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Role of Print and Electronic Media in the Development and Promotion of English Language for ESL Learners

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 Chapter 1 – Introduction

  1. Preface

This introductory chapter presents the research interest and elaborates the importance of the study. Additionally, a brief outline of the present thesis is sketched. This gist of the research will help the readers while looking into the thesis that what has been discussed about in this particular research. So further this introductory chapter will be discussing about the research interest, problem statement, and the rationale behind the research, significance of the research and its framework of the dissertation.

  1.  Research Interest

The main purpose of this study is to critically and comprehensively examine “the role of print media and electronic media in the development and promotion of English language for ESL learners in Pakistan” in relation to private sector. This topic for the research is selected because hardly any research have been done on this topic with respect to private sector. Moreover to have a deeper insight that which medium is more effective regarding ESL learners. To explore the more effective and significant medium for ESL learners this research is conducted. There is a need to throw light on this aspect regarding second language learners. The research is being attempted to find answers to the following research questions:-

  • Q1. Why has English become a prominent language of mass media in Pakistan?
  • Q2. How far does English Print media and Electronic media play role in developing the English language skills in BA level (private-sector) in Pakistani learners?
  • Q3. Which medium is more effective among students for the development of English language?
  • Q4. What kind of role English teachers can play to promote English Language and through which medium?

These research questions are chosen for the deeper insight of the research as the research revolves around these research questions. The research not only explore the present scenario of language development and promotion of English among ESL learners, but also highlight future development proposed for teaching ESL learners with special reference to curriculum, textbooks and activities development.

  1.  Problem Statement

This study is conducting on “the role of print media & electronic media in the development and promotion of English language for ESL learners in Pakistan”.

This topic for the research has taken to explore the role of print media as well electronic media in promoting and developing English language. While studying on this topic it is researched for the deeper insight that which medium is more effective for language learners?, and what is the reason to learn this language. In this globalised, fast running world learning language from print media is an old way from ancient times so that is why electronic media has showed its new trends, new technology, new way of educating ESL learners all is very effective adding on its fascination has grabbed the interest of students around the globe, so when the ESL learners can use an electronic medium as an audio visual aid, which has been proved to be more efficient as both the senses working and through this they can learn English language easily. To learn English language in this era for ESL learners is a lot important as this is the only language used internationally. And to become more competent and proficient in English ESL learners want to learn English and for this media with its mediums print media and electronic media educating learners for their proficiency. But electronic media is gone so far. In this modern era, teachers in education system while teaching should use these mediums rather getting stick to text books. This kind of learning is becoming redundant, as no use of learning when they are not learning new things. With this fast running world new medium Electronic media with its different was should be adopted by the teachers to educate the ESL learners to make them proficient in English language. Every other individual wants to learn English language as the one who cannot speak English language properly even in Pakistan will be having hard time for their living. Now a day’s everywhere in getting jobs, on duty, in banks etc, English language has become an essential tool one should know for the better living. So, print media shouldn’t be cut down for learning English language for ESL learners’ instead electronic media should be used for educating ESL learners, as it is an effective medium. For this different activates should be planned by the teachers for educating learners as very small percentages can speak English language around the Pakistan even though it has a significant role in Pakistan in every medium from education, judiciary, researches and so on. Even globalization will increase the power of English as it also has become a necessity of the country.

1.4 Rationale behind the Research

In Pakistan, textbooks, newspapers, magazines etc all comes in print media play an integral role in the teaching programs in both sectors public or private. Teachers of both of private and public schools rely heavily on course books. However, the research into the English Language learning through textbooks situation in Pakistan has been on the whole insufficient and weak. This had been adjudged that the print media are ineffective in imparting ‘communicative competence’ to Pakistani ESL learners it is assumed that the target students cannot communicate and learn effectively in English since the course books fail to address the learning objectives and the future language needs of these students. The reason for choosing the private sector is that private sector students are more exposed to electronic media, to have a deeper insight that how electronic or print media can be beneficial or effective for the ESL learners. As electronic media is hardly used in public sectors. These research questions are taken in account because, these are the questions arouses when one think that, Is media contributing any role in the development of English language in terms of electronic media either print media? For this research one level of graduation is taken because this particular level is higher level to judge that at this level they are able to use English language properly in terms of speaking and listening or not. And the last question was about teachers, because they are the one who teaches their students with these mediums, so they better know the outcomes after using electronic media and print media while teaching. Therefore, to conduct research on this topic is very critical and significant.

1.5 Significance of the Research

This study is of prime significance because it provides a conceptual framework for teachers and language learners to consider the possibilities of effective utilization of print media and electronic media for teaching and learning English. Furthermore, as there has not been any research done on role of electronic media in promoting English language in particular, therefore, the present study will contribute a lot for language learners. Moreover, introducing Electronic media as supporting materials may help transform the teaching techniques of English in general and reading skills in particular. Hence, the researchers expect that language research along these lines will be a growth area for practicing teachers and language policy makers in years to come. This research paper will be helpful for English language learners and teachers that how they can cope up with English language and which medium can be more effective. How electronic media and print media can be beneficial for them.

1.6 Electronic media

Electronic media is defined by Williams (1999) are media that use electronics or electro chemical energy for the audience to access the content .There are many forms of electronic media as television, radio, telephone, desktop computer, game console, hand held – device etc. (khan, 2010, n.p) stated that “Electronic Media” are those correspondence mediums which depend on electronic or electromechanical method for creation and frequently eminent from print media. The main electronic media sources common to the overall population globally incorporate radio, sound recordings, Television, video recording and streaming web content. It indicates the principle method for speaking with substantial number of individuals, particularly Television, radio, web and satellite. The electronic media have four fundamental purposes; to entertain people, to provide information, to educate the people and influencing the public opinion. The twentieth century can be named as the century of correspondence. The primary mean of mass communication is developed in progression as the century extended. Films came on air for the first time in the primary decade of this century. Likewise radio shows began in 1920s. Television entered the field in 1940s trailed by cable television in 1950s, while satellite television in 1970s. In the end the computers offered access to Internet in 1980s. It has changed the interconnected computer systems through World Wide Web by the 1990s.

 

 

 

1.6.1 Impact of electronic media

In the most recent fifty years the media impact has grown up altogether with the development of technology, firstly there was the telegraph people used then the radio came in, next to it was daily newspaper and magazines then shifted to television and now the web. We live in a general public society that relies on upon the information and correspondence to continue moving themselves in the right side and do their daily activities like doing their work, entertaining themselves, their health care, getting education, their individual connections, travelling to places and whatever else that they need to do. “What we should know is that a large portion of our choices, convictions and qualities depend on what we know beyond a shadow of a doubt, our presumptions and our own particular experience. In work places people normally recognize what they need to do is based on their experience and focus, however people are living depending on the media to get the current news and reality about what is important and what one ought to know about. So people blindly trust on the media as a power to give them news, amusement and education. Moreover, the impact of electronic media on children, youngsters and society is huge to the point that we ought to know how it actually functions. The electronic media has touched each area to which the human is connected with. In the present times, information and technology are joined with the general public’s monetary development. The development of electronic media has overwhelmingly affecting the general public. The Opportunities of correspondence have broken all obstructions crosswise over national confines and have been prompting the germination of new thoughts through the cross fertilization of societies. Electronic data has had a positive effect in the advancement of different social administrations.

 

1.6.2Function of electronic media

The principal functions of electronic media are basically to give information, to educate people, influencing them and to entertain them. This way of communication has a huge number of audiences, its reach, coverage and efficiency of its impact is growing. Following are the functions of the electronic media, described as follow:

  • To Provide Information: The source of solid evident; sufficient and complete information is one of the essential elements of the electronic media, objectivity is normal in organizing information for the population.
  • To Provide Education: The electronic media can turn into an effective and powerful means for instruction and has an awesome potential if utilized innovatively and with vision. The media can likewise be utilized to bring issues to light and educate the people to conquer different social issues and growth of metro sense.
  • To Influence Public Opinion: The transformation in technology for giving information and capability of media to put an impact and examine different national and worldwide issues, recommend different alternatives, measure the best choice to touch base at the right answers for guiding their group of audience.
  • To Entertain: The electronic media can consider for an extensive variety of amusements for tastes and necessities of the considerable types of the general public.

 

 

1.6.3 Growth of electronic media in Pakistan

The electronic media in Pakistan is gaining speedy improvement. Just three or four decades back, radio and state possessed Television thought to be the primary wellsprings of data. Today, we have more than 77 Satellite Television Channels, 2346 link administrators, 28 landing TV Channels from abroad like BBC, CNN, Sky, Star and so on and more than 129 FM Stations including 46 Radio Channels. The speculation this year is normal US$ 1.5 billion. All out interest in this segment is US$ 2.5 billion. The new occupations liable are to make are 150000. The roundabout occupation is 7 million. The promotion market in 2008 was US$ 431 Million and in 2009 it is being assessed as US$ 691 million. This development is making it accessible more learning and exceptional data in all circles of life to the overall population.

Television began its test transmissions in 1964. Pakistan Television Corporation was fused as a business entity in 1967 and in 1984 it is changing over into a partnership under the Companies Ordinance. Pakistan television (PTV) has been an incredible wellspring of diversion. Television has likewise viably spread data on an assortment of subjects to its viewers. Be that as it may, the goals set out for PTV at the season of its initiation were

  • Education and illumination.
  • Enrichment of information and providing knowledge
    full entertainment.
  • Promotion of national standpoint and joining.
  • Presentation of news in a reasonable, objective, authentic way free from duplicity by suggestion and exclusion.

1.6.4 Types of electronic media

There are mainly three types of electronic media, as follow:

  • Radio:  In Pakistan like other emerging nations, radio is the significant wellspring of providing information and entertainment because it is in touch with the far flung zones and being moderately economical. Telecasts convey news, investigations, analyses and commercials. This medium on the other hand is losing fascination in general society.
  • Television: Television because of its possibilities to offer a more prominent assortment than different components of electronic media is turning into the most grounded type of media to play out each of the four purposes, therefore information, instruction, impact and entertainment.
  • Internet: internet is the most recent expansion into the components of medium of electronic correspondence. It is quickly acquiring a noteworthy movement in the flow and profile of the worldwide information segment. The medium likewise gives on the spot access to the largest information bases and files of data around the globe.

1.7 Print media

Printing is a process of using ink on paper to show us images and text by using printing press. It is an oldest medium of communication, Cheaper and popular among masses. The basic purpose of print media is to spread information. Major components of print media are;

  1. News papers
  2. Books
  3. Magazines
  4. News letters
  5. Banners
  6. Brochures and flyers

Newspapers are the most popular form of print media, as it is affordable and reachable and most inexpensive way to reach huge masses quickly. Book is a collection of many printed pages which is biggest source of knowledge for diverse sectors. Books are the oldest form of print media and have been used from ancient times. There are diverse and varied topics that include literature, history, fiction, novels, plays, poetry, prose, fiction and non-fiction.  People study to gain knowledge and information and some of them study for pleasure. Newsletter is a publication that covers specific topic and have a purpose. Most of them are used as information sources to promote events, political campaigns and for different programs for different organizations. Magazines provide different articles written on different aspects of life, politics, society, women, children, sports, politics, health, food and many more things. Magazines publish weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually. Banners are made up of paper or cloth and mainly to promote or advertise something. Posters also come under this category; they are huge in size and have a purpose to attract the people. Brochure is a kind of a book let written for a purpose to advertise or containing information about a product or an upcoming event. Mostly it consists of two or three glossy sheets to make it more attractive and presentable. Flyers are also publish for promoting any product, but are on the small level.

Print media is composed of newspapers, community news letters, magazines, books and other publications. Print media had played a vital role in last many decades. Print media is an effective tool in teaching and learning English language. As, one effective element is newspaper. Newspapers encourages reading habit. It also provides students with a lot of practice through different activities which develop reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Newspapers enables language learner to bridge the gap between the class room and the real world. It evokes critical thinking of learner also. Print media includes variety of books with unlimited collection. Book reading have a great impact on students, language learners. Books influences greatly the quality of students ‘language, it develops the vocabulary of learner and is very effective for writing and speaking skills.

