Table of Contents
We will deal with the roles and responsibilities of the teachers in education and teaching, and the relationships with the students. teachers should not only work, but also develop self-assessment skills and apply comprehensive teaching, planning and presentation and evaluation for professional development.
In this respect, they should be able to make new decisions that find new approaches which are always beneficial to themselves and teaching methods.
This situation is undoubtedly paradoxically dependent on the teacher’s own professional development. That is, Teachers mature based on their professional experience.
As a result; the teacher will be able to improve his ordeal and improve his / her relationships with his / her students, colleagues and their environment. and better meet their needs (for teaching processes). Experienced and maturing teachers can be good examples of pupils when they work together and co-ordinate.
Teachers, however, should not be evaluated in a single category. A teacher can also have positive characteristics at different rates and thus trigger success at different rates in his / her students.
That is to say, a talented teacher can define the essence of the problem in the students, whether it is in the sub-curriculum or not, and to establish measurable qualities and independent variables. Undoubtedly, the research and studies to be done in this area will help to reveal the qualities of being a good educator.
Teaching is the most valued and most professed profession in the world ,Giglio, M. (2015). Today, it is seen that countries have mobilized their resources to a great extent to obtain qualified human power. Because the development and progress of a country depends on qualified human power. The attainment of qualified human power is closely related to the success of the teacher. This is why the teaching profession is the task that requires the most work, sensitivity and responsibility.
It is filled with advice that promotes the value of knowledge and the glory of the comrade. As knowledge, has become so important, the teacher has also been at the top of the values ladder.
The teacher is not only a person who teaches and teaches at school; a leader, a model man, and a respected big man. In this way, it is understood how important the teaching profession is and how sensitive it should be. “We have to consider the needs and interests of their parents, employers as well as the learning institutions” (Ho, 2015)
It is not enough for a successful teacher to have sufficient knowledge and teaching formation. In addition to these, it should be sufficient in terms of community culture, (Medrado, 2013)
teaching experience and practice. Because the teaching profession is an activity that requires knowledge and experience to be handled together. This is very important for success.
A teacher should have enough knowledge and skills to teach at a level sufficient to teach at a general cultural, subject matter level. Because it is arogoogarinaccurate thing to do in the teaching profession which is a human being; society, and the future of the state. For this reason, the training of both teachers and students is extremely important. (MCGINNIS et al., 2016)
Education is vitally important in terms of the independence of nations, their development and their strengthening. We can understand the significance that Atatürk gave to education by saying: “The most important and most important point is education.” Because “Education is to live as a nation either as a free, independent, glorious, supreme society, or a nation abandons the slave and the altruism”(Ataturk,1928).
Teachers must have gained the ability to acquire knowledge, transfer knowledge and use knowledge in order to conduct successful work. It is also expected that people have also acquired methods of developing constructive relationships.
To give positive behaviors to the students, to make the information permanent and to use; judiciary, thinking, reasoning, interpreting, communicating and comprehension are the behaviors expected from a teacher. (Lee and Nie, 2016)
Teachers have five basic tasks in the general sense. These; Teaching, management, expertise, personality development and guidance. The coordination and execution of these tasks as a whole is related to teaching skills (Sung,2015). This is based on the combined use of knowledge and practice.
Teachers today are increasingly important, and their duties and responsibilities are increasing. Teachers need to work harder than ever, to raise the human power and human type that the society and the country desire. In order to carry out this difficult and important task, they must have acquired the subtleties, rules and personality traits of the teaching profession. (Ustuner, 2017)
Each teacher has a responsibility and obligation to comply with the existing legislative and implementing rules. These obligations are written in substances in the Maintenance Standards Act, which has been in force since April 2002. All teaches to be good teachers and to show them. The main purpose is to protect rights against abuse.
Calin Rusu, The Law on Equality and Diversity (2010) is an important legislation linked to each individual’s standard.
