The data analysis chapter has been divided into two parts. In the first part, I have tried to do some sort of quantitative analysis. The first part is based on the financial statements and key ratios of both the chosen banks. Again it was broken down into sub-points like the analysis of data before recession and after recession. Some key ratios were calculated, compared and analysed from the financial data of last 10 years for both the banks.
The second part of this chapter is a mixture of literature review data analysis and some points were written with reference to the analysis done in first part in my own words.
4.1 Analysis of Data Derived from Financial Statements and Ratios
4.1.1 Bank Status before Recession & After Recession
To be able to answer our research questions it is imperative to look at the two companies’ data from financial statements, this will reveal the risks inherent in each banks operation. The analysis utilizes data from the financial statements of the banks under review from year 2005 to 2010 just before recession started. While the two banks have similarities in risk management RBS use pounds while HSBC use dollars as the basis currency in the books of accounts, while this may hinder the analysis especially quantitative analysis the general data increase and decrease is an important aspect sufficient for this study.
4.2 Financial Position of RBS
4.2.1 Financial Position of RBS before recession (2004-2005, 2005-2006, 2006-2007)
The Royal Bank of Scotland turnover had been on steady increase, in the financial year ending December 2007 the turnover was £30,366 million; in 2005 the turnover was £25902 million while in the year ending 2006 turnover increased to £28002 million.
In 2005 operating profits were £7936 million while in 2006 operating profits increased marginally to £9186 and in 2007 £9807 million. Profits before tax has been on steady increase from £7936million in 2005 to £9186 and £9832 million in 2006 and 2007 million respectively.
4.2.2 Financial Position of RBS After Recession (2007-2008, 2009-2010)
The turnover for year 2008 was £25868 Million and finally the turnover for the year ending December 2009 was £38690 million. In but in 2008 and 2009 losses of £40836 and £2595 were recorded respectively, this was after recession started.
The full details for the full year 2010 results have not been announced but the first half results profits had increased by 44% to £3950 million.
Royal Bank of Scotland Profit and loss Extracts
Year Ended 31 Dec
Profits before tax
Source; RBS website
4.3 Financial Positions of HSBC
4.3.1 Financial Positions of HSBC before recession
On the other hand the turnovers for HSBC on the financial years under review were as follows; year 2007 the turnover was $ 87601 million, $ 61704 million in 2005 and $70070 million in 2006 in terms of operating profits, the group managed $20966.0m, $21240.0m and $22709.0m in years 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Profits before tax were $20966m, $22086m, and $24212m in years 2005, 2006, and 2007.
4.3.2 Financial Positions of HSBC After recession
The group managed a turnover of $ 88571 million and $ 78631 million in 2008 and 2009 accounting periods respectively. HSBC recorded $ 22709 million profit in 2007; however the profits declined substantially to $7646 million in 2008 and $ 5298 in 2009 again profits were affected as recessionary fears started. In third quarter of 2010 the profits increased marginally.
HSBC Profit and Loss Extracts
Year Ended 31 Dec
Profit before tax
Source: HSBC website
4.4 Tabular, Graphical representation, interpretation and analysis of key ratios of HSBC & RBS for last 10 years
In the next few pages, I have tried to present the data in tables, graphs and charts. Some of the data was presented and calculated for last 10 years and some for the last 5-6 years. Some of the key ratios as given below were calculated, analysed and compared for both the banks.
Net Interest Margin
Return on equity
Non-performing assets ratio
Loans Turnover ratio
Loans to Assets ratio
Gross Yield on Earning Assets (GYEA)
HSBC Ratio Analysis in percentage
Year Ending 31 Dec
2010 up to June
Net Interest Margin
Nonperforming assets ratio
Loans Turnover ratio
Loans to Assets ratio
Source: Data glanced from HSBC website and did personal analysis.