1.8 Importance of English Language and Comparison

In the present time the importance of English language is not hidden, in fact it is a” Global language” now a days. The need for second language learners is to have a proficiency and competency in second language to be successful in their lives. The progress and development of English language can be seen all over the world. Numbers of English learners are increasing day by day. Teaching methodologies and strategies need to be modern and effective for language learners. There is no doubt that print media has contributed a lot in English language learning but now in the fast moving world and era of  globalization, technology has to be considered. The role of print media cannot be ignored as it has been serving many responsibilities in all fields of learning, especially in the field of education from last many decades. Print media has been providing lot of reading material in the form of books, newspapers and magazine. The most significantly the print media has been developing the reading skills of learners enabling them to read others point of view and real life situations. They interpret the written material and relate to real world, this interpretation evokes their critical thinking. Despite these advantages, the electronic devices are effecting the reading habits of students in large. Print media can only promote reading in the age of technology through interesting, interactive and motivating reading material. The use of technology can be very effective; there are many modern techniques applicable in various forms of language learning. For example, Teachers can use multimedia in their class rooms for various tasks. The audio-visual effects are effective and beneficial for language learners. The colourful visuals and contexts leave powerful impact on the minds of language learners. Language teachers and language learners should be able to cope with new innovative technologies. A complete paradigm shift can be seen in print and electronic media. This paradigm shift is changing the teaching and learning strategies. Language classes should be interactive and equipped with modern technologies. Moreover language class should be learner-centred. In the modern age, students are more interested in electronic devices; therefore language learning through electronic media can be more beneficial and effective. ESL teachers can develop reading habits by providing quality reading materials which are interesting, motivating and age appropriate for language learners. Moreover, teachers can enhance their learning through useful activities that are based on authentic materials and texts.

  1. Framework of the Dissertation

This research paper is divided into three sections. The first section focuses on the examined literature review done on the previous studies and the adopted research methodology. This opening chapter of the beginning section has introduced the research interest, and has also discussed the rationale along significance of the current research. The next chapter will look at the background essential to English language development and promotion for ESL learners through electronic media and print media while the third chapter will deal with research methodology. The second section will analyze the data collected during the course of the research. The fourth and fifth chapters will discuss the main data which is reveal from the survey conducting in the selected private sector college and the interviews of the teachers. The concluding section, consisting of one chapter, will present the inferences drawn from the study, propose some recommendations and highlight future directions in research suggesting by the study. Highlighting the parameters and importance of the current research, the following chapter is going to focus on the educational scenario in Pakistan with respect to the promotion and development of English language through electronic media and print media.

Teaching should be interactive and equip with modern technologies. Moreover language class should be learner-centred. In the modern age, students are more interested in electronic devices; therefore language learning through electronic media can be more beneficial and effective. ESL teachers can develop reading habits by providing quality reading materials which are interesting, motivating and age appropriate for language learners. Moreover, teachers can enhance their learning through useful activities that are based on authentic materials.

1.10 Overview

This chapter has basically explained the topic on which this research has been conduct. Therefore, it has discussed about the research interest that this topic for the research is select because hardly any research have been done on this topic with respect to private sector. The problem statement is given; in a nutshell it meant which medium is more effective in the development and promotion of English in Pakistan. Then the research questions are the basis of rational behind this research and the importance of the research is discussed in the end the framework of dissertation is discussed that how many chapters are included in this and what each chapter is talking about.

The next chapter will throw light on the background knowledge with respect to this topic.

Chapter 2 – Literature Review

2.1 Preface

This chapter looks at the previous studies done already on the development and promotion of English Language through media. This chapter will look at the significance of languages especially the English language. Then it will throw a light on teaching methodologies under which Audio lingual method and audio visual method have been discussed. Mass media has also been discussing along its types for example the Print media and the Electronic media and how English language education is improving through technology. Further role of media in the development and promotion of English language in Pakistan has also been discussed and how newspapers and electronic media are playing a significant role in the development of English.

The study will also look at some of the more effective mediums for the development and promotion of the English language. It also refers to the works done on the same area by different researchers. Then it provides an overview or an analysis of some questions to sort out the use of English by the students. It finds out in what ways the students use English language. Lastly, it offers some recommendations and solution to get out of the influence of the English language.

2.2 Significance of Language

(Saimaya, 2009, n.p.) in her study says that language has been tentative and has transformed within centuries. It has the tendency to change over few years after being transformed by the younger generation. Class, society, developments in science and political circumstances are the underlying factors that influenced language.  Media has been the primary force in manipulating language from the history to the modern era.

(Gowon, 2009, p95) Weisse (1985) has noted that, during a time of quickly extending global interchanges, the need and capacity to speak in an international language is developing, and no other medium can initiate the motivation of learning a language through media specifically television and radio. Researcher observed that a few hundred TV and radio language courses and arrangement with more than twenty two thousand individual projects had been created worldwide, in this way telling the entire huge world about the development of Audio Visual aids used in educational institutions which combine teaching of language, entertainment and information. In an earlier dissertation, Sherrington (1973) has highlighted that the TV and radio had not brought to language teaching with the creation and affection with which they had grasped different subjects in the educational programs and credited the circumstance to the appearing to be innate lack of both the TV and radio in applying educational values in teaching. In any case, in further examining the plausible purposes behind the absence of eagerness for showing language programs in the TV and radio, Further Sherrington (1975) has stated that it was not on account of the TV and radio were bad media for language bearing projects being on aired. He rather clarified that the benefits of language show programs in schools conditions were doubtful due to the teaching methodology. Though, in arithmetic or science, this confirms that the benefits were remarkable in light of the fact that they managed through proper teaching methodology. Herman (1985) has reported a review performed by Hickel on TV language teaching  projects in 19 countries who were signatory to the European Cultural Convention in 1965; which expressed that however every one of those nations had educational framework at a student’s fourth level of development, they offered few projects for starters. The review likewise noticed that the vast majority of the directions were equipped to students with a few years of earlier researches of the language, while there was a huge crevice in instructional TV until the phase of pre-college cultural awareness teaching.

(Khan, 2014, n.p.) has appreciated the role of language in building thought designs conveys us one stage closer for understanding the human culture. Everyone has human worth and pride affected by the decision of words and the classification of language. The language we use for speaking shapes the way we see the world, the way we think and the way we experience our lives. Realizing that language holds a key factor in our social structure, we should try to be careful about the kind and the nature of language we use in our general public, specifically with the young children. The effect of language in making up our opinions and discipline cannot be ruled out. Many times we have crossed through the practice parents and even teachers mostly using wrong language with children and that left injurious impact on their brains and this bring about making them degenerate in their talk. Different grown-ups ought to likewise be cautious about their conduct around other children, particularly those grown-ups whom youngsters regard. There is an African saying: “It takes a town to bring up a youngster.” This implies bringing up a kid is a public exertion. The media in Pakistan throughout the years has likewise assumed a negative part in affecting language improvement among youngsters. In the course of different projects or television shows, no language standard is kept up and disreputable words are utilized, to which our more youthful era is very defenseless. They neglect to take in the ability of confusing and forceful thought. Further, cell phone messaging has likewise influenced spelling and punctuation in the English language. There is an awesome requirement for the family as an establishment unit, society as a group and the instructive framework as the nation’s backbone to absolutely unite together to ingrain and support lawful language aptitudes.

2.2.1 Role of English in teaching and learning

(Hossain, 2013, p1) has stated that nowadays English language and culture have grabbed every nucleus of almost all the University students in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, English is taught as a compulsory subject in schools, colleges, and in universities i.e. from the primary level to the tertiary level. The students of Jahangir Nagar University in Bangladesh are no exception. Here, the students think that using English not only facilitates communication but also help them do well in their future life. Some students think that it is a way to show smartness. Out of all these, the present researcher seeks to find out the impact and influence of the English language on the lifestyle of the tertiary level students in Bangladesh. It also tries to prove the fact that English language is a machine or a tool of domination and power.

(Shamim, 2011, p2) has suggested that English language, being used as a development tool, has controlled the exchange of dialogue on official and political level in Pakistan and other developing countries. Furthermore, the global movement ‘Education for all” and the increase in the use of English language has raised English teaching and learning to a universal stage. Eventually, it has become a bit difficult to maintain quality in English language learning and recourse distribution. It is a common misperception that English language is the only key to success.

As Kachru (1985) asserts that English is so well known and imperative that it is utilized as a part of various distinctive nations on the planet or all around the world. Hence, three circles were planned to classify the world as indicated by the functions of English in the group. The three gatherings are profitable for demonstrating the general picture of areas where English is utilized. In the Inner Circle, English has been utilized as a first language or a local language as the UK, New Zealand, the US, Australia and Canada. In the Outer Circle were the past settlements of English-talking nations where English has been spoke as an official language as Singapore and India. The Expanding Circle contains whatever is left of the world in which English is utilized as an outside language and much of the time for worldwide correspondence as China, South Korea, France and Japan. In particular terms, this order outlines local speakers as those in the Inner Circle nations (as cited in Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p39).

As Hou (2013) asserts that, since the numbers of students have globally raised, higher education organizations in Asia have offered expanding scope of English medium direction degree programs. With globalization speed in up  the information based economy, obviously, it has turn into obligatory for colleges to execute internationalization strategies keeping in mind the end goal to enchant splendid students abroad ,furthermore to hold native students. Their creditors have not been completely known of how to begin an exterior quality confirmation system to calculate the nature of these programs. Asian colleges are going all out to internationalize themselves in the late 1990s, focusing at illuminating the perfection and social arrangement of the students, gaining reputation, and enlarging the vital and planned agreements of schools. Asian governments and advanced education organizations have not pondered how to shield nature of English medium guideline degree programs. Currently, Asian countries offer two regular internationalization procedures; one is to attract foreign students and the other is to support colleges to offer English medium education courses and degree programs at the levels, under graduation or graduation. In light of worldwide advanced education rivalry, Asian countries are contending capably with western nations to draw in the best and brightest from abroad (as cited in Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p40).

As Naz (2007) has further explained, Economic world at present has turned out to be exceptionally aggressive. Everyone is endeavoring to go further than breaking points. English is the language of business group around the world. It is compulsory for the general population of Pakistan to learn English language aptitudes so as to end up equivalent unremarkable partners of the business group of the world (as cited in Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p40). English is a worldwide language and it is the language of Television, law makers from everywhere throughout the world. We run over numerous signs and commercials inscribed in English while we go in any city of the world. In a foreign city, English is the primary language has being utilized by the hotels and restaurants. Menu of dishes has been offered in English. Numerous nations have English news channels regardless of their native language. Every country around the world is having an official language “English”. An individual feels more pride that he learns it as a native language. He might have blended emotions and might be powerfully persuaded to (Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p40) .Learn it as it is evident that one will have associations with numerous individuals because of the information of English language than some other language. English language learning needs an extraordinary arrangement of diligent work to ace it. It is clear that who has gained ground, feels pride in accomplishment. As Crystal (2003) asserts that one might, nevertheless, feel that the general populations who have English as a first language have unjust for point of interest over him. One might feel offended, furious or jealous (as cited in Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p40).

As Verghese (1990) suggests, language is the best development of humanity which empowered us to correspond and impart the sentiments to one another without confronting any trouble. Language controls the contemplations of the general population and, in the long run, controls the way of life to which they belongs (as cited in Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p41). As Naz  (2007) asserts that language is imperative in our life. It moves the way of life and standards into cutting edge. People utilize it to speak with each other (as cited in Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p41). The scientist has picked this study as English is lingu franca and official language of Pakistan.

2.3 Teaching Methodology

2.3.1 Audio lingual method

(Sultana, 2009, p22) has stated that the audio-lingual strategy for teaching language was started to rise in 1940’s at the commencement of World War II. This war has debilitated to overwhelm substantial parts of the world, and the US Army has understood that faculty were required who could comprehend and speak smoothly one or more languages of those nations prone to involved. Right now, it is understood that the current strategies for language instruction were not extremely proficient. The grammar translation method which is generally utilized around then arranged learners for perusing and writing in remote languages, however they were not able to collaborate with local speakers of that language. For that reason, the armed force required a technique, which would create talking and listening aptitudes in a brief timeframe. As it was the spoken type of the language which was introduced mainly, the learner felt more certain when the time came to utilize it in genuine circumstances for correspondence. This ‘Armed force Method’ of 21 American war time language program accomplished extraordinary fame due to its viability and was proceeded after the war finished.

Audio-lingualism has raised expectations of introducing brilliant time of language learning in the early 1960’s. Yet, in realistic terms its expectations have not been satisfied. Its hypothetical premise is observed to be feeble.  Teachers are utilizing audio-lingual, materials and applying audio lingual strategies in the classroom, thus this technique seems more effective and lesser complaints from students are suspected rather than boredom. In perspective of this feedback anyway, it is not reasonable to overlook the commitments of audio-lingualism to language educating.  To start with, it is among the main speculations to be founded on etymological and mental standards. Secondly, it has endeavored to make language learning open to extensive gatherings of normal level. Thirdly, it is focused on linguistic projects as it built up the division of language aptitudes into pedagogical gadget. In a nutshell, the audio lingual strategy presented particularly planned systems of sound-related and oral practice.