Occupational Health and Safety (1974) protects employees from any risk as a health and safety at workplace to provide a safe, both physically and psychologically environment. (Brown, 2014)
There is a significant impact on the productivity of teachers who play an active role in shaping the spirit and character of nations in fulfilling these functions. The strongest of society is proportional to the strength of the individual. The strength of an individual is ensured by being trained as a person who can use his individual talents, make independent decisions, find a person, and live without being dependent on others. In order to reveal the level of development of a society in social, cultural and economic context, it is related to the social, cultural and economic situation of the teacher in that society. (Ahmed and Nawaz, 2017)
In order to raise the level of education, our teachers need to be equipped with sufficient knowledge, skills and attitudes as well as to be ready to love this profession of teaching, fondly choose it, be conscious of the subject of this profession, take this heavy responsibility and show no self-sacrifice. Nevertheless, they should never forget that they are an example model of teacher speech, behaviour, dressing, and that they encourage students to become like their teachers. The most important role of the teachers is to give their behaviours to the students in line with the objectives of the education system. As a teaching leader, the teacher has some duties. There is a decisive role among the educational workshops in order for the aims of the teacher school to be achieved at the desired level. Relations between school personnel have an important influence on the success of the students. If there is a dependable, benevolent and collaborative relationship between management and teachers, there is also a reliable role between students, teachers and school management. For this reason, the level of the teacher’s vocational work relations directly affects the quality of education and training. (Tovstokorya, 2017)
For example in art, Each student is provided with the necessary time, and first of all, whether or not the knowledge of the students is free is determined by giving a free topic. For the information that the child is missing in the picture, a house is given for practicing in that subject. As the odds are controlled, enough clues are reached to understand the interest of the curious person. Then what is interesting is to teach the student step by step from simple to complex. It is to wake up the curiosity interest of the learner and reach the result with sufficient clues. By providing the necessary hints, students are made to reach the target. It should be based on the principle of access to information through its own inventions, enabling it to use its own imagination. The task of the teacher is to ensure that the rules and techniques required for drawing are
shown in the classroom once in class and are learned by the student. In this way, the student will be more helpful. In the meantime, the teacher should answer the questions and learn the ideas of the related students.
The exact point of difference between the expertise and the social control of discipline is that the teacher as a required member of the profession remains opposed to the traditional authority structure of this kindergarten school. The report of the Saskatchewan Teacher Federation (2008) on professional working relationships stated that there were no professional working relationships among the teachers in the school, and that the teachers were in a professional working relationship with non-educated staff (psychologists, social workers, health workers). Professional working relationships play a major role in the communication between non-educated staff, teachers and students. Most importantly, an effective teacher and non-trainer staff is an important part of reaching the learning goals of the relationship students. “Trust has touched on the impact of professional work relationships and has reached the conclusion that there must be trust between teachers and other staff in order for professional working relationships in school organizations to be positive. (Blessinger, 2017)
In particular, the population is considered as a young, dynamic and educated population; university youth, who are the most important representatives of the values of the living, changing and changing age, seem to accept happiness all over the world as a very important value in their lives.
It is considered very important to catch up with the dream of having a happy future in a happy society where the students of your near future are adults, professionals, parents, and college students who make up the study group.
Educators look at the needs of students both socially and culturally. A wide variety of strategic developments are needed to address these needs.
Effective teachers help design curricula and learning activities according to the individual needs of the student.
They need a wide variety of methods to make their graduates more successful and more productive. For example, a student who thinks academic professionalism has the ability to download free programs from internet sites that can easily access information.
As a teacher, I will meet the needs of my learners by understanding what their actual requirements are. For example:
A student who is missing classes may need assistance on social welfare to get to the actual reason. In this situation, I shall refer the student to relavent professionals with the government or local councils.
When evaluating the needs of a student, it is useful to know from what social environment the student came from, how he was educated in family conditions. It is also necessary to determine whether the student has a disability or needs due to health problems. The teacher should be able to intervene in this period to
determine the needs of the student and to ask for the needs of the individual from the necessary sources and to lead the specialist. (Mausethagen, Proitz and Skedsmo, 2017).
Sometimes environmental factors and familial factors do not allow people to shape their personalities and to be willing to be. Because the habits and values, the loaded tasks, the role expected of the role cannot reach the desired life.
The gun has to come back and the pupil has to constantly renew and update its personal development in order to be able to return to the original and become self.
Because every day and every minute in the world is diminished by new things and develops and we are trying to understand and learn these new developments. Some of the information, we have difficulty deciphering the passwords. However, thanks to our personal development trainings we can easily solve the passwords and stay updated.
We are evaluating every student for this. The gender changes, gender, age, belief, life circumstances, family structure, and culture change. Thus, as a teacher, the abilities of each student.
Therefore, teacher has to aim to understand each student’s abilities and strengths in order to praise them accordingly and give accurate feedback. Each student needs his / her ability, and this will allow him / her to do the work. Educators need to help the students individual activities otherwise, if information and advice is being given in bulk, it is not for the entire class. A class is made up of many different identities and upbringings and will have different ideas about art, they cannot be generalized in such a creative environment (Mangwaya, 2013).
