strategies than their counterparts.
Language aptitude and age
Although the participants of both Wesche’s (1981) article as well as Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study, learners’ age has been a controversial issue in SLA. Particularly, critical period (Lenneberg, 1967) has been known as an important factor in SLA. Critical period hypothesis (reviewed by Ortega, 2009) suggested biology constraint on L2 learning outcomes. Whereas, language aptitude has been known as a predictor to the success of language learners. Taken these two variables into considerations, several studies have been conducted to examine the connection between learners’ age, language aptitude, and their L2 performance. On the one hand, some studies (Harley and Hart, 1997; Dekeyser, 2000; Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, 2009) pointed out the interaction between language aptitude and late learners. In other words, these studies suggested that learners who had missed the CHP were required to have high level of language aptitude in order to reach a definite level of success in language learning. On the other hand, a part of results from Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) as well as the study of Granena (2014) explored that there also was an interaction between language aptitude and early learners when it came to language features that were sensitive to CPH.
More specifically, Harley and Hart’s (1997) study aimed to investigate the interaction between language aptitude and L2 outcomes of learners with different language immersion age. Harley and Hart (1997) conducted the study with eleventh-grade English students of L2 French early continuing and late immersion. Associate memory, memory for text, and analytical ability test were applied to measure the learners’ language aptitude. Also, the participants’ L2 proficiency was measured with five types of tests (vocabulary, listening, cloze texts and written production, as well as individual oral test). From the findings, Harley and Hart (1997) pointed out the connection between learners’ language aptitude and their L2 proficiency. Also, Harley and Hart’s (1997) result suggested that early immersion learners tended to depend on memory, while their counterpart – late immersion group showed clear evidence on analytic ability. With the result that analytic ability played a role in late learners’ L2 success, Harley and Hart (1997) mentioned that it could be the case of different teaching programs. More specifically, English was taught in a holistic view to a group of early learners. However, for the late immersion group, English was considered as a code and taught more explicitly, which explained for the result of the study. Overall, Harley and Hart (1997) pointed out positive influence of analytic ability on L2 learning. It shed a light to the fact that late learners with high level of analysis ability could perform significantly better as early learners.
In order to examine the interaction between analytic and leaners’ age, Dekeyser’s (2000) study focused on how aptitude and age affected learners to reach L2 near-nativeness competence. The participants consisted of L1 Hungarian who have various length of residence in a speaking-English country. Dekeyser (2000) utilized Words in Sentences part of MLAT to capture the participants’ analytic ability. Furthermore, the participants were asked to complete Grammatical Judgement Task (GJT). Dekeyser (2000) indicated that the participants whose age on set after fifteen and high GJT scores were reported to have high level of analytic ability. In other words, it could be concluded from Dekeyser’s (2000) study that high analytic ability, a component of language aptitude, played a role to help late learners reach near-nativeness level of English. This finding of Dekeyser (2000) was also in line with which was proved by Harley and Hart (1997).
With the aim to test Dekeyser’s (2000) results, Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) focused on investigated the association between learners’ language aptitude and their level of near-nativeness in L2 proficiency. The participants recruited for Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam’s (2009) study were L1 Spanish speaker who moved to Sweden for many years; they considered themselves as potentially native in Swedish. Based on age onset, the participants were divided into two groups. In order to measure language aptitude, LTAT (Meara, 20050 was utilized. Besides that, the participants also completed GJT task to record their L2 performance. Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) pointed out that the late-learner group had higher aptitude in comparison with young learner group, suggesting that aptitude was necessary for late-learners to reach near-nativeness level in L2. However, Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) also noted that when it came to a demanding GJT task, late-learners’ performance did not reach the level of near-nativeness level. In other words, their scores were below the level of native-speaker range in a demanding GJT. This finding leads to a conclusion that although there was association between late-learners’ aptitude and their L2 proficiency in terms of being near-nativeness, the effects of language aptitude could not be generalized to all actual, nativelike intuition. Also, in demanding GJT task, Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) pointed out that even young learners felt to be “short of actual nativelikeness”, suggesting the possibility of the interaction between language aptitude and young learners.
It could be noticed that the studies of Harley and Hart (1997), Dekeyser (2002), as well as Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) indicated the connection between language aptitude, age, and level of near-nativeness. More specifically, Harley and Hart (1997) as well as Dekeyser (2002) touched upon a specific component of language aptitude, analytic ability, to explain for its effects on late-learners’ L2 performance. In a more general view, Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) used the whole aptitude test to give explanation for the interaction between late-learners’ aptitude and L2 proficiency. Besides, Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) also brought up an important factor of aptitude, saying that it impacts on language performance was undeniable; however, the effects could not be generalized to all extent. Also aiming to examine the connection between language aptitude and L2 domain, Granena and Long (2012) did a study with L1 Chinese moving to Spain. The participants were divided into three groups, depending on their age on set (3-6, 7-15, and 16-29). Regarding language aptitude, LLAMA was utilized. Also, phonology test, lexis and collocation test, as well as morphosyntax test (through GJT task) were conducted. The findings from Granena and Long (2012) suggested that with late group (age on set rani from 16 to 29), there was an interaction between aptitude and L2 pronunciation, as well as lexical and collocation. In other words, a conclusion that aptitude played a role in late-learners’ pronunciation, lexis and collocation features was drew, contributing one more evidence to the previous studies regarding aptitude, age, and L2 performance. However, despite the fact that the connection between aptitude, pronunciation, lexis and collocation of late-learners was reported, the association between aptitude and morphosyntax of young learners was not mentioned by Granena and Long (2012). Therefore, the question of relevance between these two factors remained unclear.
With the aim to fill the gap, Granena (2014) explored how language aptitude had impacts on morphosyntax attainment of early childhood learners. The learners taking part in Granena’s (2014) study were L1 Chinese living in Spain; whose age of arrival ranged from three to six and length of residence varied from elven to twenty-eight). Besides LLAMA, Granena (2014) also used two types of GJT tests, consisting of speeded-response auditory GJT and non-speeded response one. Granena’s (2014) study demonstrated several findings. Firstly, the connection between aptitude, test, and language structure was found. Secondly, the result of the study showed that the participants performed significantly better on structures which involve no grammatical agreement. Also, according to Meisel (2009), early maturational changes affected on some structures relating to inflectional morphology (for instance gender, number, and subject-verb agreement). For these two reasons, Granena (2014) suggested that language aptitude played a role for early learners in this case. This finding of Granena (2014)’s study was also in line with that of Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009)’s article, in which language aptitude was proved to affect not only late learners but also young ones.
In short, it could be observed that research of connection between language aptitude and age has brought a great deal of findings. Initially, it was reported that early learners showed more evidence in memory while late learners strongly showed the ability of language analysis (analytic ability). Also, it was suggested that aptitude only played a role in late learners’ L2 learning (Dekeyser, 2000; Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, 2009; Granena & Long, 2012). Specifically, for late learners who missed the sensitive period, language aptitude was believed to help them reach near-nativelikeness to some extent, or perform well on L2 pronunciation, lexis, and collocation. In other words, at first, language aptitude was believed to interact with only late learners; no vivid evidence was found how this ID factor associated with young learners. However, the findings of Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam (2009) and Granena (2014) pointed out evidence which language aptitude also interacted with young learners in some special grammar features, although more studies would be necessary to clarify this point. Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam’s (2009) and Granena’s (2014) at least suggested that the association of language aptitude did not only occur after sensitive period. Instead, it showed the relevance before the critical period as well.
Language aptitude and motivation
The findings from some reviewed studies suggested a connection between these two ID factors: language aptitude and motivation. Particularly, Pimsleur (1996) included the question regarding learners’ interest in language learning into PLAB, which meant that motivation was considered either to be a part of aptitude or influence aptitude. However, this view was not acceptable as according to Gardner and MacIntyre (1992), who believed that language aptitude and motivation were two distinguishable factors. However, Winke (2013) pointed out a negative correlation between language aptitude and motivation. In other words, according to Winke (2013), learners with low language aptitude would need more motivation, which was in line with Dörnyei’s (2005) view. There are several studies in which motivation and language aptitude were reported as factors influencing language learning. Specifically, Dekeyser (1993) noted that motivation, language aptitude, along with low anxiety would be beneficial for error correction. In addition, Saito and Hanzawa (2016) mentioned that in the hypothesized model, motivation and language aptitude are factors impacted speaking performance of Japanese EFL learners. From the opposite viewpoints of Pimsleur (1996) and Gardner and MacIntyre (1992), it was controversial whether motivation should be a component of language aptitude or not. However, the findings of Dekeyser (1993), Winke (2013), as well as Saito and Hanzawa (2016) noted that language aptitude and motivation interacted with each other. Although it has been proved that there was an interaction between motivation and language aptitude, the level of association between these two factors were not answered clearly.
To summarize, between Wesche’s (1981) seminal article and Hwu and Sun’s (2012) study, there was a development of language aptitude measurement. Firstly, a variety of tests to capture language learners’ aptitude have been developed, providing deeper understanding of the construct as well as more choices on the tool to operationalize foreign language aptitude. Secondly, the studies conducted between Wesche (1981) and Hwu and Sun (2012) have shed light to specific effectiveness of different instructional methods. Thirdly, it has been clarified that there was an interaction between language aptitude and speaking in both ESL and EFL contexts. Fourthly, the studies examining the association of aptitude and young learners as well as late learners have supplied some remarkable findings. It was commonly known that late language learners who missed CPH required to have high level of aptitude to succeed in learning a foreign language, whereas the impacts were not clearly found in young learners. However, the connection between aptitude and young learners were also found when it came to linguistic features that were sensitive to CPH. Last but not least, the evidence of interaction between language aptitude and motivation was found. Thus far, it could be observed that a number of findings have been found regarding language aptitude, drawing the line for pedagogical implications and future directions.
Through the findings of foreign language aptitude research, insights into L2 teaching and acquisition have been offered. As mentioned in the initial part of the paper, Wesche’s (1981) article, although not explicitly, was one of the first papers offered the facilitative effects of matching learners’ language aptitude with suitable instructional approaches. More latter studies started focusing on exploring the mediation between language aptitude and different effectiveness of instructional approaches. Although the reviewed studies sharing things in common as well as differences, it is undeniable that understanding language learners’ aptitude profile will be beneficial for L2 instructors in terms of choosing appropriate instructional approaches. For instance, for a L2 group which the majority of learners has high analytic ability, the teacher could either go with either inductive approach or structured-input method, as these two methods were proved to be beneficial with this type of language learners (Erlam, 2005). Also, in a group with mixed level of language aptitude, it is safe to choose deductive approach as Erlam (2005) mentioned that this method worked with learners regardless their language aptitude.
Regarding feedback, Dekeyser (1993) as well as Havranek and Cesnik (2001) proved the overall effectiveness of error correction in second language learning. However, it cannot be interpreted that any types of feedback and all error correction will be beneficial to all types of language learners. More specifically, according to Yilmaz (2013), when it comes to learner groups with either high working memory capacity or high language analytic ability, explicit feedback does work better than recast. Also, Sheen (2007) noted that it would be more efficient if corrective feedback focused on one specific grammar feature instead of covering all of the errors that learners made. Moreover, the finding of Sheen’s (2007) study offered a pedagogical implication, which is that corrective feedback is facilitative when correction and metalinguistic explanation are provided to respond learners’ errors.
In view of L2 speaking ability, Smemoe and Haslam (2012) suggested that no matter the learning context was ESL or EFL, teaching pronunciation strategies would be beneficial to language learners. More importantly, the finding of Smemoe and Haslam’s (2012) paper mentioned that low aptitude learners in EFL context tended utilize more strategies than their counterparts in ESL context so as to compensate for the lack of target language exposure. This finding could offer an essential implication in pedagogy for EFL teachers. It is considered that teaching speaking strategies is necessary; however, providing low aptitude learners with a variety of speaking strategies can be beneficial to help them improve the skill in a context which they do not have a lot of opportunities to communicate with native speakers.
Although research of language aptitude has brought considerable findings and offered new insights into SLA, there have been still aspects remaining unanswered, which provides directions for future research. First and foremost, despite the fact that the construct of language aptitude and its operationalization was well-understood in some extent, the validity of the tests capturing learners’ language aptitude is still challenging. In particularly, although a variety of tests have been developed and consisted of more components, MLAT still holds the superiority owing to its validity. Therefore, validity of other test types should be taken into consideration in the future.