2.3.2 Audio visual method

(Sultana, 2009, p23) has stated further that the strategy was created in the fifties in France at the Center de Recherche etd Etude Pourla Diffusion Du Francis (CREDIF). It is a course presented for grown-up beginners and equal projects for adolescent learners. The (CREDIF) techniques are made broadly known through instructor’s course in which by and large a firm preparing in the standards of audiovisual strategy and its application is given.

The audio visual methodology created by CREDIF, represented to a particular grasp with the issues of language learning. It has characterized three unique levels of language guidelines. It has endeavored to place language learning into improved social setting and to instruct a language from the onset as full spoken correspondence.

2.4 What is mass media?

(Sultana , 2009, p48) Defined mass media as:

Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. It is coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines, although mass media (like books and manuscripts) are present centuries before the term became common. In the opinion of Singh, mass media are different types of useful material, devices and symbols that make the study of a subject more comprehensible and interesting. Mass media are effective tools that “invest the past with an air of reality”. They provide their learners with realistic experiences which capture their attention and help in understanding of the historical phenomenon. They appeal to the mind through the visual auditory senses and thereby enliven the past

2.5 Types of mass media

2.5.1 Print Media

(Sultana, 2009, p251) has asserted although, media is one of the strong strengths of globalization today; it has additionally been 251 helpful previously. While talking about the media of Pakistan and the part of English language, history uncovers that English language has assumed an effective part in print media in the battle to have an autonomous Muslim state. By Qudrat- Ullah the first Urdu daily paper was distributed in 1822 in India. It is a scholarly paper possessed by Maulvi Mohammed Baqar. Later various different papers began to show up with the development of the Muslim press in 1836. It is 1857 that the political connection in the middle of British and Muslim population got to be provoked and the papers began composing explicitly against the British control of India. Accordingly British powers close down the Muslim possessed distributions and Maulvi Baqar is sentenced to death. This prompted a genuine political correspondence crack between the Muslims and the British. The Muslim’s grievances must be implied to British powers through some medium and the best Sir Syed could believe is restoration of press. He began Urdu paper ‘Tehzibul Akhlaq’ in 1870. It is not just quickly added to accomplishing peace and agreement between two civic establishments, additionally gave a stage to Muslim solidarity. Thus Muslim League was made in 1906. In mid twentieth century Muslims political reawakening was imperative to accomplish workable connection with British. It is reflected in number of papers distributed around then.  So, 220 papers are distributed in various languages remarkably English (18), Urdu (20) and Bengali (14) as said by (Kurian) in Guarantee. Though, the presence of the papers was very powerless due to their frail flow at the same time, their execution is exemplary. Some of them turned out to be exceptionally powerful. Couple of such papers is “Confidant” in English; Urdu paper “Hamdard” and “Zamindar” by Maulana Zafar Ali got monstrous acknowledgment among the masses and turned into the voice of Muslims to extend their goals. They need more English papers which could speak with British in their language and express their perspective in the plan of things is felt 252 by Mohammed Ali Jinnah, then the president of Muslim League. He built up English week after week ‘First light’. It was distributed in 1930 and inside of couple of years it turned into a day by day in 1942. Arshad, while discussing the advancement of Muslim press in India composes that soon the Muslim English press created by jumps and bound and distributed papers like, the Star of India, Morning News of Calcutta, Pakistan Times Eastern Times of Lahore. The Weekly onlooker of Allahabad, Sindh Times of Karachi, Khyber Mail of Peshawar, New Life of Patna are probably the most persuasive papers which showed up in each territory of India .They went about as an effective weapon in uncovering arrangements of British government and it worked as an eye opener for people in general. They confronted awesome resistance from the Indian Nationalist Press, by the by two or three daily papers have made due right up ’til today to end up Pakistan’s most powerful news papers. DAWN is one of them. The dedication and force of Muslim English Press appreciated the fantasy of a free state and, at last, its steady endeavors brought another nation into presence on fourteenth August 1947. Dawn has the pleasure of distributed the news of a passionately anticipated day as its feature.

English language was distributed as a part of arrangements and making Muslims aware. The best possible use of English language against English local speakers ended up being an extremely efficient system. Generally, all English news papers utilized solid and commanding language to display the Muslim belief system and served to coordinate and sort out the energies of individuals who drew closer to their points of self administration. Their focused methodology towards the freedom of Muslims from the British and Indian hold is a case in the historical backdrop of print media yet to be coordinated.

2.5.1.1 Newspaper

(Sultana, 2009, p50) has explained, a daily newspaper is a production containing news and data and publicizing, for the most part imprinted on ease paper called newsprint. It might be of general or extraordinary hobby, frequently distributed every day or week after week. Initially, first ever printed daily paper is imprinted and distributed in 1605, and the structure has flourished even notwithstanding rivalry from technologies, for example, radio and TV.  Latest advancements on the Internet are posturing real dangers to its plan of action, nonetheless, paid flow is declining in many countries, and publicizing income, which makes up the greater part of a daily paper’s wage, is moving from print to online; a few analysts, nonetheless, point out that traditionally new media, for example, radio and TV did not completely supplant existing.

2.5.2 Electronic Media

2.5.2.1 Radio

(Sultana, 2009, p253) has explained further the radio is discovered around 1920. It is the foremost way and launching another component with the media. It made it workable for communicators to utilize wireless transmissions to transmit a media item straightforwardly to anyone who possessed a radio set. It quickly turned into the most prevalent media. Individuals invested a lot of energy listening to the radio. Changes occurred throughout the years and radio rose as intense media of correspondence. Broadcasting made another development with the presentation of TV. This checked yet another medium making the movement to general advanced organization. The FM Radio in mid 70’s it characterized another function for it. That FM ought to build up the projects intended to draw in crowds on preferred bases and that such programming ought to use the new assets of ability with group administration. They are intended to be group radio went for welfare and advancement of masses all in all. Radio TV is a fundamental part of any country. Radio has a better potential in mass communication in Pakistan for two reasons firstly, it comes to even the remote zones of the nation and has no physical obstructions. Furthermore it spreads data to both educated and ignorant audience members. Radio has an influential part to play in the language. Thus the language utilized as a part of radio affected the past era incredibly. While examining the strength of electronic media before the separation of India, so Quaid-e-Azam’s concept of freedom for Muslims was upgraded by transmitting his discourses on the radio. His addresses in English language are heard and comprehended which united the Muslims of subcontinent. Despite the fact that it is a pre-Television period of 1940’s, even then it brought a social and political awareness among individuals. All India Radio is the sole television transmitting station before the separation but after it the radio stations at Peshawar, Lahore and Dhaka ware given to Pakistan. The first ever show after freedom went on air at the same time from Lahore and Peshawar on fourteenth August 1947. However as the system was insignificant and frail; as result it is hard to contact individuals for the most part since 80 percent population lived in towns. There is an immediate need to form accessible electronic media into successful channel to complete the national responsibilities and to give justly national services. After a year, a medium wave transmitter station is set up in Karachi and afterward in 1950 radio went ahead on air in Rawalpindi. In the following ten years Hyderabad and Quetta gained radio stations. One of the presumptions is that part of radio is “promulgation” subsequently radio has stayed under the control of the state inspired by a paranoid fear of its abuse and capable impact for quite extensive time. The part of English language in the media of Pakistan is utilized mostly in light of the fact that the education rate was beneath normal and barely few individuals knew English. Regardless of this cloudy picture, English has been upheld and has remained a critical medium of television for quite a long while. English news and releases was the customary element of the radio. Sports occasions in Pakistan and abroad are secured by surveys and running 254 discourses in English language. English television is looked upon as valid and trustworthy due to its careful and vigilant utilization of words.

2.5.2.2 Television

(Sultana, 2009, p254) has asserted, television might be the most utilizing media across the board and astounding of all media. General society utilization of television appeared in 1941 in USA. It spread in Europe yet arrived much later in different less created parts of the world. Television has ended up being extremely successful media of mass communication. It gives an individual with audio and visual aids and it has a more effect than the radio. By late advancements in communication  technology by Chamberlin are making it feasible for more individuals to get a more prominent assortment of programming including instructive programming at noteworthy lower expense. Most media generation and conveyance hold the attributes of television capacity to facilitate sound and moving visual pictures, the little screen and sentiment relationship connected with television picture and the capacity to get the material at a separation. Some include different proportions, for example, the talent to associate with the material or with the general population introducing it. These improvements incorporate cable, satellites and IFFS (Instructional Fixed Television Service).

The historical backdrop of electronic medium, therefore television is not exceptionally old. In spite of the fact that the advancement and improvement it has made throughout the years is outstanding. Television is launched in Pakistan in 1963. In 1964 first television station is established in Lahore after its completion of tentative transmission. It is set up by a private constrained organization and later this organization is coordinated into completely government claimed open restricted organization in 1967, known as Pakistan Television Corporation. Steadily the television system spread out in all the regions.  So, by 1967 the Television stations are made in Karachi and Islamabad an in 1974 it is built in Peshawar and Quetta. In 1992, PTV chose to launch another channel, known as PTV-2. It is opened ‘for the most part to broadcast instructive programs’ as stated by Gunaratne. In 1998, another channel, PTV World went on air therefore it is viewed by Pakistanis out of the country in Asia. News and entertaining projects are its major highlights. PTV broadcast news in Urdu, English and in every single significant language and in addition Arabic. Within next couple of years Pakistan Television dispatched another two stations; Prime TV and Mid East station for its viewers in Europe and Middle East. Before long it turned into main Television associations in South and South East Asia. By book of Media (2000) the scope of PTV stretches out to around 86.33 rate of the entire populace and is seen by the general population over the world.  As said further ” the aggregate evaluated Television set count up now remain at all the more than 1.5 million, with a normal viewer of around 8 persons per set.  More of the viewers are in semi urban and country areas.’ As expressed by Sarwar. ‘Television was in Pakistan to advance an edified attention to the world and also to encourage Pakistan’s very own cognizance legacy, the social and monetary development of nation and to give motivation and direction to advance and prosperity’.  With the landing of a time of electronic medium of mass communication in Pakistan, the standpoint of individuals is changed. They turned out to be more aware and more informative. Notwithstanding, since this medium stayed under government control all the way through its history, it couldn’t do equity with its part.

2.6 English Language education through technology

(Sultana, 2009, p27) has asserted, while introducing the educational technology Spencer stated that:

It is composed of at least two over lapping subsets: technology of computer education and technology of education. The tools – technology therefore tape recorder, VCR, cassette, some time known as hardware approach to educational technology, but more commonly known under the title of audio-visual aids or instructional media, maybe thought of as technology in education. Whereas, the educational application of knowledge from behavioral sciences such as psychology forms the basis of technology of education.

(Hossain, 2013, n.p.) Suggests, technology and English language instruction are identified with one another (Singhal, 1997). In the middle of sixties and seventies of the most recent century English language learning labs were being utilized as a part of different instructive foundations. The conventional language research center is comprised of various little cupboards, furnished with a tape deck, a receiver and an earphone for everyone. Educators utilize a focal control board to screen their learners’ associations. The fundamental favorable position of that sort of innovation is that verbal conduct of learners would help them to speedily take in the second language. The learners’ aptitudes can be improved by experiencing more practical problems. In spite of the fact that the language lab is a positive stride in connecting innovation and language instruction, this method is really repetitive and exhausting for learners (Singhal, 1997). Likewise, there are insignificant collaborations between the educator and his learners. Computer helped language learning programming has given another instructing device to second language training. The utilization of computers in English language classroom is valuable for both instructors and learners. Presently, there are various programming application programs accessible, for example, vocabulary, linguistic use and articulation programs, spelling check utilities, electronic exercise manuals, perusing and composing programs, and distinctive learning bundles to help educators in making instructional exercise activities to improve their English language courses.