Diagnostic or recognition assessment identifies each student’s strengths and weaknesses and knowledge and skills before teaching. Identifying these enables the teacher to help the students and organize them according to the needs of the curriculum students.
There are 3 important features.
1. To determine the degree to which pupils have pre-requisite entrance behaviors of a particular course, course or unit,
2. Determine whether the pupils are pre-gifted from the behavior they deem to improve.
3. This assessment is carried out at the beginning of education and training.
For example: It is a group that has all of the input behaviors, a group that has some, and a group that does not have any. In addition, placement of students at specific universities, at different universities, at different faculties, or at different parts of a faculty is based on their degree of having entry behaviors that are considered necessary for their success in this teaching institution.
The main function of this assessment is; each student is on a separate proposal to determine the shortcomings and difficulties of learning in each of the units, to overcome these deficiencies and deficiencies, and to better learn the unit as the teaching continues. The tests used for formative and breeding purposes are called unit tests or unit tests. These tests are only conducted for a specific learning unit and are applied at the end of the relevant unit. These tests, which are applied at the end of each unit and where students have difficulties in learning, learning deficiencies, and misleading learning, should cover all the important elements of the unit concerned. There should be at least one question for each behavior that is to be checked with the test (Michou et al., 2013)
The deficiencies determined at the end of the unit test are tried to be solved in various ways. Assessment of shaping has three important features;
Generally, at the end of the teaching cycle, the student teacher and program are judged by the occasional teaching cycle as to whether the program’s goals can be achieved.
In other words; aims to measure the degree of achievement of the target education within the educational process, especially at the end. There are two important features;
First, it is done at the end of education and training.
Second the purpose of this evaluation is to give a success grade. (Student Achievement 2013)
We are looking forward to hearing from you. We are pleased to inform you that we will be able to provide you with an opportunity to work with you. To make sure they understand their next step diagnostic assessment methods will need to be used. Trial and error is used in the process as educators depend on assumptions. Interpreting the assessments is not always easy to learn. Tummons (2008) argues that student’s weaknesses uncover an alternate learning method. (Otto and Kistner, 2017)
With the publications, such as Internet, TV and Radio, every day information is increasing rapidly and the social changes that are developing accordingly bring the need of individuals to have new knowledge and skills.
In order for pupils to be able to keep up with social change and adapt new information to their lives, they see that learners are not treated as a lifelong process, not just the school process. Students are expected to decide for themselves what their future goals are. for example, employment or further education, or personal success and development and professional dialogue with the learners. instructors will be able to make learner’s confidence in professional decision making in the future and more successful progress with individual dialogues. They should be encouraged to develop their skills and encourage the student to expand their ideas.
The student reaches its goals only in such a learning environment. (Sutton, 2017)
Scheme of work: A scheme of work is a plan that defines work to be done in the classroom. Involving learners in defining a scheme of work, whether for a short project or a long course, is an important step towards motivation and involvement.
Before starting a project, a group works on defining a scheme of work for it.
In the classroom:
Questions to ask learners for a scheme of work include,
What are your aims?
What do you want to produce?
Who is going to do what?
What resources do you need?
How long is it going to take?
3.2 Teaching and Learning Plans:
Teaching and Learning Plans:
A lesson plan is a detailed guide for teaching a lesson. It’s a step-by-step guide that outlines the teacher’s objectives for what the students will accomplish that day. Creating a lesson plan involves setting goals, developing activities, and determining the materials that will be used.
Learning The Benefits:
Helps you to stay on track
Helps to prepare for every step of the lesson
Provides guidance for a substitute
Helps you save time in the future (if you recycle your lessons
Helps you achieve your objectives
Helps to think in an organized manner
Inspires to improve future lessons
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- Plans and Individual Needs
An individualized training program development unit is established for the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of individualized training programs for individuals requiring special education.
The essential thing to consider for the trainers is that the planning of things must be careful that each student is a gore apart. In this plan, gore helps each student in a different school to identify their strengths and weaknesses in advance so that they can know their specific needs beforehand and how they can help them develop their skills and knowledge.
there are two important elements that the teacher will pay attention to when considering the plan. a plan that includes long-term goals that will take place at the end of a year determined by taking into account factors such as the presence of the student in that educational function or the level of performance ie age of development and age, and short- The trainer can encourage effective learning with plans that are flexible, supportive, adjustable and based on Universal Design principles that are designed to best optimize the learning of the student for class / student profile development, ensuring that all learners are understandable and accessible.