Secondly, there have not been many studies examining the interaction between language aptitude and L2 speaking; therefore, this area could be a direction for future research. This reminds me of the Vietnamese EFL context that I am familiar with. It might be possible to conduct a study relating to Vietnamese EFL learners’ aptitude and their usage of speaking strategy in order to explore whether in the environment lacking target language exposure, strategies used in speaking would help learners to make up for the lack of language aptitude. Moreover, the reviewed studies mainly examined the connection between language aptitude and speaking strategy use in EFL context, while which of ESL context was not thoroughly explained. Hence, more studies investigating the interaction between aptitude and L2 speaking are necessary.
Thirdly, reviewed studies showed that language aptitude plays a role in late language learners’ success. Additionally, the interaction between language aptitude and young learners was also found. Although the researchers realized that language aptitude interacted with young learners when it came to some language features which were sensitive to CPH, the issue needs more future research focusing on examining this type of structure to clarify whether language aptitude can compensate critical period and if aptitude is helpful for young learners to absorb these structures. Last but not least, as language aptitude was believed to correlate with motivation and there has been a controversy regarding motivation as a component of language aptitude, the association between these two ID factors worth further examination.
bilingualism is considered and compared to see if there are any advantages to being bilingual, for both the individual and society. This dissertation shall be exploring biological and neurological factors that contribute toward language acquisition and the way in which individuals learn and acquire SLA (State, 2014). Research is continuously taking place to try and understand exactly how the brain learns language, therefore this dissertation will aim to explore this further and the results of SLA on the brain. Furthermore, the essay investigates the cognitive functions that are impacted and the advantages or struggles that may transpire. Research involving motivation and attitudes will be explored to see if these have an impact on whether individuals are more susceptible to language learning leading closely to globalisation and education. The second half of this dissertation shall aim to consider how bilingual effects the world around us and what bilingualism impacts through both trade and socialisation and how this links closely to motivation. Acknowledgements There are so many people I would like to thank for guiding and supporting me throughout my degree. Firstly, thank you my dissertation supervisor for offering encouragement, support and helping me make sense of my obscure ideas likewise, Paddy for being my listening ear and giving me so much guidance in the final stages. I would also like to thank my partner, I owe so much to Marco, who has listened to my cries of frustration and stood by helping any way he can, making sure that I still remember to have fun in times of crisis and no matter what, listens and tries to help in any way he can, I could never ask for a more amazing person to share my life with. Thank you to all my friends who have been here no matter what, particularly Sonny who is the best cheerleader I could ask for. Lastly, I owe the most to Kirsten, without who I never would have made it through, by being able to have someone stand by my side while making me laugh no matter what, has shown me what an incredible friendship we have. Contents Abstract 3 Acknowledgements 4 Introduction 9 Chapter one 1.1. Prenatal development 11 1.2. Lexical stress 11 1.3. Gender Gap 12 1.4. Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area 13 1.5. Behavioural deviations 14 1.6. Delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s 15 1.7. Critical learning period 16 Chapter Two 2.1. Information processing 18 2.2. Cognitive development theory 18 2.3. Four stage model of SLA and social interaction theory 19 2.4. Language delay 20 2.5. Code switching and language interaction 21 2.6. Cognitive consequences 22 Chapter Three 3.1. Attitude and Motivation 24 3.2. Opportunity and motivation 25 3.3. Behavioural factors 25 3.4. Language and emotion 26 Chapter Four 4.1. Second culture acquisition 27 4.2. Society and culture 28 4.3. Socialisation 28 4.4. Communication Technology 29 4.5. Globalisation 30 4.6. Economics and language 31 Chapter Five 5.1. Development of SLA 32 5.2. Teacher and learner relationship 32 4.3. English education system with regards to languages 33 5.4. Worldwide education system with regards to languages 34 5.5. Societal power 34 Conclusion 36 References 39 “The limits of my language mean the limits of my world.” ― Ludwig Wittgenstein, 1922 Introduction This dissertation examines and compares the role and effects of learning a second language along with the outcomes it can have on individuals. It will seek to advance knowledge while interrogating the varying factors and influences that learning a second language can have both on the individual and society (Byers-Heinlein et al., 2010). Whilst it may be argued that there are many benefits and advantages to learning a second language, especially for individuals living within Britain and for British society itself, the limitations and opportunities also relate closely to children’s development; a subject that will be revisited throughout (Callahan and Gandara, 2014). The significance of bilingualism is that language is often described as a human communication system so unique, that it has been made an inclusion factor of what it means to be human. It is a system of communication used by a community or country, either spoken or written, language can be used to express and communicate to others alongside providing a way in which society can progress and develop. Although, it has been suggested that communication is possible because language represents both ideas and concepts that exist independently of and prior to language (Bett, 2010). This dissertation shall take the form of an essay to examine all the different contributors, each taking the form of a chapter and exploring the subject matter further whilst relating to theories concerning bilingualism and the influences it has. However, this essay will aim to avoid eurocentrism, the excessive focus on European languages which is often found when discussing linguistics. As of 2015, English is the official language of 53 countries around the world with an estimation of 7000 languages spoken in total (Central intelligence Agency, 2015). Despite this, the ability to learn a second language is not highly regarded within the British National curriculum. Since the review in 2013, computing has taken a priority over learning a second language, learning a foreign language is not compulsory until KS2 with only the basics being touched upon (DfE, 2014, p.7). However, a recent survey showed that London is the most linguistically diverse area, with 45% of primary school children recorded that they had a language other than English spoken at home (Board and Tinsley, 2014). Furthermore, statistics from 2016 shows that, out of the world population of 7 billion, 1,500 million people worldwide speak English of whom only 6% are native speakers, this amounts to 21% of the world’s population able to speak English (Statista, 2016). The ability to speak English, is encouraged all around the world, many countries include learning English as a second language within the school syllabus, as it is argued that learning English will increase your chances of employment (Cummins and Davidson, 2007). This is based on the idea that English is seen to be the language of: science, computing, aeronautic, diplomacy and tourism, alongside being the language of both media and the internet industry (Oxford Royale, 2014). This dissertation shall be split into two parts, with the first part observing psychological contributors and the second part observing further into sociological aspects. The psychological section shall be split into three chapters with chapter one concentrating on biological and neurological factors that contribute toward language acquisition and the way in which individuals learn and achieve Second language acquisition (SLA). Research is continuously taking place to try and understand exactly how the brain learns language, therefore in this chapter it will aim to explore this further and examine the results of SLA on the brain. Chapter two will be considering cognitive factors and observing further into how SLA is developed along with the idea that bilingualism can benefit or hinder cognitive development. Chapter three shall be considering affective variables, observing the role and impact that attitude and motivation has on SLA in addition to the behavioural factors, this chapter shall explore the link between emotion and language. The sociological section shall be split into a further two sections with chapter four observing culture and society. It is within this section that we begin to see the links between differing cultures and language along with the difference between societies’ motivations behind learning a second language. Finally, chapter five shall consider bilingual education in both British society and worldwide in addition, the benefits of bilingual education while considering society’s view on involving language with education In this dissertation, the notion of bilingualism shall include both bilingual and multilingual individuals. There are many different definitions to what is meant by bilingualism, with a further four different categories regarding bilingual acquisition. Beginning with infant bilingualism, which results in the individual learning two languages from the offset. Followed by child bilingualism, which involves successive attainment, this is next followed by language acquisition after puberty. The finally category is adult bilingualism which involves language procurement after the teen years. Language is obtained and learnt throughout an individual’s childhood with many different factors playing a role into how developed the individual will become. The scientific study of language is linguistics, after much research it is now understood that being bilingual is more complex than having two monolinguals within one person (Grosjean , 1989). Whereas, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) is the process by which individuals learn a second language (L2) or any other language after their mother tongue (Myles, 2000). There are various theories surrounding SLA based around two main areas of focus; linguistic and psychological. Regarding linguistic theories, Chomsky argues that language is acquired in a reasonably short period; this would not be possible if the human did not have an innate language facility. However, Chomsky continues to argue that this natrual language facility is dependent on more than language input alone, it is a combination of innate, biological and grammatical categories (Berwick and Chomsky, 2016). This has been criticised, as there is no true definition of a short time and so there is no way to measure or confirm what it means to acquire language in a reasonably short period. In addition, critics also mention that it does not deal at all with the psychological processes involved with learning a language (Smith, 2004). In contrast, Krashen (Benthin, 2015) developed the input hypothesis, a group of five hypotheses all relating to SLA. According to this theory the input hypotheses states that learners can progress when they are surrounded by language at a higher level than they speak. Acquisition learning hypothesis claims that there is a clear separation between acquisition and learning which involves the subconscious, whilst the monitor hypothesis claims that consciously learnt language can never be the source of spontaneous speech. On the other hand the affective filter hypothesis states that an individual’s ability to acquire language is constrained if they experience negative emotions such as distress or embarrassment (Benthin, 2015). Whilst the input hypotheses have had a great influence on language education, it has been criticised deeply; it has been argued that despite Krashen perception of acquisition as a subconscious process and learning as conscious, these have not been proven to exist, in addition the hypothesis is unable to be tested (Rebuschat, 2013). Chapter One This chapter aims to examine the biological and neurological components of language development, alongside the critical period within which a second language should be learnt. It will seek to consider if there are any neurological advantages to studying a second language and how they influence the acquisition of language itself. Throughout an individual’s life the brain links closely with biological and neurological factors all of which play a vital role regarding human development and communication which relate closely back to language development (Singleton and Ryan, 2004). Contemporary findings have found that language acquisition begins before the birth of the child, resulting in the uterus becoming a big part of an individual’s language development. Prenatal sensory experience shapes the structure of the brain, which begins the developmental process for language (Talaber, 2011). A child learns their first language from four months while inside the womb through visceral noises from the mother’s body and the surrounding environment, the child is able to retain memories of the sounds after their birth. Research shows that it is estrogen that plays a dual role and modulates the gain of auditory neurons cellular process that enables activation of auditory senses and memory formation when in the womb (Pinaud,2011) . Therefore, it is argued to be a critical period for the fetus for both survival and the transition to the postnatal world (Hepper, 2015). Likewise, corresponding findings have discovered that children can learn their first lullabies in the womb from the mothers and surrounding environment, potentially supporting later speech development (Yliopisto, 2017). Furthermore, a recent study argues that the environmental sounds that the fetus hears, including speech and songs are background noise become recognised by the fetus and persists for at least four months after birth, with no stimulation (Partanen et al., 2013). The patterns of language that the individual experiences while in the womb are referred to as lexical stress. These include loudness, vowel length and changes in pitch, all which give prominence to a given word or sentence, making the language unique (Field, 2005). English uses variable stress, while languages such as French are more syllable based languages, resulting in newborns being able to distinguish a difference between stress based English and syllabic based French. However, this is not always a given as a newborn would continue to struggle to tell the difference between English and Dutch which is also stress based (Yang, 2010). Similarly, children who have been exposed to both languages while in the womb showed no favour to either language once born (Buyer-heinlen et al, 2010). However, they could distinguish that the languages were not the same and each held a different rhythmic pattern. Moreover, while monolingual individuals showed that they preferred listening to their mother tongue rather than a language they had not previously heard, further search shows that infants are able to discriminate between the two separate languages from birth (Rowland, 2013). Vast array of studies implicates a significant gender gap regarding SLA, however, it is also suggested that gender distinctions are as much cultural as they are language (Cohen, 2011). Conclusive research displays that males have more advanced motor abilities in comparison to females, who obtain more advanced social cognition skills alongside an innovative memory. From this it has been concluded that the structural makeup of the human brain, enables females to learn and develop second language easier, it has been shown to be most prominent at stages which involve grammar and vocabulary (Ingalhalikar et al, 2015). However, this idea has been criticized as it is seen to be more difficult given the differences between biological gender and gender roles (Lindsey, 2015). Yet, there were seen to be very few differences in the size of structures in both the Broca’s and Wernicke’s in both men and women (Leonard et al., 2008). Further studies, conducted in the Netherlands, have analysed findings from bilingual individuals in both native and second languages. Results showed that female learners consistently outperformed males in both speaking and writing proficiency. In contrast, with regards to reading and listening skills there was no gender gap to be found (Van der silk, Van hout and Schepens, 2015). Likewise, many supporting studies aimed to explore how the findings link with further influences, the findings focused attention on second language acquisition being both nature-based and genetic-based. This also interacted closely with the surrounding environmental factors, such as self-motivation and education; both factors that also mediate second language acquisition, ideas shall be further explored in Chapter four (Van der silk, Van hout and Schepens, 2015). From studying the brains of individuals who were bilingual and able to comprehend both language before the age of 7, recent research has found that no spatial separation is to be located in either the Broca’s areas or Wernicke’s area (Rilling, 2014) (See figure 1). This links closely with the idea that the ability to process both languages is controlled by the same regions of the brain, rather than in differing subsections (Bishop, 2013). Furthermore, FMRI studies of children’s brain development show that second languages learned early in childhood are not separately processed in the brain (Hernandez et al., 2001). The ability and need to be able to first understand which language the individual is receiving and then continue to understand the language itself is referred to as code-switching (Aron, Robbins, and Poldrack, 2014).