2.6.1 Importance of Mass Media in education

Heinich et al (1989) says media can serve numerous parts in the field of teaching. The teaching possibly reliant upon the existence of an educator or a teacher alluded to as in teacher based.  Indeed, even in this circumstance media possibly vigorously utilized by the educator then again the educating may not require an educator when the learner is learning, alluded to as teacher free. This kind of teaching is regularly called “self teaching” despite the fact that it is guided by who so ever composed the media. Through different and new instructing aids, learners can have various types of experiences. As characterized by him the scope of experience through l aids is between direct experiences. These divisions over lap and a occasionally mix into one another. Dale fancies the cone of experience to be a ‘visual metaphor’ of learning  encounters delineating different things in the request of expanding reflections as continues from direct intentional experience, which is the bed rock of all training (as cited in Sultana, 2009, p53).

2.6.1.1 Role of media in the development and promotion of English language in Media of Pakistan

(Sultana, 2009, p53) in her study discusses the role of media in evolving and promoting the use of English language in Pakistan. The development of English language is based on the process of globalization and innovation in science and technology. The information technology and media has grown rapidly in the past few years. All mediums have been distributing information in English language. However, the majority of the population fails to understand the language which resultantly generated a huge communication gap. Therefore, there is a need to fill this gap by constructing better media strategies in terms of its role in promoting English language and its teaching. Pakistan’s educational development has been deteriorating due to poor language policies. Most of the post-colonial states have replaced English with their native languages; however, Pakistan is still using English as the official language. The print and electronic media should play an influential role in spreading the language to the masses. English as a language of global world should be introduced to the students at an early stage. Moreover, its teaching should not be only restricted to the privileged class. The neglected class should also learn the language to meet the demands of globalization. There is no use of promoting the language unless there is a proper medium for English language teaching in the country.

2.7 Newspaper role in development and promotion of English Language

(Shahzad, Memoona, & Lodhi, 2015, p141) discusses the significance of daily newspapers can’t be overlooked as because of the progression in technology as the radio and television. The thirst and appetite to procure the authentic news is not fulfilled till the general population read the daily paper every day. The News International and the everyday Dawn are the imperative English dailies rotate among the people who read in Pakistan. Any kind of holiday is awful in daily paper associations. This holiday must be given to television and Radio news. The daily papers encourages us with the most recent news on the time of supplications to God, the arrival and departure time  of the trains and airplanes, the time of dawn and dusk,  the radio and television programs, climatic weather reports and essential phone numbers of police, rescue, ambulances, fire units station. The daily newspapers take no cost of it.

(Shahzad, Israr & Lodhi, 2008, n.p.) states the declaration of seminar or classes, conventions, books introducing ceremonies and meetings. Daily newspapers assume essential part in the documentation and distribution of the history. The daily papers distribute the occasions in their dailies in sequential array as they happen. The study in the field of daily papers is more essential than in industrialized countries. The daily papers likewise serve as a discussion in which anyone can take part in different activities of the daily papers. People in general can give recommendations and can be in favor or contradict with the suppositions, policies and contents (Khawaja, 1995).

(Shahzad, Israr & Lodhi, 2008, n.p.) has explained history of the daily paper is noteworthy in East Asia. Chinese urbanized it in 2000 years back. The Korean took in it and educated from Chinese and passed it to Japanese. Later on China created it on wood block procedure. While contrasted with the West way of life of current style daily newspapers developed late in East Asia. The physical presentation of most daily newspapers is fundamentally the same of eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth century. It is comprised of an expansive sheet of paper that can be fold up (Martin and Copeland, 2003).

(Shahzad, Israr & Lodhi, 2008, n.p.) has explained further that daily papers portray the relationship of particular occasions with the huge part of present activities. Changes in worldwide relations are found in daily papers. Improvements in commercial ventures and industries, inventions and developments can help and provoke the humankind to think about new thoughts. (Plants, 1956). The editors of the daily papers remember the liking and disliking of the general population.  Distinctive methodologies are utilized to pass on the news to general society (Naz, 2007). Significant daily papers dependably offer a great deal to extend to a sturdy base to explore questions for the research concerning media contents. In a period of present day and propelled correspondence innovations daily papers still give model and fundamental expert journalistic morals over all media. By and large, the quality press offers unmistakable quality to international news, particularly strategic, political and global news (Nossek, 2004).

(illyas Ali, 2013, p256) discusses newspapers is considered as an extraordinary wellspring of learning a language and it likewise gives industry materials to numbers of individuals particularly for learners i.e., sports section, training segment, social activities segment, historical and geological segments too. The language utilized as a part of daily newspaper is everyday language with every informal articulation of that culture. We have different language styles which are not found in course books we can examine the daily newspapers in the different kinds – for educational written work, as the content for semantics and the stylistics. The actual life scenarios stimulate learner’s interest and they give information, as well as give a pragmatic method for reveling learners in learning a language. Daily newspapers can be planned in such a manner to create reading comprehension, linguistic or grammatical aptitudes and Vocabulary abilities, composing abilities and critical analysis. Daily newspapers can be sorted out based on the aptitude that is expected to teach in the classroom. The length of the article, the time distributed, and learner’s capacity to comprehend the density of the material ought to be considered before picking the content. The vast majority of the general population by and large read provincial daily papers as they are straightforward and the perception papers like Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu and different English Magazines and papers and so on, gives scholarly and non-literary material. Now days through web different daily newspapers can be surfed. Vocabulary can be taught in the classroom with the assistance of daily newspapers. Reading daily newspapers make the learners to be upgraded with the current issues in the meantime educationally they can create command on the vocabulary. All the vocabulary required may not be found in the daily papers but rather the related words around a specific word ought to be taken and combine work ought to be given to guess the meaning utilizing dictionaries  and by asking the learners that they are going to  discover the antonym and equivalent word for that specific word. Different types of that specific word as noun, verb, and adjectives can be investigated. Learners ought to endeavor to make their own sentences of the specific word they have picked.

(Mustafaeva, 2007, p222) has researched that most daily newspapers are linguistically updated and give profitable phonetic information. They might be utilized for the wide range of content types and language styles which is not regularly found in course books. In the meantime, daily newspapers give a normal basis of huge numbers of the assortment of composed English that turn out to be vital to learners and significant for language study as the learner’s progress. Along these lines, they might be utilized as supplementary material and cases in content examination while evaluating diverse types of written content. The assortment of subjects and themes makes daily newspapers intriguing and inspiring for the learners to work with. Daily newspapers report about real life occasions, and this excites learners’ interest. Daily newspaper is based on activities conducted in the classroom might draw in learners in pleasurable activities and supporting their advance reading.  Daily papers are a priceless wellspring of credible materials. The more learners will read it the more they will need to discover. Media teaching is essential particularly in taking in a remote language since it adds to learners’ imaginative forces for those pictures, words and sounds that go to the learners from a variety of media. Accordingly, making more dynamic and basic media clients, who will be all the more requesting later on. Media training needs to do with film and TV, press and radio, their effect on the learners’ development. It needs to do with what to instruct through media i.e. when and how. Its point is to allow learners to create critical thinking, investigating and thinking about their experiences while utilizing different method for media. Media today have a massive effect and in addition electronic media. They have turned out to be important to the point that it is once in a while that we can live without them. While on the way back from school or work we might get a daily newspaper and observe the main news. At school we might go to the library and check with a number of books and magazines for our exploration venture. At home we might sit in front of the TV for some time, and so on. Each of these encounters places us in contact with a medium, or channel of correspondence. Radio, books, records and tapes, daily newspapers, magazines, films, Television, online media, new media, all these are called mass media, they contact numerous individuals at a time. In future, media will turn out to be more pervasive. Understanding them and their impact will be critical to insightful use.

(Mehta, 2009, p56) has asserted that in an ESL classroom, English daily newspapers can be utilized as an exceptionally viable instructing apparatus. Fenholt (1985) offers various exercises that are based upon the utilization of daily papers as a learning asset to improve reading skills and life abilities of the learners (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56). Carolyn Hunter and Janice Mc Nearney (1988) have added to a progression of 12 lessons that utilizes the daily newspapers in a grown-up basic education curriculum. Every lesson concentrates on a specific letter of the alphabet in order and gives a rundown of vocabulary items required for the lesson alongside indications on how the best way to teach them in the classroom and proposed exercises and different activities(as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56).   As per Chandler (1988) Newspaper like ‘the Tulsa’ would likewise present a unique project for grown-up “Read Up” that consolidated utilization of day by day daily papers with a phone hotline to encourage the learners to enhance reading skills(as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56). Monda, Vail and Koorland (1988) has highlighted that the daily papers can be exceptionally possibilities for the LD (Learning Disabled) foundations to manufacture an individualized institutional system (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56).  Howden (1990) has expressed that the “Palm Beach Post” in Florida offered a working environment proficiency program with six classes in three distinct projects viz Adult Basic Education, English as a Second Language and High school Equivalency in arrangement of a Diploma Program. Learning Disabled (LD) students can likewise be profited and can take advantage by utilizing daily papers as a part of the classroom (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56).  Numerous specialists (Chavira, 1990; Hess, 1987; Salas-Isnardi, n.d.; Toben, 1987) have aggregated point by point and level-suitable arrangements of classroom exercises for utilizing the daily newspaper as content (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56). Kenji Kitao (1995) has proposed various exercises relating to training of English Language (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56). Paul Sanderson (2002) has expressed that a significant thing that upgrades accomplishment in utilizing daily newspapers as a part of the classroom is the cautious design tasks. “Grade the assignment – not the material’ is a surely understood saying in language learning (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56). Asahi, (2003) and Asahi (2004) both give rehearse in discovering data in vocabulary glossed leads and in short news articles (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56). Lindsay Clandfield and Duncan Foord (2006) has expressed that daily newspapers are a great deal more present than academic books, they make an incredible springboard for lessons, and they include diverse sorts of language (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56). Vilma Tafani (2009) investigates the significance of utilizing broad communications as a part of the classroom and finds the routes on utilizing printing and audio visual media (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p56).

The utilization of Newspapers in the classroom on consistent premise will instill routine for extensive reading. In India, Newspapers like “The Hindu”, “The Times of India” and so forth are exceptionally well known among the learners of English Language as they have an extraordinary section to polish the English Language Skills of the readers. English daily newspapers are likewise less costly and loaded with changed data and points of interest. Anyone can bear the cost of them effectively. In urban region that too in metro and semi metro urban communities readers want to read English daily newspapers. The learners are the individuals who are living in such places, attached to reading English daily papers in contrast with the learners of country side. The distribution of English daily newspapers in country side is not normal due to different reasons. Moreover, it is seen that daily newspapers reaches to the destination may be a couple days late after its distribution. Yet at the same time, for the sole purpose of sharing the data and enhancing English Language, it can be utilized as a learning asset.

There are the primary focal points of utilizing English daily papers as a part of an ESL classroom are as follow:

  1. Give some motivation level and inspiration for reading and discourse in English.
  2. Build up friendship and interest towards the utilization of English Language.
  3. Make the procedure of learning intriguing and inventive.
  4. Adaptable and versatile to all educational programs zones and grade levels.
  5. Encourage good quality reading routine that will help in a superior comprehension.
  6. Offer a wide range of learning and knowledge i.e. news, sports, climate, publications, and comics.
  7. An exceptionally cost effective approach to confer learning. Contain reasonable vocabulary and the best models of clear, brief composition.
  8. Create composing, speaking and listening abilities of the learners.
  9. Discover and spread out the universe of knowledge and information.
  10. Lessons require significant investment of time to get ready. Once an educator finds a fascinating material, he or she might utilize it again and again.
  11. Accommodating in learning grammatical uses, precisely created sentence structures and expressions and expressions other than new words.

(Mehta, 2009, p57) explains the English Newspapers can be utilized for ESL learners of all grades. For beginners, the extensive print features like headlines, identifiable images and numbers, and several colors and highly contrasting photos can convey information that learners comprehend. The daily newspaper offers introduction to print, to graphics, and to punctuate at an intermediate level. Superior learners can read English daily newspapers greatly as a local speaker can, while skimming a few articles, reading others totally, and disregarding those parts of the daily newspaper of little concern to them. The English daily newspapers reports the present occasions globally, new imperative technical leaps forward, the changing globe and society. It is obvious that the daily newspapers follow the time nearly and the materials are new and alluring. Along these lines, they can simply stay tuned with the latest. The English daily newspapers present English learners a wide range of composing written in legitimate language. Various types of writings, for example, descriptive, stories, letters, reports, and advertisements, and so forth, can provide as illustrations of composing and by making utilization of to polish learners’ written work skill. Further, the English daily newspapers give different materials for learners to widen their insight. Through reading one can go over with international societies, nonnative’s estimation of life, and way of thinking style, faith, practices and life incline better. Language is a capable method for correspondence. Through reading of English daily newspapers, learners find out life as it occurs. With the growth of the language capability, learners’ cognizance of social responsibility, social background and critical intuition are likewise created to a immense extent.