As an instructor, they describe how students with real life circumstances are able to live a practical life; such as video, magazines, visual communication tools directly to the needs of the learner can directly support other courses. They allow the boy to keep his knowledge fresh in his mind. (Causer, 2014)
It may be possible for the teacher to collect and record the information needed for the class profile for the individual student profile in a more in-depth manner to provide the facilities and facilities to help meet the individual needs of the student.
Thus, the information collected for the student profile will provide the trainers with a deeper understanding of each student’s weaknesses and strengths in learning, learning styles, preferences, interests and learning. This information will help each student in the classroom learn and learn. On this tab, the students can follow with more careful notes with regular notes that can follow and develop the dynamics of each student in the classroom. Ofcourse this application should be curriculum compliant. to be more focused and accessible – is an important step in practice.
With these notes, it can be seen how the pupils made progress, or where they were struggling and where they stood. However, the observations in the class must also be considered as additional.
Thus, classroom observations and assessments also provide information about the general learning behavior of the learner and help the learner track and analyze changes in the learner’s learning behavior. This information enables the teacher to tailor teaching strategies and provide clear instructional strategies. (Seidel, Blomberg and Renkl, 2013)
Research shows that; the feedback given in the course increases the student success. However, the feedback given together with the teacher can be said to increase the student’s achievement significantly.
. Feedback ensures that the learner is more successful in the future. `This is why the instructors are motivated to work with the students by keeping track of the schedule and reporting it back in time and place. Feedback is a backward flow of information between the teacher and the student. One-way flow of information occurs when there is no feedback, so teacher-student communication does not occur completely. However, in order to form a successful communication process in real sense, it is necessary for both parties to be involved in the communication process.
It is peculiar, definite, clear and clear. Genera is not intended.
Not the intentions of individuals or individuals; based on a specific behaviour.
Timing is important when done at the right time.
Instead of criticizing individuals, they aim to help them.
As a result, teaching is an effective communication method that must be used to trigger a successful student.
The success graphs of the students are straight forward, ie they are close to the expected point of reach.
Effective feedback process is timely one. For this reason, do not wait too long for the feedback to pass on the event, and do not expect the results and feelings to be feedback. Just as the criticism is made up to the temperature, evaluate the successes as soon as possible. (Wearne, 2016).
The course is a great motivation factor for rewarding high performances of students who work and study.
In the teaching learning process, a teacher must also be able to communicate effectively with his / her students in order to be able to effectively teach a topic, and to guide healthy communication between students.
In the process of communication in education, the source teacher is the buyer and the buyer is the buyer. In the teaching environment, students and teachers communicate or interact with each other verbally or non-verbally. The effectiveness of teaching depends on the well-functioning of communication processes. This requires a good understanding of communication, communication skills and communication patterns.
There is a multi-faceted communication in the classroom environment. Sometimes a message sent to a student may be more effective on another student. Student-student communication is also very complicated and affects the flow of the lesson because many emotions and thoughts move on at the same time. Of course, messages are always incomprehensible as they are sent. Often misunderstandings may arise. For example, a student who questions a teacher’s opinion or gives a chance to talk can think that the teacher is asking questions to humiliate him. This means that the source does not translate emotions and thoughts into appropriate forms of communication, it does not behave naturally, the receiver can not resolve the message sent, and so on. it may be due to reasons. This means that the parties lack effective communication skills. In this respect, it is necessary to put the instructor in order to put the basic rules in order to be able to carry out an effective course in the class. (Samek, 2014).
“Equality of opportunity”, the most common type of equality in modern and developed societies, is equal and equal to the laws, irrespective of their social, political and economic origins, in their class position.
In education, equality and diversity is one of the things that are given priority. It is a behavioural rule that both teachers and students should have in education. Of course, equality and diversity or multiculturalism, there are differences between people. If people’s success is determined by their social class, their cultural, gender or ethnic origins, there is no equality of opportunity in education. If one’s success in life depends on his talent and intelligence, then there is equality.
Tum individuals differ in race, gender, age, disability, religion or sexual preference. to be treated fairly and equally, whatever the case may be.
Teachers should pay attention to the needs of students from more diverse groups – it is a useful way of ensuring that you consider container and accessibility, including equity analysis / impact assessment processes in your course development.