A report from the UCLA suggests that it is during the ages of 6-13 when the brain goes through the most growth, it is during this time that the brain is biologically most advantageous for SLA (Tommasi, Peterson, and Nadel, 2009). In addition, further research has concluded that there are two forms of bilingual brains; brains that become bilingual at an early age and brains that become bilingual as adults (Abutalebi and Rietbergen, 2014). Overall, it has been concluded that individuals that acquire either child or infant bilingualism develop a Broca’s area that works as a complete unit when speaking a second language, rather than working as separate parts. Although both languages are stored in the Wernicke’s area, an individual that has learnt a language at an early age has an interconnection between both languages and hence use the same region within the Broca’s area for both languages, even though only one language is being used to process thought and speech (Weber et al., 2016). In contrast, individuals who acquire adult bilingualism, show that the native and second languages are separated in the Broca’s area, which is responsible for the motor parts of language movement, while there is very little separation in the Wernicke’s area, which is responsible for the comprehension of language (Garbin et al., 2010). Whilst adult learners have more facility when understanding language in comparison to when producing it, young learners do not encounter this difficulty as there Broca’s area is working as a complete unit providing them with language productivity (Jasinska and Petitto, 2013). This correlates with past neurocognitive studies which imply that the areas surrounding the Broca’s area are vital to the memory in both non-linguistic and linguistic tasks (D’Esposito et al., 1999). Further research suggests that the Broca’s area is most involved with articulation, giving reason to believe that its main role is fundamental to the working memory functions of the frontal area (Miller and Cummings, 2014). From this, it is argued that there is a strong correlation between psychiatric disorders and the hypoactivity of the Broca’s area, these correlations link closely to disorders such as ADHD, Bipolar, and anxiety (Cohen, 2011). Current research indicates a link between bilingualism and ADHD, in particular bilingualism from an early age, despite limitations of control factors, there is enough evidence to suggest that bilingualism has a positive effect on inhibitory functions alongside behavioural responses (Beck, 2014). A recent study investigated functional abnormalities within the Broca’s area in adolescents with ADHD, the results showing a positive correlation between fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations which reflects spontaneous neural activity and adolescences with ADHD. The findings lead the research to understand that there are functional abnormalities in the Broca’s area for individuals with ADHD, furthermore it has been argued that the location of these abnormalities could link with particular language discrepancies (Pikusa and Jonczyk, 2015). Correspondingly, bilingual individuals have a faster reaction time and can take advantage of alerting cues provided by society (Costa, Hernández, and Sebastián-Gallés, 2008). Other studies have shown that by increasing the rate in which children gain inhibitory control, the child develops the ability to regulate attentional and behavioral responses and focus on the relevant stimuli surrounding them (Carlson and Meltzoff, 2008). While others argue that it is bilingualism that helps and supports both attention and inhibit action through the process of code-switching, hence strengthening the Broca’s area along with the ability to focus, code-switching shall be discussed throughout this dissertation (Boeree, 2004). Studies involving Positron Emission Tomography have shown that those individuals that have a stutter or a lack of fluency while speaking present hyperactivity in the motor cortex, yet hypoactivity in cortical areas of the brain, the Broca’s area (Sandak and Fiez, 2000). Additionally, there is a link between specific language impairment which is also developed due to a hypoactive Broca’s area and the difficulties that can be encountered including slow development, physical abnormalities of speech apparatus (Roeper, 2011). An individual who is bilingual has both languages always active and competing, resulting in the individual using control mechanisms every time speech is both heard and spoken. By constantly putting these skills into practice the brain adapts and changes the correlated Broca’s area (Marian, Shook, and Schroeder, 2013). Further studies by Carlson and Melzoff (2008) concluded that bilingual individuals outperformed their monolingual peer’s significantly due to their advanced inhibitory control. New research has shown a that bilingualism can help delay the onset of Alzheimer’s, by the brain constantly controlling two languages it engages the brain and challenges the grey matter which prevents it from deteriorating (Mortimer et al., 2014). However, many critics have suggested that more research needs to be done to understand this idea further and look into how the Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area work together with grey matter; current MRI scans have shown that bilingual individuals hold a higher density of both grey and white matter (Woumans et al., 2014). A recent study was conducted by Olsen et al., (2015) researching if the frontal lobes are also sensitive to bilingualism, hypothesising that bilinguals shows greater frontal lobe white matter in comparison with monolinguals. Moreover, monolinguals showed that during the ageing process there was a decrease in temporal pole cortical thickness, however there was no such correlation showed for bilinguals (Olsen et al., 2015). Implicating a link between bilingualism and the preservation of frontal and temporal lobe function during ageing. This idea and evidence is further supported by the argument that having gained bilingualism at an early age is another contributing factor to the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (Craik, Bialystok, and Freedman, 2010). Popular opinion states that younger children find it easier to learn a second language alongside being able to retain the information for longer because childhood is a critical period in which language learning takes place (Meulman et al., 2015). The critical learning period, is seen as the period in which an individual must begin to learn the language or become exposed to the language in order to learn the language to the best of their ability (Birdsong, 2013). From this, it is suggested that children have a natural ability to learn and that by learning a second language before puberty the mind is being challenged and enhanced, in turn language allowing for more easy acquisition of language (Long, 2013). Despite the nature of languages being learnt differently, recent data revealed a steep decline in the learning of grammar of a second languages up to the age of 18, hence supporting the idea that the early learners are in the critical period (Deskeyer, Alfi-Shabtay, and Ravid, 2010). Recent statistics have revealed that by the age of four, 50% of our ability to learn is developed with a further 30% being developed by the age of eight; these statistics mainly concentrate on the main learning pathways (Brain and Mukherji, 2005). In accordance with this, it is argued that adult learners struggle to acquire a second language to the same fluency, it has been indicated that as few as 5%, maybe fewer could ever achieve native-like fluency in their second language (Miller, 2004). At a younger age the brain is much more susceptible and flexible in comparison to an adult, however after the age of nine the brain begins to mature and becomes less flexible and accommodating to change (Moyer, 2004). Overall, brain development regarding Second language acquisition links closely to lateralisation which refers to the dominance of certain cognitive processes in a particular side of the brain (Sommer and Kahn, 2009). The whole process of lateralisation isn’t completed until just before puberty, with the whole process complete this results in the brain being too developed and losing its plasticity resulting in a difficulty regarding fluidity (Davide, 2014). To conclude, biological and neurological components of language development have a supporting role regarding an individual’s SLA. Linking closely with both hormones and gender, bilingualism affects the brains structure, correlating with higher grey matter volume in the left inferior cortex (Fabbro,2000). From the conducted research, it can be observed that a bilingual experience changes neurological structures and how the individual process information alongside altering the neurological structure itself. It has been further argued that bilingualism helps and supports both attention and inhibitory action through the process of language, hence strengthening the Broca’s area along with the ability to focus (Boeree, 2004). Chapter Two This chapter shall be investigating the cognitive influences, with focus on how the learners’ mental processes influence their learning, thinking and memory. By looking at how cognitive approaches to language are generally characterised, we are able to query the way in which the human mind deals with learning, and how learners use their knowledge in speech and to understand their languages (Juffs, 2010). This chapter will also consider if there are any cognitive benefits of being bilingual and how they will continue to be of an advantage as the learner develops and matures. The idea of information processing compares the human mind to a computer. From this idea, it is suggested that like computers human are information processors, taking information and following a program to produce an output. From this it is possible to investigate the link that lies between the stimuli and the response that we provide (Grosjean, 2010). This idea is heavily critiqued by behaviorism, which emphasises the role that the environment has on an individual’s behaviour. It assumes that all behaviours are a consequence of an individual’s history, including reinforcement and punishment (Watson, 2010). It is further argued that through observation the individuals may try and imitate the behaviour or language displayed to them; if the imitation is received well and responded to by the surrounding environment, this results in the behaviour reinforced either negatively or positively (Kostelnik et al., 2014). Changing the behaviour or actions through the use and result of reinforcements acting as either a stimulus or reward is further known as conditioning (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2008). Much of the work regarding cognitive development relates back, or aims to contradict Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, which considers the nature and development of human intelligence (McLeod, 2009). Although Piaget’s theory is mainly focused on language acquisition, it can easily be correctly applied to second language acquisition. Piaget focuses on two main processes, being assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is how humans perceive and adapt to new information presented to them, whereas accommodation is taking new information and altering pre-existing schemas to fit in with the new information; Piaget argued that one was unable to exist without each other (Berger, 2011). Piaget’s work has not gone by without much criticism as it was firstly criticised that child development is not always able to progress smoothly. Likewise, it has been suggested that Piaget undervalues the influence that culture has on cognitive development (Slee and Shute, 2014). In addition, cognitive development theory has been criticised for not regarding social interaction which teaches the individuals about the surrounding world and helps develop the individual through the cognitive stages (Kail, 2009). Using Piaget’s work as a base, Klein (1999) developed a four-stage model of second language acquisition, in which it is claimed that the majority of adult learners will pass through these stages with some degree of uniformity (Piaget et al., 2001). During the first stage of the process, borrowing takes place in which the individual begins to replace key words with the new language learnt. In the second stage, the lexicons are firmly grounded and the process of translation begins to take place and the two linguistic systems also begin to separate and strengthen individually. The third stage consists of the two participating linguistic systems beginning to separate further, and reinterpretation and translation, which is both complex and bidirectional begins to come into play. At the final stage of the model, Klein (1999) argues that the emergence of individual constraints take place, relying heavily on confidence and the motivation that the individual may have received; the idea of motivation shall be discussed further in chapter three. A second theory that plays an important role regarding cognitive influences is Vygotsky’s theory as it differs from Piaget’s theory in several important ways (VanPatten and Williams, 2016). Vygotsky’s theory places more emphasis on how the surrounding culture affects cognitive development, contradicting Piaget’s idea that cognitive development is not varied depending on culture (Rothman, 2009). Vygotsky also considers the social factors and how they contribute to the development in addition to different emphasis on the role language plays in cognitive development (Lantolf and Poehner, 2014). From these ideas, social interaction theory is formed, a concept that is based around the role that social interaction has between both the developing individuals and society or linguistically able adults. It emphasises the role of social interaction, suggesting that individuals learn language from one another via observation, imitation and modelling relating closely with the idea of behaviorism (Payne, 2014). There are many milestones regarding child development and second language acquisition. By surrounding themselves during the ages of 2-3 with language that is being spoken correctly means that the children are supplied with an active learning environment. This supports the use of grammar through both lessons and exercises, linking closely with social interaction theory (Robinson, 2008). Further research shows that, after the age of 5 semantics are not affected as much by environment which surrounds them, dissimilar to pronunciation and grammar both which will always rely heavily on the surrounding environment (Robinson, 2008). This research also highlights that the left hemisphere is most active in grammatical processing and code-switching tasks (Kovelman, Baker, and Petitto, 2008). The next significant milestone is at five years old when you maintain a discourse organisation and have a vocabulary of over 2000 words which you continue to develop further. Whilst it has been previously argued that bilingualism can disadvantage children, as at first they are seen to develop smaller vocabulary along with poorer grammar and writing skills (Ribot, Hoff, and Burridge, 2017). Despite the original delay of the onset of languages, bilingual children develop grammar along the same patterns and timelines as their monolingual counterparts (Genesse, 2009). There is much conspiracy that being bilingual can cause a language delay, an ideology is based on the idea that rather than a child concentrating on one