(Mushtaq and Ali, 2014, p67) has researched reading is a useful activity for everyone. It tells readers of interesting issues. Daily newspapers are suitable reading apparatuses. They convey everyday issues.  Reading daily newspaper also instills reading routine among the general public. English daily newspapers are best reading resources for English language learners. They offer various matters for readers in different kinds of languages. They likewise improve English languages skills of readers. Nevertheless, English daily newspaper reading routine for students in Al-Beroni University of Afghanistan looks like to be less. Hence, the point of this research was to find the components that expand enthusiasm of learners to English daily newspapers. This is made by utilizing mixed method approach. In qualitative method, 97 learners were arbitrarily picked as the subjects of the study. Likewise ten learners were interviewed. Discoveries show Provides fascinating data, distribution for free and revealing of real society are elements that expand enthusiasm of learners to English daily newspaper reading. Likewise there is no important distinction between male and female learners in with respect to calculates that expand interest English daily newspaper reading.

McCombs (2002) asserts that the daily newspaper shapes the opinions of the general population according to plans of their associations. It is acknowledged that just that news are broadcasted which offers advantages to the daily newspaper associations or which grades to hold on the interests of the general population. Just particular and some chosen material are printed in the daily newspapers. It might be because of monetary restrictions and financial issues with the daily newspaper associations which lean them to run their associations’ accord to specific and favored ways. Most part of the daily newspapers is devised by keeping in view the inclinations of the gathering of people.  Majority of the daily newspaper associations do not print more than 75% of the potential news (as cited in Shahzad, Israr & Lodhi, 2015, p36)

Riaz (2008) asserts that the daily newspapers have constrained space and in this manner can print the particularly picked news. Just couple of news stories is favored and published accord to general public interests and others are shortly expressed in order to draw in the attention of the readers. Daily newspaper associations are working under political strains and, under monetary and financial constraints. These associations play a vital part in the advancement of the picture of the general population (as cited in Shahzad, Israr & Lodhi, 2015, p36). Bass, (1969) asserts that the news is refined by two methods before they are introduced to the general population. Initial step is the social event of the collection of data and second step is the preparing of the reports. Assortment of the news changes over the span of the creation (as cited in Shahzad, Israr & Lodhi, 2015, p36).

The Daily Dawn is an imperative Pakistani English daily newspaper which is distributed from Islamabad, Karachi, and Lahore simultaneously. It is distributed under the result of Herald Publications. To begin with representative general and the creator of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam, was its first supervising trustee. At first, the daily newspaper distributed from Delhi. (Riaz, 2008)

(Shahzad, Lodhi, Israr, 2015, p35) has examined the daily newspaper articles distributed in the Daily Dawn and the Daily News International through the year 2012-2011. The analyst examines the articles from various perspectives for example knowledge English language and so forth in order to upgrade the level of attention to learning English language of the readers. One noteworthy hypothesis was created. The extent of the study was constrained to the articles distributed in the imperative English daily newspapers of Pakistan such as the Daily Dawn and the Daily News and their readers in Karachi. The mixed approach methodology was implemented. The people were consisted entirely of readers of the chosen articles of the Daily Dawn and the Daily News daily newspapers distributed through the year 2012-2011 in Karachi. The researcher has applied the stratified random sampling design.

The method of deciding the part of English daily newspapers is through a nearby and watchful investigation of the daily newspaper articles. Survey questions are real strategies utilized for information and data gathering. Information is gathered by visiting personally. Information is investigated qualitatively and quantitatively. Content examination of the articles talked about in important daily newspapers. Specifically it has made an effect on the powers of the daily newspaper associations and in people in general. It is a kind of litmus test. The test result demonstrated that the amount of information of English language is accessible for the readers. On the premise of discoveries solid suggestions were made.

(Mehta, 2009, p57) discusses newspapers are considered as a standout amongst the most potent resource of sharing information and enhancing learning bank. The essential reason of selecting English daily newspapers as an educational instrument is exceptionally realistic as English daily newspapers cover a variety of information and that too inside of the range of our learners’ wallet. The English daily newspapers can be utilized as a strong instructing tool to enhance the language skills of the learners. The utilization of English daily newspapers will definitely promote and persuade the learners and help them to polish their Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing skills. The present paper focuses to study issues that are interconnected with instructing English through English daily newspaper in an ESL classroom. Tafani (2009) asserts that technology empowered English Language learning instruments are just accessible in a few schools, it is entirely basic for an ESL instructor to utilize assets which are promptly accessible to them, including English daily newspapers. In preparing a lesson utilizing a daily newspaper, the instructor should be keeping in view the length of the article, passage, the difficulty of the language, the density of information, the topic and substance, the time accessible and the level of the students (as cited in Mehta, 2009, p57) .This is big time that researchers must work out on a technique on growing to another teaching form about utilizing the English daily newspapers as a powerful instrument to enhance English as a language. Thus, the learners are assumed to be prepared in such a way, to the point that they can have the capacity to read the English daily newspapers in an arranged way and get the ideal mileage to sharpen their English language skills.

(Ali, 2013, p256) has studied that over the most recent three decades, significant changes have occurred in the English language teaching strategies, particularly in second and non native language learning situation. This paper focuses for investigating the significance of using daily newspaper and magazines in the classroom and searching the best way to utilize print media. The classroom turns into a multidimensional situation. It is troublesome for the instructors to deal with this multidimensional environment. It is necessary for them to make the learners ready to utilize the news paper and in the meantime manage different activities  for example, examining for information from books and magazines. The accompanying issues are open for conversation that the significance of media when all is said in done and instruction specifically; media are convincing and pervasive, illustration of daily newspapers and magazines. The conceivable outcomes of intuitive or learner centered ways to deal for composing abilities in English through daily newspaper and I survey essential methodology common in English Language Teaching to design assignments for scholarly study will be discussed.  Daily newspapers can surely enhance the conventional lectures.

(Methews, 2000, n.p.) states that Thomas Jefferson asserted that “The press is the best instrument for enlightening the mind of man, and improving him as a rational, moral and social being”.

According to the World Association of Newspapers 1.4 billion people are reading a newspaper in the world today and the president of world Association of Newspapers said that distribution of newspapers is growing around the world and not just in China and India.

Daily newspapers is considered as an extraordinary wellspring of learning language and it likewise gives industry materials to a number of individuals particularly for learners i.e., sports section, instruction segment, social activities column, historical and geographical column also. The language utilized as a part of daily paper is everyday language with every colloquial articulation of that culture.

(Kairaria, 2010, p3) explains the reason for the study was to examine the effect of accessibility and utilization of daily newspapers on learners’ talking ability in English language in chose optional schools in Bungoma North District. The particular goals of the study are to: research the degree the instructors of English utilized daily newspapers to create talking capability among learners, to explore variables that obstructed utilization of daily newspapers in instructing speaking skills in English and to determine learners’ execution in an oral test among daily newspaper and non – daily newspaper clients.

This study adopts the Descriptive Research Design in light of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and the theory based upon this methodology is Krashen’s Second Language Acquisition therefore Monitor Model . Different sample techniques are utilized to gather the sample. In this research the sample of 16 English language teachers are taken along 150 students. The data is collected through oral test and interviews. Data is gathered and then analyzed.

From the examination and analyzing data, it was found out that learners who utilized daily newspapers demonstrated better speaking skills in English language than the individuals who did not utilize daily newspapers. Hence, it is prescribed that the utilization of the daily newspapers as an instructional asset in showing speaking competence in English language ought to be supported and enhanced in the Kenyan schools.

(Mathews, 2000, n.p.)  has examined daily newspapers and magazines are utilized to encourage instruction in schools as it is a global programme by print media in education.  Mostly in foreign countries daily newspapers in education is used than the magazines. Similarly it is same in South Africa, despite the fact that we have a few magazines which are progressively assuming a vital instructive role. In 1991 the World Association of Newspapers (WAN) set up a Newspaper in Education Division situated in Paris. After an unassuming starting the system spread quickly and at present about 38 nations have formal newspaper in education projects. In 1994, Print Media South Africa built up a non benefit association, the Print Media in Education Division, to enhance and encourage the utilization of daily newspapers and magazines in schools. In 1996 Dr Jeff Mathews was delegated Manager of the Division with the particular brief of helping instructive change in South Africa through advancing the utilization of print media in schools.

2.8 Electronic Media role in development and promotion of English

(Shahzad, 2013, p5) has asserted that  the electronic media generally comprise of radio, Television, and films, so classrooms are not bound till classrooms (Hustonet aI., 1992).Media is a vital wellspring of shared pictures and messages connecting with political and social connection. Innovation of media is an essential part of learner’s lives in the twenty first century and plays an imperative part in making and bringing awareness related to different parts of life and identity as found by Mehmood (2000).  The electronic media world is evolving drastically globally. Television is which ruled over the media world throughout the mid 1990s but now it is competing with mobile phones, , iPods, computer games, texting, interactive multiplayer computer games, Web social networks, and email. People learn moral values and ways of conduct from the media both specifically and by implication. Electronic media does have an impact on children from an early age and it will keep on influencing children psychological and social growth (Huston et aI., 1992). Electronic media actuate and strengthen state of mind and contribute extensively in the development of new attitudes (Gitten, 1998). Media have likewise had influence in the ethical growth of youngsters. Hence, people learn aptitudes, moral values and kinds of conduct from the media both straightforwardly and by implication (Gitten, 1998). The electronic media is a very effective medium for adapting, particularly through interactive instructive programming. Many of the societies have utilized visual arts, dramatically stories to impart their myths, thoughts and values to the new upcoming era which can be immoral. The media in all structures have turned into an essential affecting instrument on the ethical improvement of people including children. People’s essential center is on Cable T.V and Internet which are firmly related with learners learning. A study performed by Victoria Rideout clarifies that for some families; media use has turned out to be a piece of the fabric of everyday life. Parents are using Television and DVDs as a “protected” medium which their children can amuse from and learn new things while they can get ready for work, make a supper, or do the household work Elizabeth (2006). Working parents who stress that they do not have enough time to instruct and look after their children, now that feel relaxed because of the instructive television programs, educational based videos, and computer games are offering their children some assistance with counting and take in the letters in order and even say a word or two in Spanish by Elizabeth (2006). At the point when youngsters are irritable, or hyper, or quarreling with their brothers and sisters, parents use Television as a device to change their state of mind, quiet them down, or isolate quarreling brothers and sisters by Victoria (2006). Media are likewise utilized as a part of implementing order, with a Television in the room or a handheld computer game player offered as an intense prize or temptation for good conduct Victoria (2006). Regular exercises for example, eating food or going to rest, mostly moves on with a television as a background. Also, media are utilized to encourage snippets of move in everyday life: awakening gradually while sluggishly watching a few cartoon shows on parents’ bed, or cheering down to a most loved video before sleep time by Rideout (2006).

(yaqub, 2009, n.p.) asserts that these days electronic media is an extremely powerful type having an influence among the generation, however not every examiner have the same opinion. It is contended that the media is booming in showing advancements and spreading new sayings, however television cannot constrain individuals to embrace and adopt them (Bauer 1994). However, numerous individuals receive the discourse style. They hear on television. Milroy figured out in a study on the average working-class in Northern Ireland that the discourse of ladies, who frequently stay at home, is nearer to the standard than the discourse of ladies who have broad family ties in their general vicinity. These ladies then utilize a more limited and non-standard discourse range. In this manner, the dialect that is heard on television or the radio has an impact on society. The dialect showed in the media is utilized as an instrument to pass on messages. Nevertheless it is utilized as a part of an alternate path than in ordinary in person discussions as no communication between the sender of data and its recipient takes place. Hence, the collector or recipient has zero chance to interfere with the discourse stream of the sender. Many linguists are keen on the way language is utilized as a part of the media that how it changes inside of society and the impacts it has on it. Trudgill confesses that television may go about as a foundation for new lexis and phrases, or as a model for speakers of a language to gain the central phonology and linguistic structure of the standard type of a language, yet here such changes require aware inspiration by speakers to orientate towards, and copy such a model. However, it is still conceivable to discover phonetic changes occurring that are hard to clarify by dispersion. Trudgill himself manages precisely this while talking about the presence of ‘th’ and ‘f’ having the sound of “dh” e.g. think supposed TH-fronting, an element as a rule connected with London pronunciations, in generally non-versatile common laborers speakers in Norwich. He recommends that the change is the consequence of a blend of components cooperating, including less evident chances for making contact between Norwich speakers and those from London, however he additionally guesses about the possible part of television projects situated in London in advancing optimistic approach towards London language traits, therefore television might be a piece of a ‘softening-up’ procedure prompting the reception of the merger of ‘f’ and ‘th’ yet it doesn’t precipitate it’ (Trudgill 1986).

