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Study on Credit Risk and Credit Risk Management’



The purpose of this research is to make clear the importance of credit risk management and how the firm can get the benefit by using different methodologies by different actions of credit risk management.


Many institutions such as banking and enterprises are well-known to its clever usage of financial sources. The correct management of the financial sources and attributes makes it spirited for the organization to tolerate the different economic uncertainties and threats. In addition, the strategy on managing the risks can be the most attractive strategy of the company that cannot be deteriorated but can be passed through the next generations of other managers.

Background and problem statement

The evaluation of risks can be the fundamental strategy in all of the organizations. Through the assessment of the risks, the organization can create a subjective decision and well plan. This all can help the accomplishment draw out from the process. In the classification of various system that are concerned in the assessing and managing the risk, the credit risk management is an rising activity that lies within the organization. Many researches attempted to answer the remuneration of the credit management within the organization. However, it remained indistinct for the management on how to manage and the principle of the credit risk management.

Literature Review

The credit risk management is accepted among the banks and other financial resources. The main purpose of the credit risk management is to minimize or diminish the possessions of the non-performing loans came from the consumers. The procedures and processes of the banks and their affiliates create a great collision in the flow of the financial resources. However, various economic reservations, international markets, or financial constraints can cause the financial status to be unbalanced. Aside from the financial deficiencies, the other causes of the financial constraints are the lack of buoyancy among the financial market to provide external help for the needed consumers, lack of potential to gather the information of the consumers, and the lack of push to have an forceful debt collecting. The non-performing loans can definitely cause too much stagnation of the financial sources. To provide the credit risk management efficiently, the banks and other financial institutions should asses the reliability of the loaners. In terms of an enterprise, the estimation of their credit portfolio is enough to provide a system that continuously promotes the reviewing the risks and the ability of the business enterprise to pay.

It is very common that the banking process restrict the occurrence of the risks during every transaction; for this reason, the bank managers should also rely on the effectiveness of the imposed regulations to predict the future risks.  From the different financial indicators, the position of the institution on the market disappointment are still depends on the internal process and the actions of the people. The economic theory in banking encompasses the interest and income theory in which is the basis of the cash flow approach in bank lending (Akperan, 2005). Credit risk management needs to be a vigorous process that enables the banks to proactively manage the loan portfolios to minimize the losses and earn an acceptable level of return to its shareholders. The importance of the credit risk management is recognized by banks for it can establish the standards of process, segregation of duties and responsibilities such in policies and procedures sanctioned by the banks (Focus Group, 2007).

Credit risks appear in banking institution because of the uncertainties plagued the financial system. The uncertainties remain a major challenge in country. Still, the major approaches applied by the banks are the continuing efforts on research and close monitoring. Banks believe that the research and monitoring are the key sources of uncertainties like data generating institutions and the treasury (Uchendu, 2009). The market structure is important in banking for it influences the competitiveness of the banking system and companies to access to funding or credit investment. The economic growth affects the structure and development of the banking system. In addition, the vast knowledge in risk assessment and managerial approach is recognized as part of the development. Moreover, because the banks and the processes are highly regulated, it became very useful in assessing the effects or impact of the credit risk management in the banks and even in other financial sources (Gonzalez, 2009).

Research Objectives

The first objective of the study is to convey the purpose as well as the center of the credit risk management. Second is to determine the different actions of the management or the managers regarding the credit risk management. Through this two interconnected objectives, the study can ascertain its common ground in discussing the essential parts of the credit risk management.