language, they have to split their resources over two languages (Junker and Stockman, 2002). Although there are many differences regarding language development between monolinguals and bilinguals, it has been investigated that if only one of the two languages are considered, the vocabulary content for bilinguals is much lower than monolinguals (Patterson, Barbara, and Rodriguez, 2016); ‘The mind is not a container with a limited capacity for language, there is no truth in the belief that the use of more than one language necessarily reduces the individual’s ability in each language’ (Whitehead, 2002, P.21). This idea has been developed and investigated, with the result of a comparable study concluding that while bilinguals have a limited vocabulary in comparison to monolinguals, bilingual individuals catch up to their monolingual counterparts in both languages before the age of five (De Houwer, 2009). Continuing with the problems that bilingual children may encounter Genesse (2009) discusses how a child’s ability and competence is reflected in the amount of time that the child spends in each of the other languages. This idea is supported through children who may have family abroad and spends a certain amount of time with them during the year, where in this time only one of the languages is used. However, it is noted that while the child may lose proficiency is one of the language when it is not in used, this a temporary shift that will revert back after exposure to the language is sufficient (Genesse, 2009). Code-switching occurs when individuals alternate between multiple languages within a single conversation, offering another language to use when words in the native language are inadequate (Hughes et al., 2006). Many disadvantages to code-switching have been presented as a sign of delay in language ability, as bilingualism is viewed as either a subtractive or additive language process; subtractive refers to the increasing fluency of one language while the ability in the other language is decreased (Hughes et al., 2006). Many children who are raised as bilingual face the challenge of sorting out the languages learnt, which can lead to mixing languages, although temporary, language mixing can help develop the code-switching skills which the child will later develop as a result from being bilingual (Auer, 2014). This is seen throughout the world, an example being Spanglish, which is commonly used by Latinos in the United States (Gardner-Chloros, 2009). Overall, one language generally has a stronger influence within the child’s life than the other and as a result they often draw on this language when speaking the minority language, as it is this language that may have developed a small vocabulary (Sebba, Mahootian, and Jonsson, 2012). It has also been proposed that bilingual children may say their first words slightly later in comparison to monolingual children, but still within what is classified as the normal age range of 8-15 months (Meisel, 2004). Yow (2014) measured bilingual children’s speech capabilities in both languages to investigate code-switching, findings demonstrating that children who regularly code-switched were able to have a more advanced knowledge of their second language. Other findings have shown that code-switching enhances the ability to express emotions along with communication and the development of languages (Lee and Wang, 2015). In recent years, bilingualism has been linked to a number of cognitive consequences in particular cognitive control. Research has studied how an individual’s languages interact with one another alongside the influence that the languages have on each other. (Antoniuo et al., 2014). Research involving linguistic development and inhibitory control has suggested that bilinguals benefit from cognitive advantages and, in turn, outperform monolinguals in certain areas that are associated with cognitive domains including faster reaction times and more cognitive control which could reveal a bilingual advantage (Pelham and Abrams , 2014). To manage the balance between two or more languages that are always active and competing, the brain develops more advanced cognitive mechanisms. These depend on executive functions that include processes such as attention and inhibition as discussed previously in chapter one (Barac and Bialystok., 2012). It is suggested that cognitive control outcomes for bilinguals vary due to the amount of experience managing the bilingual demands that may be encountered (Macnamara and Conway, 2013). Moreover, research suggests that introducing a second language at an early age can have a positive impact on cognitive development, rather than hinder the child’s performance. By confusing the child, the second language interferes with the child’s ability to develop what society would classify as normal cognitive functions (Bialystok, 2008). However, this idea has been explored further and resulted in bilingualism being viewed as positive force that enhances children’s linguistic and cognitive development. Likewise, it affects the individual’s ability to solve problems, in particular those that involve a high level of language processing (Bialystok, 2009). The cognitive consequences of bilingualism extend from early childhood until old age, as the brain becomes more effective and efficient at being able to process information and in turn delays cognitive deterioration (Li, Wu, and Liu, 2013). It has been further acknowledged, that a second language enriches and enhances a child’s mental development as discussed earlier, leaving learners with the ability to think on a broader scale alongside a greater sensitivity to language as it helps to develop their understanding of the native language (Green, 2009). Furthermore, research has shown that control and analysis are components that develop a lot later in monolinguals than in bilinguals because of the cognitive control that is gained from managing two languages (Bialystok, 2007). To conclude, we can see many outcomes that result in an advantage in both cognitive and linguistic development with regards to bilingual children (Turnbull, 2016). Cognitive research has shown that through the experience of two language systems being produced, bilingual children are left with a more flexible and diverse set of mental capabilities. This includes an advantage in working memory and sustaining attention and language, alongside the ability to process and adapt information both efficiently and effectively (Ilieva and Farah, 2013). The cognitive consequences of bilingualism stem from childhood to maturation; as the brain continues to develop and process information, not only is the relevance of child bilingualism apparent but also adult bilingualism, although it is not as advanced (Collins and Frank, 2013). Moreover, the cognitive control along with metalinguistic awareness, enhanced memory and creativity highlight the importance of how bilingualism affects the activity and development of the brain (Chan, 2004). Chapter Three This chapter aims to explore attitudes and motivations, in addition to what means these affective variables relate closely to, such as moods, feelings and attitudes throughout SLA. Affective variables are of considerable importance regarding language learning being successful (Sturgeon, 2016). It is argued that an individual’s motivation behind learning a second language and the attitude they hold regarding second language acquisition influences the proficiency of the learner (Mitchell, Myles and Marsden, 2012). Likewise, it has been argued that learners that study a language with the aim of advancing their knowledge and understanding of culture and society are more motivated to learn (Ishihara and Choen, 2014). In recent years, there has been a heightened interest regarding attitudes and motivation concerning SLA, in particular research has begun to look in to the idea of why individuals may have a negative attitude towards learning a second language (Dornyei and Ushioda, 2013). It is suggested that attitude and motivation are the most influential factors in successfully learning a second language, the definition of motivation being multifaceted as it involves both cognitive and behavioural elements (Ellis, 2009). Gardener (1985) defines that motivation consists of four main components, otherwise referred to as affective variables; Goals, desire to achieve the goal, positive attitudes and effort (Pawlak, 2015). These affective variables differ from cognitive factors as they are associated with related influences such as intelligence and aptitude, which impact and combine the individual’s autonomy and self-esteem, subsequently promoting positive attitudes and enhancing motivation (Alrabai and Moskovsky, 2016). The socio-educational model proposes that there are two individual variables: ability and motivation resulting in two main influences. Individuals who have either higher intelligence or higher levels of motivation will be more successful at learning a second language than those who obtain lower levels (Chambers, 1999). However, Gardener (2010) argues that although in a classroom setting ability and motivation will be of equal involvement, it is in the informal environment that motivation will always be more crucial. Throughout the years, the socio-educational model has been revised many times, each time trying to improve upon criticism. Many critics have intended to expand the socio-educational model to include additional motivational variables, in addition to base their model on more consistencies when considering the impact of attitudes on language development (Csizer and Magid, 2014). Opportunity and motivation work together as one to affect language acquisition. Krashen (2003) argues that motivated students are more likely to seek out opportunities that put to use language skills. Moreover, learner’s affective factors in particular motivation are of crucial importance when considering individual differences with regards to learning outcomes (Ni, 2012). The suggestion that there are two types of motivation (Gardner, 2010) introduces the idea that each individual’s learning may be affected differently. Individuals from countries that have more than one official language could be seen as being more motivated in order to connect with the surrounding community or another culture, otherwise known as integrative motivation. In comparison to those that learn a language to achieve a personal goal, or because it will serve a purpose, are instrumentally motivated, sequentially, making language acquisition more successful as it will serve a purpose which in turn may help them to succeed (Filmore, Kempler and Wang, 2014). Similarly, learners that require the English language for a more advanced career are instrumentally motivated more than those that have already inherited the English language, or those that do not require it (Dörnyei, 1998). Moreover, the learner’s motivation towards SLA is crucial as the stronger motivation will result in a more positive attitude in comparison to an individual who lacks motivation, resulting in a negative attitude. Motivation is not always constant and when negative attitudes are projected or prejudices are portrayed against the language the motivation can be diminished (Mercer, 2014). There are many behavioural factors that come into play regarding second language acquisition. These include extrinsic factors involving the environment, in addition to the willingness to do something due to its separable outcome intrinsic factors which involve the individual at hand, basic human needs, in addition to the internal desire to do something because it is worthwhile (Mercer,2014). Intrinsic factors consist of motivation, self-esteem, attitude, and the desire to understand and learn the new culture they are immersing into (Sanz, 2005). The self-determination theory concentrates on both the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of motivation, concerning itself with innate psychological needs by focusing on the degree to which an individual’s behaviour is both self-motivated and self-determined (Dörnyei, 2006). Expanding on this idea, Deci and Ryan (2013) differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, whilst suggesting that there are three main psychological needs that motivate an individual; universal, innate and psychological, all of which include the need for competent autonomy and relatedness. It has been argued that these needs are required to satisfy and uphold psychological health and individual well-being, overall, the self-determination theory offers distinct differences between the different types of motivation and the underlying consequences (Deci and Ryan, 2017). Self-determination theory has been critiqued by suggesting that free will has not been taken into account, likewise, proposing three psychological needs while other have proposed more needs in particular Marlow, with the hierarchy of needs (Fairclough, 2014). Investigation has begun into how our emotional experiences become transformed into language, these ideas which trend from different areas including; cognitive, linguistics and anthropology (Divitz, 2016), all of which make differing assumptions about the link between emotion and language (Lindquist, Satpute, and Gendron, 2015). There are two main ideas about the link of emotion and language. In accordance with the conceptual act theory, it is suggested that language plays a role in emotion as it is used to help understand the surrounding environment in given context (Schuller and Batliner, 2013). Other ideas suggest that language and emotion work alongside each other with each impacting the performance of the other (Fox, 2008). Overall, there is significant differences in the way in which affective factors influence learning a foreign language between students who are beginning to learn a second language and those who already had began (Henter, 2014). However, although an individual’s performance is derived from intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, there are major differences between those that are motivated intrinsically or extrinsically regarding language development. It is suggested that those that are intrinsically motivated are more susceptible to knowledge, and hence achieve a higher level of education, whereas learners that are externally motivated may face a greater risk of underperforming (Lei, 2010). Chapter Four This chapter shall be discussing the importance of social context alongside the links between different cultures and the diversity of societies’ motivation when learning a second language. Since society influences both attitude and motivation, these are aspects which are necessary when learning a second language (Charmorro-Premuzic, 2011). The concept of society itself is an aggregate of people involved in persistent social interaction while sharing cultural beliefs, prospects and language. It is suggested that society itself that designs and shapes our expectations through both contemporary sociological theories and post-modernist ideas (Stevenson, 2010). Furthermore, Durkheim (2003) argues that society confronts us as an objective fact encompassing our entire lives and shaping our expectations, however, that society is external to ourselves with the differences in language showing us the variances in culture. Second culture acquisition is the process of creating shared meaning between cultural representatives, continuing over years of language learning and penetrates deeply into the individual’s patterns of thinking, feeling and acting (Goldstein and Naglieri, 2011). There are four