As per the conventional perspective, then, television might have the capacity to impact systemic language transform, yet in some way through transformation in attitudes towards linguistic varieties. It has likewise been asserted, drawing on the outcomes from sociological examination into the dissemination of advancements all the more by and large, that while television may raise speakers’ consciousness of developments, it is more averse to advance their reception. This could then clarify how language speakers of English, for instance, have increased more prominent familiarity with standard assortments of English through television, yet without really receiving components of the standard.

With respect to as English language in Pakistan is concerned, we are confronting a considerable measure of issues in regards to the pronunciation of words. As we are not local speakers of language that is the reason our media is likewise not introducing flawless English language. Mostly speaking they switch their language codes to English and English to Urdu. There are additionally a percentage of the behaviors that we see in our everyday life. Frequently media individuals speak “chairmano” rather than ’chairmen’. ‘Ladies first’ is an expression which we listen regularly. “Ladies” has been embraced by the majority of the uneducated individuals. Particularly drivers, conductors rather than singular for one woman, utilize the plural type of noun. The expression ‘thank you so very much’ is likewise utilized as often as possible by the anchorpersons of media. This expression has no base in English language.

(Meskill, Mossop,Btes, 1999, n.p.) discusses that a skilful instructor utilization of electronic text based documents shows the genuine and potential parts of the medium and its exclusive characteristics to encourage language and education growth. While the background portrayed in this report shows an exceptionally extraordinary case including a remarkable populace, small class size, all rounder prepared instructors, region support, and optimistic approach and accordingly are not illustrative of the larger part of public school settings, they in any case contain important lessons to be educated with respect to particular components of electronic texts and what these characteristics infer for second language and education learning and for creating thoughts of an ‘electronic education’. Integral to each is the part the educator plays in organizing helpful, educating focused activities around machines. Characteristics, for example, public, democratization, secure referents and pliability explicitly supports such activity and, on account of these commendable classrooms, serves to enhance children’s capability with the language and ideas that make them effective in school. Close examination of these types of teaching activity set the components of electronic text that have all the earmarks of being supporting and notwithstanding upgrading this activity, uncovers generalizable methodologies for concentrating on and working with language and education that can be connected to different settings and around the discipline. The most oftentimes demoralized characteristics of the innovative technology can be helpful foci in instructor guidance. Highlighting the solid parts of the medium and how these can be called into the administration of the sort of socio-collaborative activity that holds up language and education growth can add to educator epistemologies concerning the part of instructional innovative technologies in educating and learning, and for language and educating training specifically. Language experts organize and bolster social cooperation around any number of various types of forms related realia to evoke belief and correspondence in the objective language. Electronic texts speak to one of numerous assets that are being coordinated into instructional activities. Our perceptions of commendable employments of electronic writings with learners of ESL gives working case of this coordination and offers a reasonable perspective of interesting elements of electronic texts molding novel, engaging parts for instructors and learners and also going with types of valuable, education focused discussion and that discussion which is with regards to the necessities and objectives of the second language and literacy learner. We have watched activity overflowing with reading, composing, speaking, and listening; in a nutshell, correspondence invigorated and upheld by elements of electronic texts and the cautious specialty of excellent educators. Computers rapidly obsolesce. They break, wear down, and turn out to be excessively lumbering, making it impossible to manage. Conversely, language and literacy rich schedules and compatibility for the sorts of crystallized operations confirm in our perceptions of the ESL and electronic text environment to keep on being the formative nexus. That these steady and helpful types of discussion hold on, move smoothly and fluidly crosswise over evolving megahertz, stages, and peripherals, is demonstration of the supremacy of the human measurement in guideline with any instrument. A late study of school utilization of advances with ESL youngsters demonstrates that not just are ESL educators using innovative technologies with their learners in various approaches to bolster their language and literacy improvement, additionally that most by far of programming bundles they utilize are intended for local speakers of English. As it were they are scholastic, content-rich and, when their utilization is facilitated with standard scholarly substance, they help to at the same time bolster the interaction of etymological and calculated improvement. Reporting educators likewise express that utilization of content region programming advances learners inclusion and subsequent aptitudes improvement in content based language and literacy. To put it plainly, electronic texts are evidently being utilized, and utilized well and considerably, by numerous ESL experts (Meskill and Mossop 1997).

(Doyle and Parrish, 2012, p196) gives an outline of a multi-stage research venture depicted through the stories of the two creators. The exploration venture researched what learners believed were powerful and less viable approaches to learn English. The paper shows a portion of the fundamental discoveries of the different segments of the studies. One critical discovering important to instructors working in self-access focuses is that learners reacting to the open-finished segments of the study did not specify electronic, online or sight and sound assets as multimedia, or self-access learning focuses Follow-up shut reaction survey discoveries demonstrated that learners assessed electronic assets and decidedly as great approaches to learn outside of class. The creators recommend that a questionnaire based rundown of approaches to learn English out of class is a powerful approach to raise learners’ consciousness of options for learners. Consequent journal contemplates demonstrated how members utilized thoughts that are presented essentially through the poll for their outside class study.
(Shahzad ,Lodhi and Israr, 2008 n.p.) has found that daily newspaper articles plays a vital part in the learning of the readers. Electronic learning is yet not in the entrance of everyone. Just few picked seeds can manage the cost of it. Advancement in training is additionally slanting towards prepared, advantageous and convenient extravagances. Along these lines taking in is moving from routine to portable learning (Chang, Sheu, and Chen, 2003). English is the language of computer and it is the most noticeable language of web. In spite of the fact that these days numerous different languages have been presented at web yet at the same time English is the most essential language of the web world. At the point when a language is known as a global language, it gets to be obligatory for everybody to learn it and use it (Naz, 2007). Learners get hold of the ideas better, in multilingual classrooms, where the native language of learners is utilized as an extra asset. Language capability between language minority learners in the United States of America has been brought into being to be a far more grounded indicator of scholarly presentation than either cognitive style or intellectual growth. Hence, language capability gives the impression to be a solid indicator of intellectual working. Then again, linguistic capability in English, which is important, is not brought into being to be an adequate condition for high academic execution. A prospect for bilinguals to consider in their home language till they enhance adequate information of the language of guideline enriches their learning product in mathematics. On mathematic acknowledgment uniqueness of Asian American learners, by method for optional information found that the language of a test has sway on learners’ prosperity, essentially when the test is not performed in the language the learners are extremely able in. Scientists have uncovered that it is most reasonable to judge the intellectual capacity of bilinguals in their most capable language. The execution of the learners is influenced in critical thinking when the language of teaching is the weaker language of the learners. Learners who require certain sorts of expertise or whose experience been not the same as or even opposing to the encounters presupposed by certain word issues are on the whole correct to experience challenges. The purpose of language scholarly limit in mathematics problem solving that language inadequacies lead to misinterpretations of word problems. The substantial way out might be not correct yet mathematically steady with learners’ understanding of the word problems (Davis et al., 2013).

(Patil, 2011, p1) has examined development correspondence is a correspondence utilized for the progress of individuals. Print media and electronic media both assume a major part in the progress correspondence of any nation. In India, the Government utilizes print media to secure wide scope of messages through different daily newspapers and journals. Print media as a conventional media assumes a noteworthy part in the advancement correspondence. In India, print media qualities have to a great extent been formed by its historical experience and, specifically, by its relationship with the opportunity battle and also developments for social liberation, change, and improvement. Today different advanced and refined innovative technologies are utilizing by the print media as a part of both under developed and developed nations and they additionally confront solid rivalry from electronic media. This article concentrates on the flow patterns of the print media: daily newspaper and magazines in India and other couple of nations furthermore examined how the part of print media in the advancement correspondence is changing currently. It likewise focuses on what is the effect of new electronic media on the print media.

(Tavakoli,2013, p570) tries to analyze the impact of utilizing print media as a part of the classroom on the youngsters’ L2 proficiency improvement in an EFL background. Since reading is viewed as a central objective, in some second language instructing circumstances, it gets a exclusive core interest. Media as an apparatus for dialect learning and educating, can help both trained and non-taught learners to defeat the troublesome job of language learning. So as to decide the impacts of print media use on the growth of children’s second language reading capacities, 30 children matured between 7-8 well known to English letters in order were chosen. Taking into account DIBELS execution, members are homogenized and allocated as low group. As per National Reading Panel, story books, magazines and daily newspapers are utilized to show five territories of reading capability, i.e. phonemic mindfulness, phonics, familiarity, vocabulary and content understanding. Following one year of guideline, taking into account DIBELS execution, members are appointed to medium and high groups therefore suggesting the impact of direct guideline and print media utilization in classrooms for creating second language reading capacities.

(Ramirez, 2012, n.p.) carry out a quantitative, co relational expectation study to decide the association among English language learner utilization of electronic media and reading proficiency in an expansive urban school in Texas. The interpreter variables are screening programs in English on television, watching programs in Spanish on television, utilizing a computer for correspondence and examination, and text messaging. A long time in U.S. schools is utilized as an interceding variable. The foundation variable is the reading appraisal segment of the Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System. Subjects included 69 English language learners from classes of 6, 7, and 8. From the analysis seeing television programs in English and text messaging has positive direct connections to reading proficiency. The tests result showed that seeing television programs in English and Spanish are indicators of reading proficiency, in spite of the fact that survey in Spanish alludes to low reading proficiency consistency. Statistical analysis measures the impacts years in U.S. schools has on electronic media variables, showed years in school has the most astounding positive change. Instructive management must concentrate on electronic media using rehearses in schools and social situations as current practices might be incompetent to deliver scholarly growth requested by government, state, and local orders.

(Basheer, 2013, p111) recommends the approaches to utilize present day innovation in showing English as a second language. Progressions in innovation offer a few new systems and ways to deal with learning language in a more productive manner. There are some great English language learning sites and projects which help out learning the language with no exertion. Except that there are a few different methods, for example, electronic dictionaries, chatting and email informing programs, CD players and instructive recorded videos. These projects offer varying media partner in language learning and instructing. The analyst likewise talks about a contextual investigation which values the utilization of innovation in English language learning. The study has investigated classic English language classroom learners for utilizing innovative procedures. It recognizes a considerable measure of disadvantages and constraints in the conventional strategies for language learning and recognizes the new learning techniques.

(Agbatogun, 2013, p257) has stated the reason for this study was to think about the effect of clickers, the communicative methodology and the address technique on the communicative capability improvement of learners who are taught English as a second language. Ninety nine students from three different primary schools contributed in the study. Semi exploratory non randomized pre test post test controlled group configuration is embraced for the study. To measure learners communicative skills a battery of English Language Listening Tests and English Language Speaking Tests are utilized. From the research data is analyzed and the result showed that, there is a noteworthy contrast between the communicative skill pre test and post test scores of learners in each of the groups. Moreover, over the groups I is analyzed that there is a noteworthy contrast in learners communicative skill post-test scores in light of the teaching technique. The result revealed that 84.9% of the change of learners’ communicative skill is represented by a blend of the indicator variables. Speaking aptitudes is the powerful supporter while gender does not make a noteworthy role to the expectation of learners’ communicative skills in ESL classrooms.

(Zhang, 2012, n.p.) has explained that this exploration throws light at the utilization of PowerPoint as an instructional apparatus for showing English language learners who study in a language program at a state college in the Pacific Northwest. The reason for the examination is to find and to investigate the impression of PowerPoint encouraged instructing and discovering that were held by the learners’, the educators, and the learners analyst. PowerPoint is a standout amongst the most usually utilized advancements as a part of classrooms, and its projection on screens has turned into a basic piece of numerous learners day by day schedule. The fundamental outline of this exploration study depends on Stringer’s (2004) activity research model which works on a recurring loop of imitating, setting up, performing and observing. This activity exploration is produced by all members as instructed by educators, and checked by the arranged targets of the study’s results. A constructivist methodology is utilized to comprehend the procedure of educating and learning with PowerPoint, and response through polls, meetings, and individual correspondences was gathered from the learners keeping in mind the end goal to help educators and the learner scientist to decide the learners’ needs. There are four primary arrangements of data in this study therefore, data from learners’ polls, from learners’ meetings, from educators’ meetings, and from the learner specialist’s classroom perceptions. Learners are given surveys, and two learners from every class were chosen to be interviewed. Educators are interviewed both toward the starting and toward the end of the term. The learner scientist watched all classes beginning week two, and composed notes which are incorporated as a component of the data.