The most important goal of equality and diversity in education is that all students can develop together. Every teacher should behave homogeneously for every student because it means equality in education; we can say that education belongs to a certain sect or family but not to any distinction but to belong and to be fair. When the teachers approached from this angle, we can say that all pupils will benefit in the same amount of education.(Samek, 2014)
Quality education is determined not only by individual human factors, but also by external conditions, including the school’s educational environment.
Instructors are required to make sure that they are setting up a safe learning environment when setting up classes for sensitive subjects. They must be creative in order to make learning strategies more understandable and more successful by taking into consideration students with different learning styles.
Instructors will encourage such students to share their dreams and ideas in a relaxed environment without fear of receiving negative feedback from their peers. In this way, teachers help class discussions on sensitive topics by providing a common participation in a more relaxed atmosphere.
However, I believe that instructors should be given the opportunity to research in a secure way to learn about various media such as websites or videos for successful practice and comprehensive learning. (Steck and Perrt, 2017)
5 Ability to deliver inclusive teaching and Learning
5.1 Effectiveness of Teaching and Learning
There are a number of things that the teacher and the teaching approach should pay attention to:
Simple, short and full sentences should be used.
Care must be taken to use the right terms in the correct place.
The main headings of the subjects should be determined, it should be done in a logical order.
Visual-auditory tools should be made meaningful using teaching techniques and tools such as demonstration, dramatization, question-answer.
Ofcourse the tone of the voice should be well adjusted and in a way that the backseat can hear comfortably, and be sure that the problem is fully understood and understood. Occasional students should be asked questions and include relevant class discussions. According to the responses received, it should be expanded or narrowed. Designs, plans, ideas and recommendations reached at the end of the discussion should be noted and the results from the class activities should be noted.
the priority should help the teacher to integrate the two pieces of information by organizing the activities that give them the opportunity to connect the new information received by the preliminary learners. That is, the teacher should teach the student how to use high-level thinking skills. The skills to teach, however, must be taught sequentially and progressively, and one must not be transferred to the other without being sure that a skill is fully taught.
The teacher is in the guiding role. Students should direct their research to collect information from various sources. In the meantime, the Teacher focuses on high-level thoughts by forcing students to challenge the issues of interest and challenge complex real life problems in a way that is student-centered and self-confident. Yesterday’s students will start looking for answers to open-ended questions that are not answered correctly by the teacher.
The learning process should be planned according to the characteristics of the students. The student should be divided into groups. Each student should be expected to have gore-level thinking skills for their own learning group. Therefore, students will evaluate their group friends and will make their own deficiencies. In a sense, the problem will be learned by the underlying learning method. (Huang, 2014)
5.2 Benefits and Limitations of Communication Methods and Media
Schools that implement communication methods and technological tools in the education system in the field of specialization increase their educational qualifications. Educational technology; the practice and the theory of the evaluations of the functions of the regulations, developments, uses, management and resources required for learning.
Already the aim of educational technology is to bring effective and permanent learning to individuals. It should not be forgotten that the educational technologies used at the same time are only a learning tool.
Teachers in design theories; it is necessary for the students to bring attention to the fact that tools such as classical electronic systems (film projectors, audio cassettes, internet conferences, CD-Multimedia) with modern educational technologies (electric-electronic accessories) and flat structures are the factors that directly affect the success during the recording and transfer of information. This is because the organizers of the students are vehicles that will be useful to every stage of the education process, from researching, developing, implementing and eventually creating a project. (Hsu, 2016)
5.3 Meeting the Individual Needs of Learners
When the concept of methodology in education is considered, it becomes clear that the process of bringing new behaviors to students will be realized. The realization of the training objectives can be achieved by selecting an appropriate method. For this reason, it is not a single method for each lesson but the use of many different methods.
The stage at which information is presented. The subjects are simple to complex, to be known, to follow a path from concrete to abstract, close-to-far circle. Students should use the method of asking questions in order to draw attention to the lesson; In terms of the positive transformation of effective learning styles, the theoretical knowledge gained is reflected in the transfer of resources to practice through practice. Students will take the right step towards the profession as soon as they know and implement effective resources. Therefore, in the field of specialization, students will achieve their learning goals by taking more responsibility. According to as resources used encourage students to become more interested in the lesson is showing. (Gravells and Simpson, 2014)
5.4 Inclusive Teaching and Learning Approaches with Technology
Uneducated technology, without technology, is unthinkable.
It is necessary to analysis systematically the problems that include all aspects of the “learning” phenomenon in education and to develop a complex model that develops, applies, evaluates and manages all relevant elements (human power, information, methods, techniques, tools, regulations, etc.) In other words, the term “educated technology” emphasizes an original discipline related to teaching-learning processes and guides teaching and learning.