main stages of culture acquisition, (Brown, 1980) the first being a period of excitement with everything being new and fascinating. Next is the culture shock period, the third known as anomie, a long period of social uncertainty and acceptance. Once acceptance has taken place, the individual can progress to the fourth stage recovery, otherwise known as assimilation or self confidence in the new person. The most vital component of the stages is the feeling of anomie, the moment where the individual has a feeling of being between cultures but not yet a member of either, the individual will perceive a social distance between the individual and both cultures (Brown, 1980). In contrast, unlike the stages of culture acquisition, the Optimal Distance Model suggests that age and accompanying changes in the brain are what place a limit on second language acquisition (Brown, 2007). This hypothesis fails to give an insight into how individuals learn language, instead proposing an explanation for the most desirable conditions in which to learn a language (Doughty and Long, 2003). Contrastingly, the fourfold model consists of four models of acculturation that discusses the cultural and psychological change that results from learning a new language, in addition to referring to the changes that occur as a result of intercultural contact (Sam and Berry, 2010). Assimilation, which involves the willingness to share cultural identity with those whose language they are learning alongside the cultural identity of themselves, leads to the new community feeling they can accept the individual completely. Integration implicates the aspiration to become a member of society, the one that they originate from, in addition to the culture they are aspiring to be a member of. Rejection requires the individual to be able to separate themselves from the majority community so that they can continue to accept the new culture and community they seek to integrate within. Finally, de-acculturation is the loss of identity when the individual begins to distance themselves from their community and marginalisation (Cook and Singleton, 2014). It is further suggested that an individual may differ between various stages, for instance, an individual may reject certain values and social norms in private while adapting to the dominant culture in public (Arendt-Toth and Van de Vijver, 2004). Culture is seen as vital to fulfil particular biological and psychological needs in people; language is a part of culture and culture is a part of language, with the two not being able to be separated without losing the significance of the other (Jackson, 2013). Bourdieu views language as not only a form of communication but as a form of power, used to designate an individual’s position within society through material representations which language provides (Bourdieu, Nice and Bennett, 2010). The use of different dialects within an area of society can represent a varied social status for individuals, with Bourdieu (2014) arguing that capital formed the foundation of social life and hence dictates an individual’s position within society despite being a major source of inequality. As a social relation within a system of exchange, cultural capital includes the knowledge that confers with social status and power, certain forms of cultural capital occur including, embodied, objectified and established (Grenfell, 2011). Linguistic anthropology studies how language can influence the social life, exploring how language shapes communication and forms social identity groups (Senhas and Stanlaw, 2001). From this idea, it is suggested that through socialisation both children and immigrants or outsiders are able to become part of the surrounding community (Keenan, 2014). The usage based theory surrounds the idea of socialisation and suggests this is how children initially build up their language; the theory intended to explain how individuals learn the norms and beliefs of our society. It is argued that our earliest experiences make us aware of societal values and expectations (Spybey, 1995). Moreover, Tomasello (2005) suggests that children take their surroundings and use them to gain language experiences, over time becoming more academic and intellectual, particularly at the age of 3-4 years old as they continue to use recurring sequences. Through key events such as the freedom of trade and the improvement of communication, technology and the internet has allowed greater communication between people in different cultures and societies, resulting in globalisation (King, 1990). In recent years, linguists are claiming that over time a ‘Global English’ is bound to emerge to help facilitate communication on a worldwide scale, this could lead to the extinction of languages just as it has been previously observed in both North America and Australia (Coupland, 2012). According to Luttermann (2014), human culture evolves in response to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors therefore, as a result of globalisation and other variables such as knowledge and wealth, globalisation can be dangerous for national local or endangered languages. In contrast, research argues that a language is known because of the works of academics or its association with religion or culture, it is argued that a language is in fact shaped by traders and marketing agencies, otherwise known as political power through this the language becomes seen as more desirable (Crystal, 2014). However, it could be argued that the role that media plays in language development is encouraging individuals in differing societies to learn a second language to be able to access media, thus encouraging a bilingual situation (Cormack and Hourigan, 2007). Different forms of mass media such as film digital media and advertising frequently have to appeal to a wide array of consumers on a global scale. Language therefore becomes an important factor in their production as the target group may include many different cultures, meaning choosing the appropriate language is integral (Plappert, 2010). New communication technologies have enabled it so that distance is no longer an issue. However, language remains a predicament as many individuals learning the required language are encouraged to master a new language whilst changing the conditions in which language learning and development take place (Block, 2006). It has been argued that the domain of English is fundamentally vital for individuals wanting to progress through society and experience new cultures which in turn strengthens the English language on a global scale (Correa and Almeida, 2016). In accordance with this, a recent study by Rata (2013), observed how Arabic students relate to the English language, the findings found that the mains reasons for learning English are instrumental as it is essential as both the universal language and the main language of tourism. Linking closely to the previous research within chapter three (Gardener, 2010), this observation is further supported by the idea of instrumental motivation with the motivational reasoning linked to the knowledge that by learning English the Arabic students would gain a cultural enrichment through literature and poetry. However, findings also concluded that while English could be regarded an international language, this is not conclusive to Arabic countries as religious tourism is of immense value and results in an integrative connection to the Arabic world which the English language doesn’t contribute towards (Rata, 2013). Countries such as The Netherlands, Japan or Belgium speak English daily for both work in politics, trade and tourism, therefore requiring English for a specific purpose rather than trying to integrate individuals into an English-speaking culture (Pennycook, 2014). From this it could argued that as many individuals are under the informal understanding that they are living in a country where English is required, it could be considered a social norm to have the capability to speak English (Rimal and Lapinski, 2015). In recent years, countries such as Pakistan, Nigeria and Rwanda have seen what are considered by surrounding society as advantages from being able to speak English in addition to their mother tongue; as it has provided them the ability to communicate in the business world, hence repositioning themselves in the new global economy (Euromonitor International for the British Council, 2010). Many countries implement the involvement of the English language through education, while giving individuals motivation to learn English as a second language, the concept of motivation through education shall be further discussed in Chapter five (Juffs, 2007). Over the last 30 years with an increase of businesses such as tourism, chemical and automotive industries relying heavily on language skills, many countries have begun to recognise the correlation between multilingualism and economic success (Bel Habib, 2011). Many politicians argue that the UK needs a multilingual population to be able to ensure business and to acquire employment opportunities in the globalised world (CILT, 2007). While this may be the vision, the most recent census reported that only 8% of the population of Britain were able to speak another language other than English (ONS, 2012). However, many have criticised the census due to the phrasing of the question, resulting in the idea that many households may have under reported their languages capabilities (Matris, 2014). It is argued that many learn a second language within England to link back to their heritage or because of a community they may have been raised within, rather than learning a second language for the benefit of society or to help further themselves (Atkinson, 2014). From analysing the influence that language has on individuals there has been a recent surge and, interest in bilingualism leading to new research, by joining the research together it allows society to explore many different situations (Appel & Muysken, 2006). In accordance with this, ensuring that language needs are responded to effectively and efficiently is vital for social advances, in particular, public health and court procedures where the misuse of tenses from the translation provided may lead to discrepancies or a misunderstanding due to restricted access (Corsellis, 2001). The Socio-cultural perspective is a recent theory based on the works of Vygotsky, exploring the important contributions that society can make to an individual’s personal development and cognition (Lantolf and thorne, 2006). The theory argues that human learning is mainly revolved around society and is based on the interactions between individuals and the culture in which they participate (Swain, Kinnear and Steinman, 2015). The effects of globalisation which work to linguistic and cultural homogenisation is acquired through modernisation, translation and standardisation (Yaghobi, 2005). Overall, research shows that there is a link between different societies and their motivation of SLA. Within the UK, individuals learn English for instrumental reasons and to integrate themselves into a culture, whereas surrounding countries use the English language as a tool and so are interactively motivated to develop the language skills required to gain intercultural relations (Ushioda, 2010). Furthermore, communities that are involved in sharing language skills are able to help support their society build social cohesion, in turn creating a stronger and more diversely accepted culture (Hemon, 2011). This links closely to the idea that individuals shall continue to rely on society as it is here that an individual is surrounded by culture learning social norms which allows them to succeed within society (Crawford and Novak, 2014). According to Berger (2002), society not only controls our movements but shapes our identity, our thoughts and our emotions; over time the structure and formations of society form and develop as part of the individuals own consciousness. Chapter five This chapter aims to explore how the educational system in Britain encompasses SLA, referring to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language, while considering societies view on involving language within the education system. The importance of being able to communicate efficiently is viewed as a necessary result of the educational process, language playing an important role in the transmission of culture (Schulz, 2008). Increasing globalisation has led to international awareness and international communication resulting in a need for individuals who can communicate in multiple languages (Bel Habib, 2011). This has led to the introduction of language education, a relatively new concept, emerging from the research of second language acquisition, focusing on both the societal and individual obstacles in languages while considering the politics surrounding language minorities (Baker, 2011). It is argued that there are two ways in which individuals develop SLA, through obtaining a second language at a young age either at home, through social interaction, play and without much academic input, otherwise known as simultaneous second language learning; individuals are able to simultaneously learn two languages alongside each other (Hoff et al., 2011). In contrast, individuals who may become bilingual after the native language is developed, rather than from birth or during early years, are referred to as sequential bilinguals, which will require different learning strategies to successfully achieve SLA (MacLeod et al., 2012). In addition, further research by Siraj-Blatchford (2007) enforces how young learners have better chances of gaining native-like pronunciation in the second language if they are exposed at a young age, leading to the idea that the young learners are more inclined to take risks with learning. This is based on previous research that argued that ‘Young children don’t have to learn as much fluidity as adults and the vocabulary they need is a lot smaller so therefore it is easier and less stressful when learning a foreign language’ (Siraj-Blatchford,2000). Cohen (2011) discusses how the motivations differ for individuals living in various societies. If SLA is classroom based, unless the individual is also motivated instrumentally or outside of the classroom, they may struggle to gain the language skills. It also relates closely to the learner’s resistance as the individual may feel that the material being presented is of no use to them and irrelevant to their needs as so overall, they may not take the task seriously (Cohen, 2011). Language learning in the classroom includes the ideology that the teacher can create context for communication which offers the opportunity for acquisition (Benson, 2011), both the teacher and learner of a second language need to comprehend and recognise the cultural differences that separate them. From this both must endeavor to teach one another identities in terms of their sociocultural backgrounds (Salzmann, Stanlaw, and Adachi, 2011). The national curriculum (2013) states that at KS1 and KS2 the core subjects are English, Mathematics and Science, with a foreign language being placed within the foundation subjects. In 2013 after a review of the national curriculum, computing has taken priority over modern foreign languages, presently language teaching is not compulsory until KS3 where the average teaching consists of two hours a week (National curriculum, 2013, p.7). There has been a steady decline in the number of individuals choosing to take modern foreign languages at GCSE level, which critics claim