(Joshi, 2012, p33) asserts one of the methods to enhancing the learners’ meet up the scholarly needs and helps them creating English language aptitudes is giving multimedia through the procedure of teaching and learning in the classroom. Sight and sound classroom with multimedia give the learners opportunities for cooperating with different writings that give them a strong foundation in the assignments and substance of standard school courses. The written content means to discover some focal points of the utilization of multimedia in the classroom. Likewise, the association of innovative technology in the classroom cannot deny giving positive point to enhancing the nature of instructing and giving more different procedures in instructing an overseas language. The examination utilizes a qualitative methodology giving a profoundly portrayal utilizing multimedia as a part of the classroom. The distinction between a customary classroom and sight and sound classroom with multimedia has been the focal point in this composition. The written work demonstrates that there are some focal points in showing English utilizing multimedia as a strategy as a part of showing procedure in the classroom. Through the media the instructor could give more chance to learners to express their point of views and benefit from the course throughout. The profoundly nearness and inspiration likewise convey positive viewpoints to learners with the goal that they can enhance their aptitudes.

(Papai, 1999, p81) has found that English Language Learning learners in the United States go through unique difficulties for attaining scholarly progress and achievement. Notwithstanding the multifaceted contrasts which may confine their comprehension of the social standards and socialization into the bigger United States discussion group, these learners can be prevented by their lower level English language aptitudes. This case study will talk about how one school teacher insert English to Speakers of Other Languages classroom utilizes content based direction to instruct English and in addition to build up the numerous ways of education. His practice uses innovative technology and institutionalized accomplishment test training as method for expanding English language abilities, specialized aptitudes and scholarly capabilities to encourage socialization into United States discussion rehearses. Further, the discourse will incorporate how the educator rejects lower level proficiency abilities of English Language Learner, learners as a feature of his endeavors to give them access to scholastic achievement in the United States.

(Ybara & Green, 2013, p111) has studied that computer assisted guideline has been revealed in a variety of studies to encourage and make possible learning in number of ways. Computers can be utilized to associate in showing English Language Learners in center scholarly subjects, for example, reading and writing. Computers can assist in vocabulary improvement and verbal language advancement. At last, in any case, perceive that computers are not a substitute for successful teaching. Computers are an apparatus and they are basically one sort of supplement to the consistent educational programs in instructing English Language Learners as they build up their English language abilities.

(Rana and Iqbal, 2008, n.p.) has gathered the  information essentially for this research for a task on social effect of cable satellite television in Pakistan directed by the creators for Department of Anthropology, Quaid-e-Azam University , and Islamabad under the sponsorship of Higher Education Commission. The primary data and essential information which has been utilized as a part of the research incorporates overviews, detailed meetings, center gathering discourses and content analysis of different television programmes and channels. This paper endeavors to answer two fundamental queries therefore what is accessible on satellite television as far as contents and how individuals are reacting to the new messages in their social life? The effect of television on Pakistani society is tremendous and far reaching. The nation which at first had one television channel has now access to more than fifty satellite stations accessible through a wide cable supply system. This convergence of data has influenced the Pakistani society in numerous ways. All age groups, genders and political and social establishments have experienced sensational changes in the course of the most recent fifteen years with the appearance of satellite television stations in Pakistan. The creators have endeavored to investigate the effect of various television programs on the general public in contrast with State controlled Public Sector television, which is Pakistan Television (PTV). The major part covered under this study is the effect on youth, children, ladies, learners and overall population. The essential center is the effect and coming about response of different population divisions on these programmes. The consequences of the study propose that the satellite television has been given by and large in positive sense. The effect has been assessed in social point of view utilizing the Anthropological strategy of member perception and in detail organized and open.

(Shyamlee, 2012, p150) asserts that this paper is analysing the fact that usage of electronic technology is very significant and beneficial in language teaching and learning. The electronic devices like, radio, TV, cd-rom, computers, electronic dictionary have come up with a rapid revolution. Moreover, email, blogs, videos, DVD’s, power point, has changed the scenario. Technology has a great impact on English language learning and teaching. For example using multimedia in language class room has many benefits in creating a context to teach .In the modern age of technology it is necessary for English language teachers to use the technology effectively.

(Shyamlee, 2012, p155) discusses the main aim of both the traditional and computer assisted cooperative language learning class rooms is to promote learning in a healthy learning environment. The purpose of multi-media language teaching is to motivate, facilitate and increase the level of interest of language learners. English language teaching should be based on effective information and accessibility of teaching material. The effective implication of modern technology can be very beneficial for language learners. This usage of multimedia will decrease the confusions and guide learners enabling them to communicate in second language without depending too much on their first language. ELT teachers can improve their teaching quality by the effective usage of technology and by increasing their competency level in computer skills.

(Al- Harbi, 2011, p1) has stated that it is believed that the programs focusing child-education can be very effective. Children are the core audience of television. By showing them effective educational programs, parents can make them learn better vocabulary, talking about them different things; activities on television will definitely improve their listening and speaking skills. The interactive educational program will develop their vocabulary and provides information in the context of real world enabling learners to communicate in second language. Parents who intervene in the activities of children are able to learn more. They can use these educational TV programs as an effective tool to develop their vocabulary and to enhance their listening and speaking skills.

(Shahzad, 2013, n.p) has researched that in the age of globalization where everyone is under the influence of electronic media, the need is to assess  the affectivity of electronic media in the learning process. The researcher explored that university students learn more and their knowledge efficiency also increases comparatively to college students. It is also analysed that the social behaviour and language effects negatively of college students due to exposure of media.

(Gowon, 2013, p92) suggests that parents, school authorities and members of the public have been concerned about the pervasive and powerful nature of the broadcast media to attract the youths, the much time they spend with the media as opposed to the little time they spend in their studies. Their concern arises from the noting that these could become powerful distracters to structured learning, despite their positive contributions to the dissemination of information. This scenario coupled with the poor speaking and writing among Nigerian youths necessitated this research efforts. Results of findings indicate that both television and radio have a positive influence on speaking skills of students, but no effect is indicated on their writing skills. The findings are interpreted in terms of what teachers could do to use the TV and radio to promote the development of spoken and written English.

2.9 Effective medium for the development and promotion of English

(Ahmad, 2015, p1) has explained that human nature is always in habit of communication and loves to interact with others. In ancient times there are different mediums of communication. The ancient cave paintings, symbols, maps and drawing all are examples of the communicative mediums that shows how human nature is eager to communicate in every time. The means of communication progresses with the time to meet up the demand of modern world. The major forms of mass media all around the world is print media and electronic media. The major sources of print media are newspapers, newsletters, magazines, postures and brochures. Books are the oldest and the most used by most of the people in print media. The contribution of books in medieval time is very significant in developing libraries. Magazines and newspapers are relatively new forms of print media. The role of print media is very significant in the last two centuries on the local and national level. In the fast moving time of globalization, many advancements and progress are taking place in every field of life. To meet up the demands of modern world many electronic devices came into existence as radio, television and computers.

Radio is the oldest device of electronic media that is the source of information, knowledge and entertainment. Later on, TV took the place of radio and become the most fascinating electronic device all over the world in twentieth century. Due to its audio and visual effects it is successful medium to attract people of every age group. The appeal of television is same till day and increasing day by day, as it provides lot of information in real context and entertains masses. In the fast moving world and in the time of rapid progress, the launch of World Wide Web and internet, computers and laptops are the most successful mediums. The usage of internet is most essential need of today’s world. Anyone can access any information by just a click of one button in few minutes. Internet World states that there are more than 2.4 billion internet users till June 30, 2012. The internet users are increasing day by day and computers have become the necessity of every single student and working people all around the world.

Both print media and electronic media have contributed a lot in mass communication and both have its own significance. Books have their own charm, importance and attraction. But we cannot neglect the reality; the print media is facing many difficulties to cope up with the digital age. Despite of the fact the print media is producing the e-books, e-news papers and internet radio to become part of the Digital age. It can be said that the print media is also merging into electronic media for its survival.

2.10 Overview

This chapter reviews the point of view of different researchers regarding development and promotion of English language through media. It also discusses the significance of both print media and electronic media in the light of previous studies. The studies has showed that electronic media is more effective and can play more significant role in the age of globalization. The history of language and facts related to the evolution of English language is also studied. The importance of English language was discussed and reveals the fact that how important English language is? And how important it is for communication? Every person needs competency and proficiency in English language to communicate. The effective usage of electronic media can be very beneficial, print media had played significant role in the past but now in the fast moving world of globalization. English language learning and development can take place more effectively and rapidly through electronic media. The present research is conducted to explore the positive role of electronic media in the development of English language .Only few researches have been taken place to identify the significant role of electronic media in relation to English language learning, to fill the gap between these loops this research is conducted and comparative study of print media and electronic media is conducted to identify that which media is more effective in English language learning in this digital age.

Chapter 3 – Theoretical Framework/ Research Methodology

3.1 Preface

This chapter describes in detail the methodology adopted for this particular research. It elaborates in detail diversified tools and ethics adopted for it. It will also describe about data analysis. This chapter will be discussing further about the methodology applied in this research work and how were the implications were done will be discussed. Research questions will be presented on which the whole research will be done. Research Approach and paradigm will be discussed on which this research is based on. Research tools will be presented on which the piloting of research will be done. Sample for this along the population will be presented. How this research will proceed on the basis of research tool’s analysis techniques will be discussed. Furthermore the quality criteria of the research, its limitations and research ethics will be discussed. This methodology has been adopted from the previous researchers as mentioned in the literature review, as Naz sultana in her research “The role of media in the development and promotion of English in Pakistan” in 2009 did the triangulation in her research Wajid Shahzad in 2013 adopted the mixed method approach for the collection of primary data for his research “The impacts of electronic media on the students learning: the case study of Gujranwala division (punjab, pakistn)”. Azam Khan also did his research “Electronic media in Pakistan” in 2010 and it was based on secondary data. Likewise there are many researches already mentioned in the literature review from which the methodology is similar. But in this research, it is going beyond triangulation as for this research, questionnaire, interviews, and test will be used. These methodologies have been taken for the authenticity, reliability and validity in the results as they have been adopted earlier by the researchers.

3.2 Research Questions

To achieve the objectives of the study, following research questions are developed.  This research was based on these three research questions.

  • Q1. Why has English become a prominent language of mass media in Pakistan?
  • Q2. How far does English Print media and Electronic media play role in developing the English language skills in BA level in Pakistan learners?
  • Q3. Which medium is more effective among students for the development of English language?
  • Q4. What are the English teachers’ view about electronic media and print media promoting and developing English language for ESL learners?

To find the answers of above mentioned questions, a comparative study of print media and electronic media is undertaken i.e. English daily newspapers, television and internet. Research questions have been framed so as to help to identify broad categories of information that is required.

3.3 Research Approach and paradigm

The research design for this study was mixed paradigm. The methodology adopted for this research report is through collection of both primary and secondary data. Mixed method approach is comprised of qualitative and quantitative data both. The primary data was collected from teachers and students. While secondary data was collected from books, journals and research papers.

This type of research is descriptive. Descriptive research can be defined as:

“Descriptive research involves collecting data in order to test assumption/hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of subject of study.”

The research is based on qualitative and quantitative paradigm. This is known to be a mixed methodology. There are several concerns when deciding to choose for a qualitative research methodology. (Sultana, 2009, p125) Strauss and Corbin (1990) asserted that qualitative methods can be utilized for better comprehension about which little is yet known. On the other hand Quantitative approach was additionally considered as essential for the present study to give exact estimation of the respondents’ attitude, motive, opinion and perspectives to achieve systematic conclusion. In this kind of research results are eagerly examined and interpreted. In short the data is examined in the conditions of numbers with a goal to accomplish accurateness. Quantitative study is intended to test hypothesis that are tentatively derived so whether hypothesis is supporting or disproved the examiner reports the consequences objectively. The examiner has likewise carry out an experimental study. It depends on quasi experimental design for a specific part of the study to give a standard for new study in this field.