Figure 4 HSBC ratio analyses
(Note: all the figures are in percentage)
RBS Ratio analysis as a percentage
Year Ending 31 Dec
2010 up to June
Net Interest Margin
Nonperforming Assets Ratio
Loans Turnover Ratio
Loans to Assets Ratio
Source: Data glanced from RBS website and did personal analysis
Fig. Comparison of the two banks P&L data
Generally over the years the turnover of the two banks has been increasing but the increase in HSBC turnover has been moderate while that of RBS has been steep. HSBC has managed to remain profitable for the period of analysis showing that the company has been able to mitigate the risks well as compared to RBS. RBS made substantial operating losses amounting to 2595 million in 2009 and had to be supported by the government as a result of subprime mortgage crisis. The data show that HSBC has adopted prudent management even though profits declined, the ratios show the group has maintained strong capital base
During the two years before year 2009 and after the two banks were adversely affected by economic condition. The profit and loss analysis from the two banks show that HSBC has been able to tackle liquidity risks well as it has been able to maintain profitability through out even during the recession on the other hand RBS was affected and made losses in 2007, 2008 and 2009 but the half year available indicate the bank has returned to profitability after the government support.
The profitability before tax is shown in the figure below.
Source: Data glanced from RBS and HSBC websites and did personal analysis
Note: HSBS figures are in million dollars while figures for RBS are in million pounds.
4.5 Literature Review Data Analysis
This dissertation presents the underlying strategies and approaches applied by the top UK banks in learning the differences between HSBC and Royal Bank of Scotland. The strategies and approaches are observed before and after the recession period when assets and stocks were reducing in value putting the banks in worst case financial scenario. To compare their financial, business and operational risks concern will create a bigger picture. The aim is to determine which between the two banks has a better and effective approach and strategy in the risk-reduction initiatives (Drew & Michael, et al., 1996)
Banks in United Kingdom have relied upon a proven system of strong liquidity risk management. This has been in existence for over three years now and since the system was started banks have made it a priority to update their systems of risk management to keep abreast with the changing demands of the society and technological innovations associated with risk management. Financial stability is easily achieved by following less complicated process and that is to stick to the rules and created in less difficult way that whenever you try to explain it to a customer or client. The grasp of the policy will then be easily absorbed (Issing, 2004).
The liquidity risk management of most United Kingdom has been seen to be strong and responsive whenever banks experience risks. Banks have to ensure that they exercise prudent risk management to be able to provide customer satisfaction, but some of the banks are less committed to the task to minimize their exposure to risks. It can be costly to the bank and expose the bank to court cases, licence cancellation by the supervisory authorities and customers withdrawing from the bank. The only way to do this is to create a reliable system of liquidity risk management (Issing, 2004).
Risk management actions count the most in the future and especially in setting the reputation of the banks. Extra effort is required in creating policies that will withstand the effect of any risks. Being able to communicate the recent risk situation among the team members will help a lot in the resolution and in effectively carrying out the regulations which they intended to implement for the banks organization. A manifestation of a high level of activity would spell a lot of difference compared to those who lag behind due to poor management risk planning (Kahf & Homud, 1998).
An effective liquidity risk management is able to make anticipations on the occurrence of future risks. There is also a type of liquidity risk management that can only provide satisfactory level of service or performance, however, it possess certain weakness though very insignificant, it may still deliver anticipated results like those managements that are strong since it only manifest very minor signs ineffectiveness (Bank of England 2007).
HSBS and the Royal Bank of Scotland are not just the top banks in United Kingdom they are the two banks that show an impressive liquidity risk management. This record could be very much proven by the profits earned annually and the impression they make among their customers is excellent and they never settle for anything less. The two banks have applied similar systems although HSBC is the bank that shows the most impressive and effective strategy/ approach against a liquidity risk. They always make sure to protect not only their money but also protect the welfare of their customers and intend to move with them and manage their finances by avoiding incompetence in dealing with liquidity risks. HSBS guides their customer from the time they enter the institution until the time they become part of a much growing and impressive banking industry (Bank of England 2007).
In the last two years HSBC only experienced short term recession only, they had prepared for the recession, through management and the fact that they had experienced a crisis before and had rectified it by creating a frame work that worked well for the bank. Prudent risk management at HSBC can be analysed by looking at the profits that the bank has earned recently where the bank doubled its half-year profits by posting £7 billion as at August 2010, this is at a time when smaller banks were feeling the effects of recession. Analysts have seen the capabilities of the bank base from their well-managed systems and strategies. They had already expected such things to happen so there is nothing surprising about that (Goodway, 2007). The banks have taken all necessary precautions and the management maintains optimism that in case of risks they will find a way out.