the decline can be traced back to a decision to make languages optional for 14-year-olds in England for the first time in 2004 (SCILT, 2010). It has been argued that modern foreign languages within schools are very exam driven, with teachers only able to teach within the exam format rather than language skills that would be needed in daily life (Stinson and Winston, 2016). Wales as a nation reinforces learning modern foreign languages, the Welsh language has an official status and all public sectors are required by law to deliver all legalities in both Welsh and English meaning there is a demand for the language (Mac Giolla, 2016). Therefore, in contrast to England all pupils in Wales are required to learn Welsh from reception up to GCSE. Despite this, there is still a lack of Welsh speaking teachers and many are leaving school without good Welsh language skills (Gould and Riordan, 2010). Throughout Europe bilingual education is helping to integrate immigrant children while promoting bilingualism throughout the rest of the community (Mateus, 2014). Siraj-Blatchford (2000) argues that children who have begun their development in a language other than their native tongue should continue this development within their early childhood. Blakemore and Frith (2005) suggest that learning grammar in a foreign language after the age of 13 is much more difficult, continuing to argue that children are notable to grasp the basics at a young age in comparison to when they begin high school and don’t have the social stress alongside the academic stress associated with learning a foreign language. Certain countries within Europe have more than one official language, exemplifying Luxembourg having three official languages with the majority of pupils receiving a trilingual education. The key language begins at primary school with Luxembourgish, before changing to German while touching on French, however, when at secondary school with the main languages prevail as French as well as English being introduced as a core subject (Kiijarvi, 2006). It has been argued that due to individuals having already learnt a second or third language, they have gained the required mindset to enable themselves to pick up a third or even fourth language by the age of 11 (Ragnarsdottir, 2016). Similarly, Belgium has three national languages depending on the region, with the country being divided in to linguistic area. The capital of Brussels is bilingual with legalities and general amenities offered in both Dutch and French, therefore during education the focus of the second language is either French or Dutch, depending on the region at which they are based (Bhatia and Ritchie, 2012). According to GAO (2010) China has been promoting the extreme importance of learning a second language, in particular English as it will help promote internationalism. During the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, it provided a chance for society to speak English to tourists. Many Chinese businesses are making it a requirement for employment meaning, that many graduates and individuals are learning English to have a chance at a job in a society of a billion people (Rai and Deng, 2014). Within Europe it is seen as essential to ensure that citizens learn a second language so that they can travel and learn freely throughout; recent statistics state that ‘Over 70% of the world’s population speaks more than one language’ (Siraj-Blatchford, 2000, p. 28). Many concerns have been raised that individuals within British society lack SLA, research analysing that the fall in language skills could lead to a decline in Britain’s ability to compete in the global market. Language matters (2009) is a report that demonstrates the effect of the fall in modern foreign languages being cultured, despite this many British individuals do not see the need or obtain the motivation to learn a second language (British Academy, 2009). Overall, we are able to observe that societal power has a great influence on the surrounding educational structures. Although society and education are two separate influences, together they have an impact on the individual and as a result, influence society as a -whole (Biesta, 2013). Society is able to influence education both negatively and positively, many educational opportunities arising from the positive impacts identified progressively in education, this can be used to motivate individuals to acquire SLA (Mackey, 2014). Likewise, through society identifying the advantages of bilingualism in the surrounding environment and involving teachers who share societies’ motivation to develop SLA, this will result in students having an increased attention and personal interests regarding learning a second language (Cohen, 2011). Conclusion From examining and comparing the roles and effects of learning a second language, this dissertation has taken into account various factors and influences while considering the benefits and advantages. There are many individuals that are in favour or oppose the idea of bilingual education, however, research has revealed that there are many advantages to both the individuals and society (Pelham and Abrams, 2014). As a result of globalisation and cultural interrelations, exposure to multiple languages is a regular occurrence, leading to the promotion of bilingualism within society for both personal and social advances (Lo Bianco, 2010). Bilingualism is a resource and as a result of globalisation there is a need for bilinguals within British society, however many employers recruit bilinguals from abroad to meet these needs (Horii, 2015). The value of second languages taught within the educational system is not addressed with other subjects taking priority over modern foreign languages, leading to children developing without a solid foundation of SLA (Fairclough, 2014). Through the development of SLA, the theoretical basis has created a foundation from which linguistics can advance while investigation can commence on the circumstances that will lead to successful SLA (Ellis, 2015). At current the role of the involvement of the learning focus is gradually becoming of interest to academics. Throughout this dissertation, research has shown that much of bilingualism is linked to motivation. Overall it has been concluded that to obtain successful SLA, the individual must experience motivation in the informal environment through both community and surrounding role models (Gardener, 2010). Motivation has been demonstrated through many different sources including the enabling of communication with differing cultures in addition to the opportunities presented from intercultural relations (Richards and Schmidt, 2013). This dissertation also highlights the importance of individuality and the idea that no human being learns or develops in the same way, instead, every individual has similarities that relate to one another. This idea links closely to behaviorism, which emphasises the role that the environment has on an individual’s behaviour (Filmore, Kempler and Wang, 2014). Many biological and neurological advances provide a greater understanding of the link between bilingualism and the brain structure. Neurological benefits showed that there is a correlation between bilingualism and the development of the Broca’s area which could be linked to the delay of Alzheimer’s and various psychiatric disorders including ADHD (Pikusa and Jonczyk, 2015). Although further research needs to be completed, this dissertation highlights the impact that bilingualism has on the brain and how this influences the individual throughout life. With both languages constantly being active, an individual who is bilingual develops the advancement in inhibitory control at a much higher level than a monolingual (Marian, Shook, and Schroeder, 2013). As a result of this many bilinguals children develop more flexible and diverse mental capabilities resulting in a heightened metalinguistic awareness and enhanced memory and creativity (Ilieva and Farah, 2013). This dissertation was of great importance as it began to explore bilingualism and the influences that different variables can have on individuals successfully acquiring SLA. Furthermore, this dissertation gives an insight as to why language learning may not be as successful in Britain in comparison to surrounding countries. Linking closely to Gardeners (2010) theory of motivation, British citizens may not feel that there is a demand or need to learn a second language, as a result of globalisation English is often referred to as a ‘Global language’. From this idea, it could be argued that learning a language within Britain is not as rewarding in comparison to other countries, with no extrinsic motivation from society learning a second language is not seen as a necessity within Britain (Noels et al., 2003). Instead the rewards of learning a language correspond to the personal goals and cognitive advantages. Therefore the individual must obtain integrative motivation to be successful, which once pursued it will benefit them and as it was their choice this will lead to a greater sense of freedom and self-determination (Filmore, Kempler and Wang, 2014). Drag Link/Files Here
- Drop Files Here
- Drop Link Here
|Many theories with regards to SLA date back to the idea that the ability to able to recognise critical and social issues are vital to certain individuals as it gives us a greater comprehension as to why and how individuals learning SLA both succeed and fail (Larsen-Freeman and Long, 2014). By learning a second language, it enables the learner to communicate with people they otherwise would have not been able to, opening the doors to other cultures and helping the learner to understand and appreciate the people within them (Schmidt, 2014). While the research within this dissertation draws upon an extensive range of academic sources and research, this dissertation has shown that there are major gaps with regards to neurological understanding of how the brain truly processes and develops information. Likewise, research needs to be undergone to understand the link between the Broca’s area and psychiatric disorders and how they integrate with one another. Negative attitudes are created from a lack of motivation, however, there is yet research to be conducted into the lack of motivation for British individuals and why the education system removed the encouragement of studying a second language specifically during the critical period (Smith and Mackie, 2007). These areas of interest can be assumed through corresponding research, however, until further investigation the gaps in knowledge shall remain.|
Finally, while SLA research is extremely current with theorists and linguists laying down a foundation to understand and observe the process involved in learning a second language, alongside the internal and external variables that may contribute towards the development, there is much more work that remains to be done. Development is required between our knowledge of the human mind and scientific limitations to help us gain an understanding of the scientific processes (Altarriba and Heredia, 2011). Nevertheless, the progress made in the last few decades is phenomenal especially regarding psycholinguistics and the understanding of how motivation can help towards an individual’s learning, this allows us to continue to develop our understanding of ourselves as humans. References Abutalebi, J. and Rietbergen, M.J. (2014) “Neuroplasticity of the bilingual brain: Cognitive control and reserve,” Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(05), pp. 895–899. doi: 10.1017/s0142716414000186. Alrabai, F. and Moskovsky, C. (2016) “The relationship between Learnerss Affective variables and Second language achievement,” SSRN Electronic Journal, 7. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2814796. Altarriba, J. and Heredia, R.R. (2011) An introduction to bilingualism: Principles and processes. 2nd edn. New York, NY [etc.]: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Antoniuo, M., Liang, E., Ettlinger, M. and Wong, P.C.M. (2014) “The bilingual advantage in phonetic learning,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(04), pp. 683–695. doi: 10.1017/s1366728914000777. Appel, R. and Muysken, P. (2006) Language contact and Bilingualism (Amsterdam university press – Amsterdam archaeological studies). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Arends-Tóth, J. and van de Vijver, F.J.R. (2004) “Domains and dimensions in acculturation: Implicit theories of Turkish–Dutch,” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(1), pp. 19–35. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2003.09.001. Aron, A.R., Robbins, T.W. and Poldrack, R.A. (2014) “Right inferior frontal cortex: Addressing the rebuttals,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00905. Atkinson, J. (2014) Education, values and ethics in international heritage: Learning to respect. Aldershot, Hamps.: Ashgate Publishing. Auer, P. (2014) Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity. London: Routledge. Baker, C. (2011) Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. 5th edn. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. Barac, R. & Bialystok, E. (2012). Bilingual Effects on Cognitive and Linguistic Development: Role of Language, Cultural Background, and Education. Child Development. Beck, C. (2014) Bilingualism, executive function and attention deficit/ hyperactive disorder. Southern Illinois : OpenSIUC. Bel Habib, I. (2011) “Multilingual Skills provide Export Benefits and Better Access to New Emerging Markets,” Sens-Public, . Benson, P. (2011). Teaching and researching: Autonomy in language learning. 2nd ed. Harlow, England: Longman/Pearson. Benthin, A. (2015) Krashen’s monitor theory on the relation between spontaneous and guided language learning. United States: Grin Verlag Gmbh. Berger, B. (2002) The family in the modern age: More than a lifestyle choice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Berger, K.S. (2011) The developing person through the life span – 8th edition. 8th edn. New York: Worth Publishers Inc.,U.S. Berwick, R.C. and Chomsky, N. (2016) Why only us: Language and evolution. United States: MIT Press. Bett, R. (2010) “Plato and his predecessors ,” in Barber, A. and Stainton, R. (eds.) Concise encyclopaedia of philosophy of language and linguistics . Elservier, pp. 569–570. Bhatia, T.K. and Ritchie, W.C. (eds.) (2012) The handbook of bilingualism and multilingualism. 2nd edn. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley & Sons Ltd). Bialystok, E. (2007) “Acquisition of literacy in bilingual children: A framework for research,” Language Learning, 57, pp. 45–77. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00412.x. Bialystok, E. (2008) Encyclopedia on early childhood development Second-Language acquisition and Bilingualism at an early age and the impact on early cognitive development. Available at: http://www.highlineschools.org/cms/lib07/WA01919413/Centricity/Domain/128/Dual%20Language/Bilingualism%20at%20an%20early%20age%20-%20impact%20on%20cognitive%20development.pdf (Accessed: 19 January 2017). Bialystok, E. (2009) Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and Cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Virtual Publishing). Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M. and Luk, G. (2012) “Bilingualism: Consequences for mind and brain,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(4), pp. 240–250. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.03.001. Biesta, G. (2013) “Interrupting the politics of learning,” Power and Education, 5(1), p. pp.4–15. Bishop, D.V.M. (2013) Uncommon understanding (classic edition): Development and disorders of language comprehension in children. London, United Kingdom: Psychology Press. Block, D. (2006) “The Globalisation of English and the English language classroom,” Journal of Sociolinguistics, 10(2), pp. 258–263. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-6441.2006.0327d.x. Boeree, G. (2004) Speech and the brain. Available at: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/speechbrain.html (Accessed: 9 March 2017). Bourdieu, P. (2014) The social structures of the economy. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press. Bourdieu, P., Nice, R. and Bennett, T. (2010) Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. London: Taylor & Francis. Brain, C. and Mukherji, P. (2005) Understanding child psychology. Cheltenham, U.K.: Nelson Thornes. British academy (2009) Language Matters. London: British academy policy publications. Brown, H.D. (1980) “The optimal distance model of Second language acquisition,” TESOL Quarterly, 14(2), p. 157. doi: 10.2307/3586310. Brown, H.D. (2007) Principles of language learning and teaching. 5th edn. United States: Pearson Education (US). Byers-Heinlen, K., Burns, T. and Werker, J. (2010). The roots of Bilingualism in newborns.Psychological Science, 21(3). Callahan, R. and Gandara, P. (2014). The billingual advantage: Language, Literacy and the US labor market. 1st ed. London: Multilingual Matters. Carlson, S.M. and Meltzoff, A.N. (2008) “Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children,” Developmental Science, 11(2), pp. 282–298. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00675.x.Central Intelligence Agency (2017) Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2098.html (Accessed: 3 April 2017). Chambers, G.N. (1999) Motivating language learners. Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. Chan, B. (2004) “Beyond ‘Contextualization’: Code-switching as a ‘Textualization Cue,’” Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 23(1), pp. 7–27. doi: 10.1177/0261927×03260806. Charmorro-Premuzic, T. (2011) Personality and individual differences . 2nd edn. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. CILT (2007) ELAN: Effects on the European Economy of Shortages of Foreign Language Skills in Enterprise. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/languages/policy/strategic-framework/documents/elan_en.pdf (Accessed: 11 April 2017). Cohen, A.D. (2011) Strategies in learning and using a second language. 2nd edn. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman. Collins, A.G.E. and Frank, M.J. (2013) “Cognitive control over learning: Creating, clustering, and generalizing task-set structure,” Psychological Review, 120(1), pp. 190–229. doi: 10.1037/a0030852. Cook, V.J. and Singleton, D. (2014) Key topics in second language acquisition. United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters. Cormack, M. and Hourigan, N. (eds.) (2007) Minority language media: Concepts, critiques, and case studies. London, United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters. Correa, M.P.D.J. and Almeida, A.D. (2016) “The English language and the globalisation ,” Revista Crioula, (17). doi: 10.11606/issn.1981-7169.crioula.2016.116486. Corsellis, A. (2001) “Turning good intentions into good practice. Enabling the public services to fulfil their responsibilities.,” in Roberts, R. (ed.) The Critical Link 2: Interpreters in the Community. Amstedam: Benjamins, . Costa, A., Hernández, M. and Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2008) “Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: Evidence from the ANT task,” Cognition, 106(1), pp. 59–86. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.013. Coupland, N. (2012) The handbook of language and globalization. Edited by Nikolas Coupland. United States: Wiley, John & Sons. Craik, F.I.M., Bialystok, E. and Freedman, M. (2010) “Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: Bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve,” Neurology, 75(19), pp. 1726–1729. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0b013e3181fc2a1c. Crawford, L. and Novak, K. (2014) Individual and society: Sociological social psychology. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. Crystal, D. (2014) English as a global language. 2nd edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Csizer, K. and Magid, M. (eds.) (2014) The impact of self-concept on language learning. United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters. Cummins, J. and Davison, C. (2007) International handbook of English language teaching. 2nd edn. New York: Springer-Verlag New York. D’Esposito, M., Postle, B.R., Ballard, D. and Lease, J. (1999) “Maintenance versus manipulation of information held in working memory: An event-related fMRI study,” Brain and Cognition, 41(1), pp. 66–86. doi: 10.1006/brcg.1999.1096. Davide, L.R. (2014) Behavioral Lateralization in vertebrates: Two sides of the same coin. Berlin. De Houwer, A. (2009) Bilingual first language acquisition. Bristol, UK: Channel View Publications. Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (2013) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. North Charleston, SC, United States: Springer-Verlag New York. Department for Education and School and college qualifications and curriculum (2014) National curriculum. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-curriculum (Accessed: 2 February 2017). Divitz , J.R. (2016) The language of emotion . London: Academic press . Dörnyei, Z. (1998) “Motivation in second and foreign language learning,” Language Teaching, 31(03), p. 117. doi: 10.1017/s026144480001315x. Dörnyei, Z. (2006) The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. United States: Routledge Member of the Taylor and Francis Group. Dörnyei, Z. and Ushioda, E. (2013) Teaching and researching: Motivation. 2nd edn. United Kingdom: Routledge. Doughty, C.J. and Long, M.H. (2003) The handbook of Second language acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Durkheim, E. (2003) Émile Durkheim: Sociologist of modernity. Edited by Mustafa Emirbayer. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Ellis, P.R. (2015) Understanding Second language acquisition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Ellis, R. (2009) “Second language acquisition, teacher education and language pedagogy,” Language Teaching, 43(02), p. 182. doi: 10.1017/s0261444809990139. Euromonitor International for the British Council (2010) The Benefits of the English Language for Individuals and Societies: Quantitative Indicators from Cameroon, Nigeria, Rwanda, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Available at: https://englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/attachments/euromonitoreporta4.pdf (Accessed: 11 April 2017). Fabbro, F. (2000) “Pathological switching between languages after frontal lesions in a bilingual patient,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 68(5), pp. 650–652. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.68.5.650. Fairclough, N. (2014) Critical language awareness. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. Field, J. (2005) “Intelligibility and the listener: The role of lexical stress,” TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), p. 399. doi: 10.2307/3588487. Filmore, C.J., Kempler, D. and Wang, W.S. (eds.) (2014) Individual differences in language ability and language behaviour. . London: Academic press. Fox, E. (2008) Emotion science: Cognitive and Neuroscientific approaches to understanding human emotions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Gao, X. (2010) Strategic language learning: The roles of agency and context. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters. Garbin, G., Sanjuan, A., Forn, C., Bustamante, J.C., Rodriguez-Pujadas, A., Belloch, V., Hernandez, M., Costa, A. and Ávila, C. (2010) “Bridging language and attention: Brain basis of the impact of bilingualism on cognitive control,” NeuroImage, 53(4), pp. 1272–1278. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.078 Gardner, R.C. (2010) Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. Gardner-Chloros, P. (2009) Code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Genesse, F.H. (2009) “Early childhood bilingualism: Perils and possibilities. ,” Journal of applied research on learning , 2(2), pp. 1–21. Goldstein, S. and Naglieri, J. (2011) “Encyclopedia of child behavior and development,” Reference Reviews, 25(6), pp. 10–11. doi: 10.1108/09504121111155932. Gould, R. and Riordan, T. (2010) “Learning modern foreign languages in England and wales,” Sociolinguistica, 24(1). doi: 10.1515/9783110223323.204. Green, M. (2009) “Language understanding and knowledge of meaning,” Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication, 5(1). doi: 10.4148/biyclc.v5i0.281. Grenfell, M.J. (2011) Bourdieu, language and linguistics. London New York: Continuum. Grosjean , F. (1989) “Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals In one person.,” Brain and language , 36(1), pp. 3–15. Grosjean, F. (2010) Bilingual: Life and reality. . 1st edn. Cambridge : Harvard university press. Hemon , K. (2011) Migrant Communities and the “Big Society” Struggling to Belong in the Age of Austerity. Available at:http://migrantsorganise.org/wp-content/uploads/Migrant-Communities-and-the-Big-Society-report-MRCF-2011.pdf(Accessed: 10 April 2017). Henter, R. (2014) “Affective factors involved in learning a foreign language,” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 127, pp. 373–378. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.274. Hepper, P. (2015) “Behavior during the prenatal period: Adaptive for development and survival,” Child Development Perspectives, 9(1), pp. 38–43. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12104. Hergenhahn, B.R. and Olson, M.H. (2008) Introduction to the theories of learning. 8th edn. United States: Pearson Prentice Hall. Hernandez, A.E., Dapretto, M., Mazziotta, J. and Bookheimer, S. (2001) “Language switching and language representation in Spanish–English Bilinguals: An fMRI study,” NeuroImage, 14(2), pp. 510–520. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0810. Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Senor, M. and Parra, M. (2011) “Dual language exposure and early bilingual development,” Journal of Child Language, 39(01), pp. 1–27. doi: 10.1017/s0305000910000759. Horii, S.Y. (2015) “The multilingual turn in languages education: Opportunities and challenges, edited by J. Conteh and G. Meier,” Language and Education, 29(4), pp. 369–371. doi: 10.1080/09500782.2015.1016956. Hulstijn, J.H. (2005) “THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING: Introduction,” Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(02). doi: 10.1017/s0272263105050084. Hughes, C.E., Shaunessy, E.S., Brice, A.R., Ratliff, M.A. and McHatton, P.A. (2006) “Code switching among bilingual and limited English proficient students: Possible indicators of Giftedness,” Journal for the education of the gifted, 30 (1), pp. 7-28. Doi: 10.1177/016235320603000102. Ilieva, I.P. and Farah, M.J. (2013) “Enhancement stimulants: Perceived motivational and cognitive advantages,” Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00198. Ishihara, N. and Cohen, A.D. (2014) Teaching and learning Pragmatics: Where language and culture meet. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. Jackson, J. (ed.) (2013) The Routledge handbook of language and intercultural communication. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. Juffs, A. (2007). Second Language Acquisition of Relative Clauses in the Languages of East Asia. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 29(02). Juffs, A. (2010) “Second language acquisition,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2(3), pp. 277–286. doi: 10.1002/wcs.106. Junker, D.A. and Stockman, I.J. (2002) “Expressive vocabulary of German-English bilingual toddlers,” American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11(4), p. 381. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2002/042). Kail, R.V. (2009) Children and their development. 5th edn. Boston, MA, United States: Pearson Education International. Keenan, E.O. (2014) “Making it last: Repetition in children’s discourse,” Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 1. doi: 10.3765/bls.v1i0.2336. Kiijarvi, S. (2006) Europeans and their languages. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf (Accessed: 12 April 2017). King, E.M. (1990) Globalization, knowledge, and society: Readings from international sociology. Edited by Martin Albrow and E. King. London: Sage Publications. Klein, E.C. and Martohardjono, G. (1999) The development of second language grammars: A generative approach. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub Co. Kostelnik, M.J., Gregory, K.M. and Rupiper, M. (2014) Guiding children’s social development and learning: Theory and skills. 8th edn. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Kovelman, I., Baker, S.A. and Petitto, L.-A. (2008) “Bilingual and Monolingual brains compared: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of syntactic processing and a possible ‘Neural Signature’ of Bilingualism,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(1), pp. 153–169. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20.1.153. Krashen, S.D. (2003) Explorations in language acquisition and use: The Taipei lectures. 5th edn. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books,U.S. Lantolf, J.P. and Poehner, M.E. (2014) Sociocultural theory and the pedagogical imperative in L2 education: Vygotskian praxis and the research/practice divide. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. Lantolf, J.P. and Thorne, S.L. (2006) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of Second language development. 2nd edn. OXFORD: Oxford University Press. Larsen-Freeman, D. and Long, M.H. (1991) An introduction to second language acquisition research. 9th edn. New York: Longman Publishing Group. Larsen-Freeman, D. and Long, M.H. (2014) An introduction to Second language acquisition research. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. Lee, S.Y.M. and Wang, Z. (2015) “Multi-view learning for emotion detection in code-switching texts,” 2015 International Conference on Asian Language Processing (IALP), . doi: 10.1109/ialp.2015.7451539. Lei, S.A. (2010) “Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Evaluating benefits and drawbacks from college instructors perspectives.,” Journal of instructional psychology , 37(2), pp. 153–160. Li, Y., Wu, S. and Liu, L. (2013) “The effect of Billingual experiences on Cognition abilities,” Advances in Psychological Science, 20(7), pp. 995–1002. doi: 10.3724/sp.j.1042.2012.00995. Lindquist, K.A., Satpute, A.B. and Gendron, M. (2015) “Does language do more than communicate emotion?,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(2), pp. 99–108. doi: 10.1177/0963721414553440. Lindsey, L.L. (2015) Gender roles A sociological perspective. 6th edn. Taylor and Francis. Lo Bianco, J. (2010) “The importance of language policies and multilingualism for cultural diversity,” International Social Science Journal, 61(199), pp. 37–67. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2451.2010.01747.x. Lo Bianco, J. (2010) “The importance of language policies and multilingualism for cultural diversity,” International Social Science Journal, 61(199), pp. 37–67. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2451.2010.01747.x. Long, M. (2013) “Maturational constraints in child and adult SLA. ,” in Sensitive periods, language aptitude and ultimate L2 attainment . Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 3–42. Luttermann, A. (2014) “Linguistic and Cultural Homogenization in the Face of Global Change, a Subarctic Example,” Handbook of Global Environmental Pollution, 1, pp. 903–909. Mac Giolla, D. (2016) The Welsh Language Commissioner in Context: Roles, Methods and Relationships. 1st edn. Cardiff : University of Cardiff press. Mackey, W. (2014) “Bilingual education and its social implications ,” in Edwards, J. (ed.) Linguistic Minorities, Policies and Pluralism: Applied Language Studies. London: Academic press , p. Pg. 151–176. Macnamara, B.N. and Conway, A.R.A. (2013) “Novel evidence in support of the bilingual advantage: Influences of task demands and experience on cognitive control and working memory”, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21 (2), pp. 520-525. Doi: 10.3758/s13423-0524-y. Marian, V., Shook, A. and Schroeder, S.R. (2013) “Bilingual Two-Way immersion programs benefit academic achievement,” Bilingual Research Journal, 36(2), pp. 167–186. doi: 10.1080/15235882.2013.818075.Marion Williams. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Mateus, S.G. (2014) “Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism, and education,” Bilingual Research Journal, 37(3), pp. 366–369. doi: 10.1080/15235882.2014.965361. Matris, Y. (2014) The census has got it wrong on languages | the university of Manchester. Available at: http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/news/display/?id=9448 (Accessed: 12 April 2017). Meisel, J. (2004) “The bilingual child ,” in T, B. and Ritchie , W. (eds.) The handbook of bilingualism . Blackwell publishing , pp. 91–113. Meisel, J. (2010). Bilingual language acquisition and theories of diachronic change: Bilingualism as case and effect of grammatical. Bilingualism: Language and cognition, 14(2), pp.121-145. Mercer, S. (2014) Multiple perspectives on the self in SLA. Edited by Sarah Mercer and Marion Williams. Meulman, N., Wieling, M., Sprenger, S.A., Stowe, L.A. and Schmid, M.S. (2015) “Age effects in L2 grammar processing as revealed by ERPs and how (not) to study them,” PLOS ONE, 10(12), p. e0143328. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143328. Miller, B.L. and Cummings, J.L. (2014) The human frontal lobes: Functions and disorders. 2nd edn. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Miller, S. (2004) Pronunciation and the adults ESL learner . Available at: http://www.pde.state.pa.us/able/lib/able/fieldnotes04/fn04eslpronounciation.pdf (Accessed: 15 March 2017). Mitchell, R., Myles, F. and Marsden, E. (2012) Second language learning theories. 3rd edn. London: Hodder Education. Mooney, C.G., 2013. Theories of Childhood: An Introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget & Vygotsky. Redleaf Press. Mortimer, J.A., Alladi, S., Bak, T.H., Russ, T.C., Shailaja, M. and Duggirala, V. (2014) “Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status,” Neurology, 82(21), pp. 1936–1936. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000000400. Moyer, A. (2004) Age, accent, and experience in second language acquisition: An integrated approach to critical period inquiry. Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. Myles, F. (2000) Second language acquisition (SLA) research: Its significance for learning and teaching issues. Available at: https://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/421#toc_3 (Accessed: 5 April 2017). Ni, H. (2012) “The effects of Affective factors in SLA and pedagogical implications,” Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(7). doi: 10.4304/tpls.2.7.1508-1513. Noels, K.A., Pelletier, L.G., Clément, R. and Vallerand, R.J. (2003) “Why are you learning a Second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory,” Language Learning, 53(S1), pp. 33–64. doi: 10.1111/1467-9922.53223. Olsen, R.K., Pangelinan, M.M., Bogulski, C., Chakravarty, M.M., Luk, G., Grady, C.L. and Bialystok, E. (2015) “The effect of lifelong bilingualism on regional grey and white matter volume,” Brain Research, 1612, pp. 128–139. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2015.02.034. ONS (2012) 2011 Cenus for England and Wales. Partanen, E., Kujala, T., Tervaniemi, M. and Huotilainen, M. (2013) “Prenatal music exposure induces long-term neural effects,” PLoS ONE, 8(10), p. e78946. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078946. Patterson, J., Barbara, L. and Rodriguez, L. (2016) Multilingual perspectives on child language disorders. United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters. Pawlak, M. (2015) “Multiple perspectives on the self in SLA, editors: Sarah Mercer and Marion Williams, publisher: Multilingual matters, 2014, ISBN: 978-1-78309-134-8, Studies in second language learning and Teaching, 5(1), doi: 10.14746/ssllt.2015.5.1.10. Payne, M. (2014) Modern social work theory. 4th edn. Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. Pelham, S.D. and Abrams, L. (2014) “Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(2), pp. 313–325. doi: 10.1037/a0035224. Pennycook, A. (2014) The cultural politics of English as an international language. United States: Routledge. Piaget, J., Piercy, M. and Berlyne, D. (2001). The psychology of intellegence. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge. Pikusa, M. and Jończyk, R. (2015) “Functional abnormalities in Broca’s area in adolescents with ADHD: A resting-state fMRI study,” Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 51(1). doi: 10.1515/psicl-2015-0006. Pinaud, R., Burrows, K., Jeong, J.-K. and Tremere, L.A. (2011) “Organization of estrogen-associated circuits in the mouse primary Auditory cortex,” Journal of Experimental Neuroscience, , p. 45. doi: 10.4137/jen.s7744. Plappert, S. (2010) Intercultural communication, Globalisation and advertising: The influence of culture in global advertising campaigns. Germany: GRIN Verlag GmbH. Ragnarsdóttir, H.J. (2016) Official Language and Education Policies. In Monolingual Iceland and Multilingual Luxembourg. . Rai, L. and Deng, C. (2014) “Glocalisation and English language education in Chinese context,” Globalisation, Societies and Education, 14(1), pp. 127–144. doi: 10.1080/14767724.2014.980226. Rata, G. (2013) The English of tourism. Cambridge : Cambridge scholars publishing . Rebuschat, P. (2013) “Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge in Second language research,” Language Learning, 63(3), pp. 595–626. doi: 10.1111/lang.12010. Ribot, K.M., Hoff, E. and Burridge, A. (2017) “Language use contributes to expressive language growth: Evidence from bilingual children,” Child Development, . doi: 10.1111/cdev.12770. Richards, J.C. and Schmidt, R.W.W. (2013) Language and communication. 7th edn. New York: Routledge . Rilling, J.K. (2014) “Comparative primate neurobiology and the evolution of brain language systems,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 28, pp. 10–14. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2014.04.002. Rimal, R.N. and Lapinski, M.K. (2015) “A Re-Explication of social norms, Ten years later,” Communication Theory, 25(4), pp. 393–409. doi: 10.1111/comt.12080. Robinson, M. (2008) Child development from birth to Eight: A journey through the early years. Maidenhead: Open University Press, McGraw Hill. Roeper, T. (2011) “Minimalism and bilingualism: How and why bilingualism could benefit children with SLI,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(01), pp. 88–101. doi: 10.1017/s1366728911000605.Role of Language, Cultural Background, and Education. Child Development. Rothman, J. (2009) “Theories in Second language acquisition: An introduction ,” The Modern Language Journal, 93(4), pp. 648–649. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00948.x. Rowland, C. (2013) Understanding child language acquisition. London: Routledge. Ryan , R.M. and Deci, E.L. (2017) Self-determination theory: basic psychological needs in motivation, development and wellness . 1st edn. New York: Guildford publishing . Salzmann, Z., Stanlaw, J.M. and Adachi, N. (2011) Language, culture, and society: An introduction to linguistic anthropology. 5th edn. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Sam, D.L. and Berry, J.W. (2010) “Acculturation: When individuals and groups of different cultural backgrounds meet,” Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(4), pp. 472–481. doi:10.1177/1745691610373075. Sandak, R. and Fiez, J.A. (2000) “Stuttering: A view from neuroimaging,” The Lancet, 356(9228), pp. 445–446. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(00)02547-2. Sanz, C. (ed.) (2005) Mind and context in adult second language acquisition: Methods, theory, and practice. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Schinke-Llano, L. (1993). On the Value of a Vygotskian Framework for SLA Theory and Research. Language Learning, 43(1), pp.121-129. Schmidt, A. (2014) Between the languages: Code-switching in bilingual communication. United States: Anchor Academic Publishing. Schuller, B. and Batliner, A.M. (2013) Computational paralinguistics: Emotion, affect and personality in speech and language processing. United Kingdom: Wiley. Schulz , B. (2008) “The Importance of Soft Skills: Education beyond Academic Knowledge.,” Nawa: Journal of Language & Communication , 2(1), pp. p146–154. SCILT (2010) Modern Languages in Scottish Schools Language Trends in S4 . Available at: http://www.scilt.org.uk/News/NewsView/tabid/1311/articleType/CategoryView/categoryId/223/Language-Learning.aspx (Accessed: 7 February 2017). Sebba, M., Mahootian, S. and Jonsson, C. (eds.) (2012) Language mixing and code-switching in writing: Approaches to mixed-language written discourse. New York: Routledge. Senhas, R.J. and Stanlaw, J.M. (2001) “Society for Lingusitic anthropology,” Anthropology News, 42(4), pp. 55–55. doi: 10.1111/an.2001.42.4.55.1. Singleton, D.M. and Ryan, L. (2004) Language acquisition: The age factor (2nd edition). 2nd edn. Buffalo: Multilingual Matters, c2004. Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Clarke, P. (2000) Supporting identity, diversity, and language in the early years. Buckingham, United Kingdom: Open University Press. Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Walker, S. (2007) A sociology of educating. Edited by Roland Meighan, Clive Harber, and Len Barton. 5th edn. London, UK: Continuum International Publishing Group. Slee, P.T. and Shute, R.H. (2014) Child development: Thinking about theories texts in developmental psychology. London: Routledge. Smith, E. and Mackie, D. (2007). Social Psychology. 3rd ed. New York: Psychology Press. Smith, N. (2004) Chomsky: Ideas and ideals. 2nd edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Sommer, I.E.C. and Kahn, R.S. (eds.) (2009) Language lateralization and psychosis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Spybey, T. (1995) Globalization and world society. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press. State, M. (2014). Theories in second language acquisition. In: Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction, 2nd ed. London: Routledge. Statista (2016) The most spoken languages worldwide | statistic. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/266808/the-most-spoken-languages-worldwide/ (Accessed: 2 February 2017). Stevenson, A. (2010) Oxford dictionary of English. 3rd edn. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Stinson, M. and Winston, J. (2016) “Drama education and second language learning: A growing field of practice and research,” Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance, 16(4), pp. 479–488. doi: 10.1080/13569783.2011.616395. Studdert-Kennedy, M. (2013) Biological and Behavioural determinants of language development. Edited by N. A. Krasnegor, Duane M. Rumbaugh, Richard L. Schiefelbusch, and Esther Thelen. United States: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Sturgeon, P. (2016). Aptitude, Attitude, and Motivation as Predictors in Foreign Language Learning. [online] Academia.edu. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/213230/Aptitude_Attitude_and_Motivation_as_Predictors_in_Foeign_Language_Learning [Accessed 5 Jan. 2017]. Swain, M., Kinnear, P. and Steinman, L. (2015) Sociocultural theory in second language education: An introduction through narratives. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Talaber, J. (2011) The Neurobiological factors in Second language learning and acquisition. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1q0UxIhM3YUC&pg=PA4&dq=second+language+biology&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiG9r_PjKHPAhVFuhoKHRtNDNoQ6AEIGzAA#v=onepage&q=second%20language&f=false (Accessed: 21 September 2016). The brain from top to bottom (2017). Description of the Broca’s area and Wernickes areas. [image] Available at:http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_10/i_10_cr/i_10_cr_lan/i_10_cr_lan_1b.jpg [Accessed 18 Apr. 2017]. Tomasello, M. (2005) Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Tommasi, L., Peterson, M.A. and Nadel, L. (eds.) (2009) Cognitive biology: Evolutionary and developmental perspectives on mind, brain, and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Turnbull, B. (2016) “Reframing foreign language learning as bilingual education: Epistemological changes towards the emergent bilingual,” International journal of bilingual education and Bilingualism, pp. 1-8.doi: 10.1080/13670050.2016.1238866. Ushioda, E. (2010) “Motivation and SLA: Bridging the gap,” EUROSLA Yearbook, 10, pp. 5–20. doi: 10.1075/eurosla.10.03ush. Vanpatten, B. and Wiilliams, J. (2016). Theories in second language acquisition. 1st ed. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. VanPatten, B. and Williams, J. (eds.) (2006) Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction. United States: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Watson, J.B. (2010) Behaviorism. London, United Kingdom: Yokai Publishing. Weber, K., Christiansen, M.H., Petersson, K.M., Indefrey, P. and Hagoort, P. (2016) “FMRI syntactic and lexical repetition effects reveal the initial stages of learning a new language,” Journal of Neuroscience, 36(26), pp. 6872–6880. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.3180-15.2016. Whitehead, M.R. (2002) Developing language and literacy with young children. 2nd end. London: Paul Chapman Educational Publishing. Wittgenstein, L., Russell, B. and Ogden, C. (1922). Tractatus logico-philosophicus. 1st ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Woumans, E., Santens, P., Sieben, A., Versijpt, J., Stevens, M. and Duyck, W. (2014) “Bilingualism delays clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease,” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(03), pp. 568–574. doi: 10.1017/s136672891400087x. Yaghobi, H. (2005) Language translation and the relationship of cultures . Tehran: Ghazal print . Yang, C. (2010) The infinite gift: How children learn and Unlearn the languages of the world. New York: Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group. Yliopisto, H. (2017) Babies can learn their first lullabies in the womb . Available at: https://www.sttinfo.fi/tiedote/babies-can-learn-their-first-lullabies-in-the-womb?publisherId=3747&releaseId=9151586 (Accessed: 9 March 2017). Yow, W.Q. (2014) “Monolingual and bilingual preschoolers’ use of gestures to interpret ambiguous pronouns,” Journal of Child Language, 42(06), pp. 1394–1407. doi: 10.1017/s0305000914000737.