Incorporating technological techniques into learning, both in teaching and in learning, adds a different dimension to the practice. With this approach, the needs of the learner will be defined more quickly and lessons learned will be provided more quickly.
The role of the trainer at this stage is to help the learners to find and even find useful resources to gain the necessary knowledge. (Warren, 2016)
5.5 Promoting Equality and Valuing Diversity
Equality in education; Without discrimination such as language, religion, race, gender, and sect, everyone should be treated equally and must fulfil their needs in the same way, without discrimination or not discrimination,
Consider ways to promote education equality and value diversity:
In education, student-centred training must be implemented to ensure participation.
In doing so, diversity and co-education in education should be included in a conscious manner.
First, to promote the treatment and respect of each other’s people in the classroom of the students in education.
Trainees should solve the individual potentials of the students and help them to develop according to it.
Encourage and encourage the student to learn what he / she has and what he / she is capable of, and to use it in his / her education in his / her education.
If the training is given to company members, the contents of the training can be used to prioritize course applications for the departments that are appropriate for that occupation.
Thus, the educator informs the students about the advantages that the student will have in the future, the basic conditions and increases their confidence.
The classroom-level discussion can be carefully selected and encourage all students to participate in the group discussion by presenting current cultural issues and related news to students. (Gravells and Simpson, 2014)
5.6 Adapting Teaching and Learning Approaches and Resources
Learning; Duch said a student-centred learning approach that uses complex, real-life problems to motivate learners. (1995)
Teachers need to choose the teaching style in a way that everyone understands. There are considerations for successful communication in class.
It will be easier for the teacher to understand his / her student if he / she understands the non-verbal messages behind the verbal messages that the learner transmits.
I use the language:
Teachers should use soft expressions with voiceless tone and soft voice for escape from expressing negative, angry feelings towards the student. Because students’ evaluations of teacher behaviours also play an important role in the teacher-student interaction.
Trainers can use different exercises in class, for example, to lead weaker learners to work with stronger learners. In this way, both the student and the class are more active in the classroom, making it more beneficial to improve the quality of the course. (Lally and Wolf, 2015)
5.7 Communication with Learners
To be a good communicator in my training system, you need to know the communication process very well. In the teaching learning process, a teacher must also be able to communicate effectively with his / her students in order to be able to effectively teach a topic, and to guide healthy communication between students. In the process of communication in education, the source teacher is the buyer and the buyer is the buyer. In the teaching environment, students and teachers communicate or interact with each other verbally or non-verbally. The effectiveness of teaching depends on the well-functioning of communication processes. This requires a good understanding of communication, communication skills and communication patterns. Student-student communication is also very complicated and affects the flow of the course because many emotions and thoughts are acted at the same time. Of course, messages are not always understood as they are sent. Often misunderstandings may arise. For example, a student who questions a teacher’s opinion or gives a chance to talk can think that the teacher is asking questions to humiliate him. This means that the source does not translate emotions and thoughts into appropriate forms of communication, it does not behave naturally, the receiver can not resolve the message sent, and so on. it may be due to reasons. This also means that the parties lack effective communication skills. From this point of view, it is useful for the teacher to have effective communication skills. Effective communication skills are at the beginning of effective communication skills. Effective speaking includes glances, tone of voice, speed of speech, height of voice, attitudes in conversation, and so on. are affected by many influences. In addition to talking effectively, building empathy is also the basis of effective communication. (Zacarese, 2016)
At the same time, the trainer can observe and observe the body language that the student is tightly tied around the point that he does not understand what he understands. So, in a class, it is always necessary to monitor how much attention and understanding a student has shown to the course (O’Leary, 2013).
6 Assessment Learning in Education and Training
6.1 Purposes and Types of Assessment
Assessments are used to observe the strengths and weaknesses of students before, during and after teaching. There are three different types of assessment.
Initial (or diagnostic) assessment occurs before the teaching takes place in order to gauge information about the student’s ability. They determine the existing amount of knowledge in the subject in question and work to allocate them into the best teaching atmosphere possible. For example, initial assessments can determine which class a student is placed in in a given subject, if such a system exists.
Formative assignments are assessments that take place also at the beginning of a program in order to provide a ‘practice’ for students, to test their existing knowledge and to identify their shortcomings in order to prepare them for a better performance in future assignments.