The way the two banks react to problems is always quick thus they are able to find real time solutions. This strategy is a good way of keeping loyal customers. The primary goal is to offer consistency in performance whether the nature of the transaction differs or not, this is exemplified by the HSBC spirit of being consistent and reliable in every possible way.
One of the ways that the banks have avoided the risks is to anticipate the risks thus making in advance plans. HSBC has made a point to anticipate risks and make plans to mitigate or avoid the risks completely, this is seen in the banks preparation of the recession in the last two years the bank made adequate plans and adopted prudent lending, adopted technology and minimized operations expenses, while other bank were unprepared and had to be rescued by the government. HSBC operates inn flexible economies, this has been explained by looking at the diversity of the markets it operates, and this gave the bank diversity as not all markets experienced recession.
HSBC reaction to risks is a testimony to its objective to effectively handle risks, one such objective identified in the study was is to create liquidity through making an arrangement to leaseback or sell assets whenever loans are defaulted (Goodway, 2007)
On the other hand, the Royal Bank of Scotland has similar strategies, before recession the management had drawn a plan on risk management, this is exemplified by the fact that they didn’t change their banking rates during this period. Although they needed to take precautions on the insurance, once this has been resolved they could go back to the most important part which is keeping the business even more profitable (Aldrick, 2008).
Royal Bank of Scotland (2011) strategy has been to invest heavily in being relevant to the needs of the customer; the bank has also created a buffer to protect the bank in times of recession.
In 2007 the bank lost 3% in book value as it experienced subprime related mortgage crisis, but the bank made an effort in ensuring that the customers’ needs were addressed as soon as possible and assured clients that their accounts with the bank were safe.
The Royal Bank of Scotland has not seen changes in sub-prime related write downs, the bank has remained stable. During the recession the bank still managed £ 1.1 billion in half year profits, though the bank was affected by recession as it could not prevent the effects of recession on their profits and capital enhancements.
When making a comparison between the two banks, they differ on how they carry out their risk strategies but have similar characteristics.
4.5.1 Implications of recession on house mortgage and corresponding subprime losses
HSBC has always tried to offer options that are sustaining and a relief to those who are about to lose their home due to the effect of recession, some of the options are leaseback and sales. In terms risk management HSBC has adopted a different approach when it comes to helping customers experiencing cash flow problems in paying mortgage. The bank identifies the need to assess the urgency to save the customer’s financial status or his house under mortgage (Goodway, 2007); the bank allows customers to modify their loan allowing customers to pay the loan at an adjusted future time. This reduces the risk to both the customer and the bank.
On the other hand Royal Bank of Scotland reduce risks by allowing variable or fixed mortgage rate, and has applied the straightforward approach where a customer mortgage application is approved decisively, this ensures the payments are as flexible as possible. The bank has also limited the bank charges it can attach to an account thus creating customer satisfaction.
4.5.2 Bank Strategies and Policies Applied
The effectiveness of the bank’s strategy and approach can be analysed by looking at how well the bank’s management performed their roles. As risks are recognized the management needs to assess the risks and careful interpretation of the consequences. If the management do not carefully assess the crisis, then the risk might probably worsen until it can no longer be helped (RBS, 2011).
The loan modification adopted by HSBC may not work as it is difficult to find a common ground. It may also not be possible to carry out assessment and evaluation.
The Royal Bank of Scotland has minimized its risk exposure by allowing the straightforward method, thus the bank is able to assess the qualification of each customer.
4.5.3 Criteria for house mortgage loan allocation
Both banks utile interest options, period of payment, and a flexible payment options. However, the criteria need to be assessed on individual application basis while at the same time maintaining objectivity and should not be applied to all. This criterion has to be flexible in terms of meeting the customer needs such as unforeseen circumstances. The current criteria risk the banks profit if it is contravened, it should allow the customers meet their monthly loan repayment deadlines.
It can be very well taken into account that the system used by these two is similar to those applied by the rest of the banks in United Kingdom (Effros, 1998). However, the researcher intends to discuss the reliability of the system utilized by the two chosen banks as they encounter inevitable risks in global economic environment. A study of the HSBC system shows how well they have managed risks that have placed other banks in receivership. The study helps to understand the important issues needs to be tackled by a bank to manage risks successfully.