The credit risk management is admired among the banks and other financial resources. The main purpose of the credit risk management is to reduce or diminish the possessions of the non-performing loans came from the consumers. Credit risk is an investor’s risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. Such an event is known as a default. The other term for credit risk is default risk. Investor losses include lost principal and interest, decreased cash flow, and increased collection costs, which arise in a number of circumstances. Consumer does not make a payment due on a mortgage loan, credit card, line of credit, or other loan .Business does not make a payment due on a mortgage, credit card, line of credit, or other loan .A business or consumer does not pay a trade invoice when due .A business does not pay an employee’s earned salaries and wages when due A business or government bond issuer doesn’t make a payment on coupon or principal payment when due .An insolvent insurance company does not pay a policy obligations .An insolvent bank won’t return funds to a depositor .A government grants bankruptcy fortification an insolvent consumer or business .There are three types of credit risk. Default risk Credit spread risk

Many companies use credit to pay for short-term supplies or to finance long-term growth. While most companies view loans and credit lines as a important part of business, those who understand how to alleviate credit risk are far more likely to succeed. This is because those lending money are viewing at credit risk when issuing any type of loan or credit line. To lessen credit risk a company wants to be sure it is not seeking more credit than it can credibly repay in a timely fashion. An emerging company may not want to grow in phases that allow it to recoup some of the debt spent. Companies can increase their credit rating, thus mitigate their credit risk, by starting to set up credit long before they need it. This can be adept with vendor credits, small business credit cards and loans. Your average balances in your bank accounts also help set up a lower credit risk. After all, if you have had an account for a long time with money in it to wrap debts and obligations, you are seen as credit-worthy.

Mitigating credit risk

Lenders mitigate credit risk by using several methods:

Risk-based pricing: The Lenders generally charge a higher interest rate to borrowers, who are more likely to default, a term called risk-based pricing. A lender considers factors related to the loan such as loan purpose, credit rating, and loan-to-value ratio and estimates the effect on yield (credit spread).

Covenants: Lenders may write provisions on the borrower, called covenants, into loan agreements:

Periodically report its financial state.

Cease from paying dividends, repurchasing shares, borrowing further, or other specific, voluntary actions that negatively affect the company’s financial position

Repay the loan in full, when the lender request, in certain events such as changes in the borrower’s debt-to-equity ratio or interest coverage ratio

Credit insurance and credit derivatives: The Lenders and bond holders may evade their credit risk by purchasing credit insurance or credit derivatives. These contracts move the risk from the lender to the seller (insurer) in exchange for payment. The common credit derivative is the credit default swap.

Tightening: Lenders can overcome credit risk by reducing the amount of credit extended, either in total or to certain borrowers. For example, a distributor selling its products to a disturb retailer may attempt to lessen credit risk by reducing payment terms from net 30 to net 15.

Diversification: Lenders to a small number of borrowers (or kinds of borrower) face a high degree of random credit risk, called concentration risk. Lenders lessen this risk by diversifying the borrower pool.

Deposit insurance: Many governments set up deposit insurance to guarantee bank deposits of insolvent banks. Such protection discourages the consumers from withdrawing money when a bank is becoming insolvent, to shun a bank run, and motivate consumers to holding their savings in the banking system instead of in cash. Credit risk is risk due to uncertainty in a counterparty’s (also called an obligor’s or credit’s) capability to meet its obligations. Because there are many types of counterparties—from individuals to partners and sovereign governments—and many different types of condition—from auto loans to derivatives transactions—credit risk takes many forms. organizations manage it in different ways.

In evaluating credit risk from a single counterparty, an institution must consider three

Default probability: What is the probability that the counterparty will default on its obligation either over the life of the compulsion or over some specified horizon, such as a year? Calculated for a one-year prospect, this may be called the expected default frequency.

Credit exposure: In the experience of a default, how large will the outstanding obligation be when the default occurs?

Recovery rate: In the event of a default, what portion of the exposure may be recovered through bankruptcy actions or some other form of settlement?

When we speak of the credit quality of a requirement, this refers generally to the counterparty’s capability to perform on that obligation. This encompasses both the obligation’s default probability and estimated recovery rate.

To place credit exposure and credit quality in perception, recall that every risk include two elements: exposure and uncertainty. For credit risk, credit exposure represents the former, and credit quality represents the latter.


From the above mentioned description it has cleared that credit risk management is the important aspect of any organization. If the management keeps in mind the methodologies and techniques mention in this study paper it can overcome this risk and can increase the value of the business.

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