Summative assessments take place at the end of the program in order to test what they have learnt during the program. It provides them with a final grade or qualification depending on their score, and measures the student overall ability given their education. (Archer, 2017)
6.2 Effectiveness of Assessment Methods
The objectives of the training are classified according to the human qualities.
According to Bloom, the qualities that need to be customized in the field of education can be classified into three main groups;
1- Cognitive Domain; It consists of recognizing knowledge, reminding, reasoning on it, concepts, generalizations, theories and stages of controlling them.
2-Affective Area; It is composed of feelings and tendencies related to interest, attitude and values.
3- Psycho-motor area; Individual organs and collective
The individual needs of the individual must be determined according to their goals. The aim here is to determine the extent to which the learners are entitled to their goals.
How then, according to the curriculum of education, how to prepare the “Determine Targets” plan?
The first step in the preparation of a training program is to determine the training objectives in advance. First, philosophy, ideals, social and economic needs of the student are taken into account. They constitute a rather distant target of education.
The main objective is to transform the system of education into a school goal, according to the school type.
Behaviour that the training program wishes to achieve through teaching also constitutes the specific goals of the curriculum.
Then, these goals are expressed in terms of students, that is, they are transformed into special targets. When a program is being developed in specific areas, the overall objectives of education, the needs of the community, the characteristics of the subject area of the subject area in which the program is relevant, the development status of the individuals to be trained and the training needs are examined. As a result of all these studies, the characteristics to be earned by the individuals are determined in the form of main targets. These main hairs are; conformity with the educational philosophy of the country, consistency with each other, creativity through education or accessibility. These goals are then passed through educational philosophy, educational psychology, and educational economy filters to achieve the target quality. (Sabel et al., 2016)
Qualifications to be awarded to students who successfully complete the program must be observable and measurable. After being determined with the aim in mind, it is passed on to transforming the goals into student behaviours. (Elkins, 2015)
6.3 Types and Methods of Assessment
Involve learners in assessment
Peer assessment is a key form of assessment that brings into account the feedback and opinions of other students. Students can analyse their peers and comment on their performance, though this can sometimes cause performance to be distorted due to shyness originating from the fact that the assessment is not anonymous. However, it can also be beneficial as students can have greater responsibility over each-others learning.
Meet the individual needs of learners
Teachers can analyse the performance and level of improvement shown by individual students and give them attainable targets to aim for in future assignments. This will give each student a realistic level of improvement to aim for.
Enable learners to produce assessment evidence that is valid, reliable sufficient, authentic and current.
Assessment needs to demonstrate wider research. As a result, teachers should require students to perform assessments that require wider research, and they should demonstrate what they have learnt and taken form other work. Researching techniques and referencing should therefore be a part of the course.
Meet internal and external assessment requirements
Assignments must meet the criteria of internal requirements. As a result, the institution in question must insure that it has realistic and attainable assessment standard. The internal assessment criteria must also comply with regulations and marking criteria used by the awarding body and curriculum, in order to comply with formal external assessments for national qualifications that students may wish to take in the future.( Aydogdu and Basciftci, 2014)
6.4 Using Questioning and Feedback for Contribution
Use of questions allow students to identify the extent of their knowledge. When they are asked a question, students will be able to obtain an idea of how knowledgeable they are in a given subject. This will give them confidence in areas in which they have good knowledge and also an idea of areas they need to improve in.
Feedback has a similar effect in that the teacher gives a detailed analysis of where the student is strong and where they need to improve. The main difference between questions and feedback is that while questions encourage the student themselves to become aware of their strengths and weaknesses, feedback allows students to become aware of these strengths and weaknesses through a professional analysis of their performance made by their teacher. (Reflecting on practice is an important part of continuing professional development, 2015)
6.5 Outcomes of Assessments to Internal and External Requirements
Teachers must catalogue results of initial, formative and summative assessments and submit them for internal review when necessary. This will allow the institution to undertake necessary changes to funding and course programmes to adjust performance to a higher level if necessary.