The two banks have had good financial risk management, in terms managing the credit and market risks by having a proper risk assessment. These two risks take place when an improper assessment is made (Newman, 2006).
Strong and reliable management organization has been used as a tool to help the banks strengthen and arrive to a risk free system. In case of system failures a dependable measure has been created that would minimize financial implications.
The bank’s initiative is to push the participation of the depositors in the program and to treat them as among the driving force which affects the system. The methods are extensively researched and adapted among institutions which mean that it has been carefully checked (Banks, 2003).
Extensive study on the feasibility of the issue in addressing the effectiveness of system implemented in the banking institution. In the previous discussion, regarding the imposition of law affecting banking system, the European banks are known to be sanctioned under a strict regulation whereby giving them less control over their own management. The variability in the solution technique being employed by either HSBC or the Royal Bank of Scotland cannot simply be the solution to this problem. It is the way they approach the problem with a system proven by time.
The HSBC and the Royal Bank of Scotland have several financial planning portfolios in helping the customers reach their goals. The two banks have manifested expertise in providing the most expert advice on planning and investing. They consider it as their responsibility to provide their customer with the best advice available and have to be right and fitting to their customers’ needs. They exert and commit themselves as they go the extra mile of keeping their customers for a lifetime by answering and addressing quickly their customers growing demands and they have never failed to do so (Newman, 2006).
The banks will not wait in vain but makes sure that they get to customers and provides them with a personalized service that cannot be found from other bank institutions creating confidence and trust with the customers. No wonder these two banks were voted top United Kingdom banks (Duttweiler, 2009).
The assessment of the policy utilized by these two banks operates as a measure that monitors whether a prescribed risk guideline has been complied with and then makes a report accordingly (Crouhy, 2006). The design of the policy has been able to achieve the appropriate strategy, though require the framework and the funding capacity be adequately met by the funding institution. The design as a result, gives the customer the assurance and the security as they are given the key role and part in developing the system.
The United Banking system has also been extensively analysed in this dissertation. Risks such as the financial and operational risks has been analysed by relating them to the strategies being employed by each bank, thus, an empirical method has been applied by exploring details about each bank.
Various important factors about a banking institutions risk management system have been looked into as well. Looking into the advantages of a well-organized risk management banking system will help minimize damages brought by liquidity risks. A well-managed and well carried management plan will save the bank from recovering from years, after suffering from significant financial risks.
Conclusions and Recommendations
While the data analysed show similarities in the way the two banks manage liquidity risks HSBC has prudently managed the risks better as compared to RBS. The profits before tax for the two banks indicate that RBS made losses for the last two years while HSBC has maintained profitability despite recession.
Fair amount of loans have been advanced that may not pose great risk to both banks, the loan to asset rate is low for both banks and this reduces unnecessary exposure to bad debts.
The ratios indicate the banks have maintained adequate capital bases that can with stand systemic risks. HSBC has managed to maintain low operating margins leveraging on technology to deliver products thus avoiding high staff expenses, on the other hand RSB government ownership reduces the risk exposure and thus the bank has been able to obtain loans from the bank after the recent recession, the operating margins are negative for the last two years indicating the bank has not been able to achieve optimal operations.
After a sustained increase in the operating profits of RBS before the recession profits declined from 9807 million pounds in 2007 to losses of 2595 million pounds, this emanated from the exposure of the bank to mortgage related risks therefore to ensure the bank is protected from the risk the bank should carry out evaluation on the ability of the customers to meet the monthly mortgage requirements.
The effectiveness of the risks management policies of the banks under study has been evaluated, to be able to have a wider view about risk management bank mortgage and subsequent reaction to recession has been analysed.
When the risk management policies that each of the banks under consideration is evaluated, HSBC possess the most formidable liquidity risk management policy implementation well articulated in the banks reaction to the recession.
The study established that the liquidity risk management plays an important role in monitoring the flow of assets into the bank’s system. Banks are required to have standard set of policy to affect its benefits. However, without a reliable system from which the organization management plan is created, it is easy to say that such a management plan will not be effective. It will produce no progress at all and could costly on the part of those who implement these management strategies.
Since the two banks have applied similar systems; HSBC is the bank that shows the most impressive and effective strategy/ approach against liquidity risk. They always make sure to protect not only their money also they make sure that they protect the welfare of their customers.
The dissertation focus on the UK banking system was ideal as the perfect niche where to study liquidity risk because the banks have a wide access to almost all parts of the world and. The banks are universal and possess that impressive banking track record. HSBC and the Royal Banks of Scotland are equally as competent and committed to a strong liquidity risk management (Casu & Molyneux, 2001).
However, this study was limited to the top two banks it is recommended that in order to understand liquidity risk a study should be conducted not only on those two banks but also on those ranked at the bottom. This way it is possible to understand the liquidity risk in the banking industry and serve as a basis of reference by other researchers or particular areas of concern that may be a source of risk for banks. It should also be necessary that a case study be conducted on a particular scenario focusing only on one risk management area so as to have a clearer view.
The banking system is explained along with some points on how important it is to build a strong impression with international institutions by securing a reliable system within the bank by good risk management policies that serve as its foundation.
A discussion on the importance of liquidity risk management policy has been explored using policies as the guidelines and indicators that help determine the confidence level in each banking system. If weak policy system is in place, it gives doubt as to the effectiveness of the risk management approach.
Royal Bank of England has been analysed and the responsibility it has on the control of rates. The bank has been used as the point of reference since it has flexibility in decision making as well as its crucial to the good functioning or detriment of the whole banking institution in United Kingdom.
The HSBC and the Royal Bank of Scotland has impressive financial planning portfolios that are geared towards helping the customers reach their goals. They make it their utmost responsibility to provide their customer with the best options that are available and have committed to meet the customers need. The two banks provide the most expert advice on planning and investing.
An analysis of HSBC system shows that they have managed risks well, including risks that have placed other banks in receivership. The Royal Bank of Scotland equally possesses reliable strategy where all the decisions regarding risks have to be decided after careful analysis and Proper management of credit and market risks is essential in eliminating financial risks. The study established that these two risks occur when an improper assessment is made. The commitment of the management of an organization is an important element needed to help reduce the risk on possibility of a bank to collapse. It is a guiding force that a responsible banking institution must adhere to, so as to avoid the consequences of financial failure because of mismanagement. Proper risk management could be a simple way of solving liquidity risk problem which management believe is difficult to tackle.
In order to protect their earnings the banks have to institute proper risk management policies as it is not always predictable where risks will emerge. The two banks under study have implemented some of the most desired risk management policies. Many banks were severely affected by the recession but HSBC and RBS still returned maximum profits despite the operating environment existing in 2010 the financial year under review.
Customers are concerned with the risk management practises of their banks this is because it also determines the availability of credit and all necessary bank products that they need.
The banks need to ensure that the risk exposure on their portfolios is minimized or eliminated completely. While the recession risks were inevitable the need to anticipate liquidity risks are imperative. HSBC had gone through a crisis however the management had foresight and planned well for the recession on the other hand RBS had to rely on government bail out to minimize the risks the mortgage portfolio had.
The need to pursue vigorous risk management policies is important than before, while management decisions influence the direction of the banks, careful planning and consulting is essential. A deep analysis of the causes of the losses registered in the last two years would be a good starting point to be able to collect the mistakes. Management will be valuable in this, the ability of the management to run smoothly the banks and predict future risk will determine the bank that emerges from recession stronger.
From the data analyzed while turnover for the banks increased the operating profits were affected by the recession. Like HSBC did RBS need to leverage on technology to reduce operating losses.
6.2.1 Recommendations on Managing liquidity through Organizational structure and Governance
It is imperative that the two banks define the liquidity risks exhaustively this will ensure that the risks the banks are exposed to are identified and placed in respective risk category, then the risks are communicated to the respective groups to that they can identify, understand and evaluate liquidity risks that the banks face including new lines of business, products, acquisitions, alliances or any initiative that the banks intend to participate.
A clear understanding of the various risks is essential particularly distinguishing Market liquidity and funding liquidity risks. R