In terms of external assessment, awarding bodies used by the institution must ensure that the institution is complying with their marking and assessment criteria. This is to ensure fair competition amongst colleges that adopt the same awarding body and to ensure students are being taught the appropriate content in the appropriate manner. Inspections and collection of internal assessment data may occur to ensure that requirements are being met. (Ellis and Smith, 2017)
6.6 Communication of Assessment Information to Fellow Professionals
Communication of assessment data is vital to ensure that all relevant stakeholders are aware of the performance of a given teacher or department. The head of a given department is usually responsible for the collection and summarization of this data before stakeholders who are interested in the performance and level of improvement of students in a given course. Communication of assessment data can be considered sensitive and it is up to the institution and its administration to determine. (Wei, 2014)
7 Minimum Core in Planning Lessons, Delivering and assessing
7.1 Ways of Demonstrating Minimum Core Elements in Inclusive Teaching
At the end of the training, it is a process of understanding how far the behavioural changes that are desired to be made have been achieved. The evaluation will enable us to have a sense of what is changing in the students, what the degree of activity of the program is, and whether the methods used are adequate or inadequate. A training program consists of setting goals, transforming goals into student behaviours, identifying educational situations that will change behaviour, organization of learning experiences and evaluation processes. It is imperative that the programs be done by teachers who are practitioners of more programs than those of experts. Core elements can be interactively taught though involving students in presentations, experiments in a professional manner in order to highlight their importance. Key materials must always be accessible and thus technology, as stated above is important. (Martin, 2016)
7.2 Applying Minimum Core Elements
Under the supervision and supervision of the trainers, students should make detailed lesson plans covering a range of activities, learning experiences and evaluation exercises organized within a certain context, aimed at acquiring a certain amount of knowledge, skills or qualifications within a certain period and for educational purposes. At the beginning of the year, students should be assigned to the annual planners.
This method will enable the trainers to work more effectively and independently in the future working life of the students with confidence. Assignments are particularly important in the preparation of the topics, in the consolidation of the learnings and in the application of the learned lessons. (Wilson, 2011)
The teacher gives regular habits to the students. At the same time, students are provided with the opportunity to prepare for classes. It ensures that appropriate tools and methods are selected for the students. It enables students to be trained according to their needs and abilities. This study suggests what, why, and how the teacher will teach in teaching. It will help to complete the program during the academic year and during the course. As a result, the teacher and the student will gain confidence in each other. (Martin, 2016)
8. Evaluation of Own Practice in Inclusive Teaching and Learning
8.1 Review of Effectiveness in Planning, Delivering and assessing
Planning is effective in providing a structured and inclusive course program that is able to take into account problems along the course. If structured well, teachers can adapt effectively to issues arising from underperforming students, allowing their teaching style to be inclusive, while also keeping to delivering the outcomes and objectives that were initially planned. If made public, students will also know what to expect in every lesson and know when assessments and deadlines are coming up. This will overall streamline the delivery of the course and make the process more effective and efficient for both the student and the teacher.
Feedback from students can occur during or at the end of the course. Feedback that has arisen during the course can be used to adapt the initial program to cater to the emerging needs of the students. If the program is at odds with the capabilities and performance of the students at large, it can allow the teacher to alter their scheme in order to make the remainder of the course more rewarding and productive given the students’ performance. Overall feedback at the end of the course can allow teachers to undertake more fundamental changes to the course structure and lesson plan for future academic years, which may not be necessarily applicable in the middle of an academic year. (Haave, 2017)
8.2 Areas for Improvement in Own Practice
Lesson plans could be devised to make provisions for possible situations that may need additional consideration.
For example; students with disabilities or a lack of proficiency in the English language may require teachers to shape their lesson plans accordingly to make lessons as inclusive as possible. This will also mean that lesson plans will not have to be altered significantly during the course to attend to such situations.
One should able to communicate and discuss the interpretation and plan of action with the learners. Discussing any concerns and actions with the learners indicates that their comments are being taken seriously. This can be a brief, straightforward discussion. Include some positive comments the leaners made. Choose only one or two negative comments to discuss, and address them simply, directly, and with a positive attitude. Act on the results. Implement the changes that have been decided to make, and continue to monitor the effectiveness of the teaching strategies. Teachers should be open to students who may require or request additional assistance. (Bruggink, Goei and Koot, 2015)
Occasionally, students may not be content with what they have understood in the lessons, or may have difficulty with a given assignment. The teacher has a responsibility to be as open and available as possible to help these students additionally. If a teacher is sufficiently open and helpful, students will be more motivated to give up their free time to seek extra assistance. This will ultimately make the teaching more inclusive and performance will improve as a result.( Ruffinelli, 2014)
In addition to students, teachers themselves should have easy access to help and assistance from administrators in the event that they are met with a situation that has not been foreseen or does not have an obvious or easy solution. Administrators in a given institution must be able to guide and offer help to teachers during the course to ensure that they are on board with their lesson plan and are complying to the requirements of external regulators. (Bruggink, Goei and Koot, 2015)
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