3.3.1 Qualitative Method

(Sultana, 2009, p126)As explained by Marsen: Qualitative methodologies plan to advance seeing instead of exact measurement. Such methods incorporate ethnography, ethnographic involvement, critical text analysis and the appliance of critical theory to deduce perceived signs. Qualitative study includes feature relating to subjective insight of the world and to diverse culture. For this methodology what makes a difference is the way individuals deduce their insight of their atmosphere and how they develop rationally and socially the authenticity that show their manners. Qualitative methods perceive that realism can be different and open to understanding and that not all fact or thoughts have a quantifiable component. Accordingly, they are primarily involved in establishing the meanings and patterns of manners that are made through human association and connections. Qualitative study diverse type of information as set forth by Patton: “Qualitative method comprises of three kinds of data collection: detailed open ended interviews, direct observation; and composed documents. The data collected from interviews comprises of direct citation, confining individual’s own point of views and experiences. The data gathered from detailed observations of individual’s activities, action, and full array of interpersonal interactive and organizational procedure that are a component of noticeable human behavior. Document analysis in qualitative inquiry yields extracts, quotes, or whole passages from organizational clinic or program records; official productions and reports; and open ended written response to questionnaires and surveys.” Qualitative study investigate utilize these strategies either independently or in amalgamation for rich, healthy and realistic exploration. “In qualitative research queries and issues for investigate frequently come from real-world perception, problem, and queries.” Therefore Marshall and Roseman stated choosing strategy “relies on upon the center of the exploration and required time span for the study. Examples include life histories, contextual investigations and field contemplates.” Qualitative techniques are valuable not just in giving rich portrayals of complex phenomenon, yet in creating speculations or reasonable frame works, and in producing theory to clarify those phenomenons. It likewise gives comprehensive point of view which gives a more extensive perspective of complex issues confronting particularly, instructive analysts.

3.3.2 Quantitative Method:

(Sultana, 2009, p127) As explained by Marsen: “Quantitative methodologies plan to foresee social results by investigating society and social intuitive procedure along reasonable and exploratory lines. Taking after the lead of natural sciences they do this by gathering quantifiable information acquired through an assortment of examination strategies. These incorporate questionnaire, surveys, physical test and statistical examination. Quantitative exploration is established in experimental sciences and utilizations mathematical models to determine and categorize observed phenomenon.” Quantitative examines in sociologies are frequently embraced in the public sector to find a way, to enhance the conveyance of social strategies, arranging of future improvements and maintenance of community infrastructures. Quantitative exploration has a tendency to be connected with statistical investigation, not every single quantitative data lead them to this, for instance in ethnographic examination it is hard to set up statistical importance.

3.3.3 Difference in Approaches

(Sultana, 2009, 128) Druckman believe that the differences among quantitative and qualitative data or methodologies are resource of uncertainty in the field of social sciences in general. Other researchers say the difference covers partly among positivist and constructivist approaches to knowledge. Positivist in general carries out quantitative analysis while constructivists generally carry out qualitative analysis. Conversely, both methodologies place considerable in a social sciences research. One gives thoughtful and the other generalization. But for some researchers both qualities are vital and the qualification between the methodologies regarding serving either esteem is not clear. Some individuals are more contented with numbers than others. In this research value in both approaches was found out and feel contented with both kinds of investigation. In fact the difference is not very pointed as various believe. Quantitative studies have noteworthy qualitative perspective, particularly with respect to understanding. Like with studies that are generally qualitative frequently benefit from complementary analysis of quantitative data.

3.4 Research tools

This research has used primary and secondary sources for data collection. They both are qualitative and quantitative in form.  These tools were used for this research.

a. Questionnaire: The survey was designed through the use of questionnaire as well comprising of twenty close ended questions. The likert scale has been used in questionnaire having five options:strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. To get the deeper insight of the research questions the questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire was designed thematically as per to get the answers of the research questions. Respondent’s detail was asked in the questionnaire for the student’s profile, to have the information about demographics, their usage of English and their background knowledge. Questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 17 are added in the questionnaire to get the information from the students about the current scenario of English in Pakistan. Questions 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 are added in the questionnaire to analyze the learning of English language gained from the print media. Questions 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19 and 20 are added in the questionnaire to analyze the learning of English language from the electronic media.

b. Interview:  In this survey semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interview was conducted from ten English language teachers the interviewers were in their own right expertise in the area of evaluating the role of English in media. The interview questions from the teachers were based to know which medium is more effective for learning English language. Should any of the medium used in the classes for the better learning of English language. And are these mediums playing any role to enhance the communicative skills in ESL learners.

c. Observation:  My personal experience and observation of teachers who conducted the test provided a holistic view to the research problem. So, the survey was conducted from the teachers present while conducting the tests. The interview was conducted from the two teachers who conducted the test in the class and was invigilating it at that time to get the responses of the students. The observation of the teachers who conducted the tests for the comparative study will be on print media and electronic media.

d. Written Data: The written data was collected from libraries, books, newspapers, periodicals and journals published in Pakistan and abroad. Online research was also used for reliable and speedy information. These tools will show triangulation in research, from which research will be more authentic.

e. Experimental test:  An experiment was used to determine the response of learners through media technologies to assess the strength and weaknesses of media, to determine the teaching of oracy skills i.e. listening and speaking skills so two surveys were designed through the use of questionnaires. It was opted to use closed ended questionnaires in two respective surveys. This one was test from students based on questionnaires with close ended questions.

3.4.1 Triangulation

Triangulation means using more than one method to collect data on the same topic. This is a technique of assuring the validity of study through the use of a number of methods to collect data on the similar topic, which involves different kinds of samples as well as techniques of data compilation. On the other hand, the reason of triangulation is not essentially to cross validate data but somewhat to get different aspects of the similar observable fact.

(Bryman, n.d., n.p.) stated that triangulation propose the utilization of more than one approach for the analysis of a research question to improve assurance in the resulting findings. While much research is discovered on the usage of an only research technique and it may undergo from boundaries linked with that technique or from the particular use of it, triangulation suggests the view of improved assurance. Triangulation is one of the numerous grounds for multi-method research. This term originates from analyzing, wherever it proposes to the usage of a series of triangles to outline an area.

3.4.1.1 Triangulation and Measurement

The plan of triangulation is immensely related with dimensional procedures in social and behavioral study. An early recommendation to triangulation was in relation to the thought of ‘unobtrusive method’ advised by Webb et al. (1966), who suggested, “Once a proposition has been confirmed by two or more independent measurement processes, the uncertainty of its interpretation is greatly reduced. The most persuasive evidence comes through a triangulation of measurement processes” (p. 3). Therefore, if we develop a fresh survey-based evaluation of a perception like emotional labor, our self-confidence in that assess will be larger if we can prove the division and compare of emotional labor during the usage of one more technique, for instance structured observation. Certainly, the viewpoint is lifted up that the two sets of findings might be not consistent, so it was analyzed that such a happening highlights the problem of depending on just one technique. Likely, the breakdown for two sets consequences to join that may provoke new reasons of queries concerning to each of the methods apprehensive or the substantive area concerned. A correlated point is that although a triangulation work out may give in congregate findings, we ought to be cautious of closing that this means that the findings are not questionable. It may be that both sets of data are faulty.

3.4.1.2 Types of Triangulation

(Denzin, 1970, n.p.) extended the idea of triangulation further than its traditional connection with research methods and designs. He differentiated among four kinds of triangulation:

1. Data triangulation, which entails gathering data through several sampling strategies, so that slices of data at different times and social situations, as well as on a variety of people, are gathered.

2. Investigator triangulation, which refers to the use of more than one researcher in the field to gather and interpret data.

3. Theoretical triangulation, which refers to the use of more than one theoretical position in interpreting data.

4. Methodological triangulation, which refers to the use of more than one method for gathering data.

3.4.1.3 Evaluation of Triangulation

The possibility of triangulation has been scrutinized on a few grounds. In the first place, it is now and again blamed for subscribing to a guileless realism that infers that there can be a solitary conclusive record of the social world. Such realist positions have gone under assault from authors adjusted to constructionism and who contend that research discoveries ought to be seen as only one among numerous conceivable versions of social life. Then again, authors working inside a constructionist structure do not refuse the potential from securing triangulation; rather they portray its utility as far as including a feeling of wealth and complexity to a query. Accordingly, triangulation turns into a gadget for improving the reliability and expression of a research account.  A second analysis is that triangulation presumes that arrangements of information getting from various research techniques can be unambiguously contrasted and viewed as comparable regarding their ability to address a research question. Such a perspective neglects to make note of the diverse social circumstances connected with the organization of various exploration techniques, particularly those connected with a between-strategies approach. For instance, the evident disappointment of discoveries getting from the organization of a structured interview to join with focus group information may have more to do with the possibility that the previous taps private perspectives instead of the more broad ones that may be voiced in the more public arena of the focus group.  Triangulation has come to assume an assortment of implications in spite of the fact that the relationship with the mutual utilization of two or more research techniques inside a methodology of convergent validity is the most common. Recently, it has pulled in some feedback for its obvious membership to a realist position.

3.4.2 Pilot testing

Pilot testing is described by Amy Schade:

(Schade, 2015) “Pilot testing (a session or two before the real test) helps fine-tune usability studies, leading to more reliable results. It provides an opportunity to validate the wording of the tasks, understand the time necessary for the session, and, if all goes well, may even supply an additional data point for your study.”

A preliminary closed ended questionnaire was sent to a small sample as a field trial to check the response rate, question applicability and question performance. The purpose of the test was to determine the relevance of the questions and the extent to which problems in obtaining responses. It was also meant to eliminate any ambiguity and to correct it. The feedback was considered before conducting the surveys that if they are answering the research questions or not.

3.5 Sampling Approach and the Sample population

3.5.1 Population

A population is the total of all the individuals who have certain characteristics and are of interest to a researcher. Community college students, teachers, college athletes, and of different groups can all be considered as populations. Because sampling is not an ideal part of science, there are often differentiation between the values of a sample and the values of a population. This is called sampling error, and it is the investigator’s responsibility to reduce this type of error.

The research has been carried out in a college. Both teachers and students have been involved in the study. The population of present study was teachers and students of BA level in the Semi Government college of Lahore.

3.5.2 Sampling

Sampling is the process of selection for example people, organizations from a population of interest so that by investigating the sample we may moderately generalize our results back to the population from which they were selected.

There are many types of samples, including a random sample, a stratified sample, and a convenience sample, but they all have the aim of accurately creating a smaller subset from the larger set of general participants such that the smaller subset is representative of the larger set.

In this research two classes of BA level students were taken as a sample. Random sample was taken for teachers as it was difficult for the researcher to collect data from the population as a whole. The sample was selected randomly to get the answers of research questions. The fishbowl draw was adapted for the random sampling. Random sampling is an easy procedure to number each participant or element using separate slips of paper, then putting all the slips into a box and then pick them out one by one without looking, until the number of slips selected equals the sample size you have decided to research upon.

3.5.3 Sample Size

The sample size of a statistical sample is the number of observations that constitute it. The sample size is usually denoted by n and it is always a positive integer. No exact sample size can be mentioned here and it can vary in different research settings. However, all else being equal, large sized sample leads to increased precision in estimates of various properties of the population.  Sample size for this research is sixty students, who have been selected for this research. Test was conducted in which they filled a questionnaire consisting close ended as well as open ended questions. Likewise ten teachers were selected for interview and two teachers for observation based interview.

3.6 Methodology

To find the answers of above mentioned research questions, a comparative study of print media and electronic media is undertaken i.e. English daily newspapers, television and internet. Research questions have been framed so as to help to identify broad categories of information that is required. The research design for this study was mixed paradigm. The methodology adopted for this research report is through collection of both primary and secondary data. Mixed method approach is comprised of qualitative and quantitative data both. The primary data was collected from teachers and students. While secondary data was collected from books, journals and research papers. The research is based on qualitative and quantitative paradigm. This is known to be a mixed methodology. This research has used primary and secondary sources for data collection. They both are qualitative and quantitative in form.  These tools were used for this research.

a. Surveys: Two surveys were designed through the use of questionnaires. It was opted to use both open ended and closed ended questionnaires in two respective surveys. This one was test from students based on questionnaires with close ended and open ended questions. The scale used in questionnaire had five options

1=strongly agree 2=agree 3= neutral 4=disagree 5=strongly disagree

b. Interview:  In the second survey semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interview was conducted from English language teachers the interviewers were in their own right expertise in the area of evaluating the role of English in media.

c. Observation:  My personal experience and observation of teachers who conducted the test provided a holistic view to the research problem. The observation of the teachers who conducted the tests for the comparative study will be on print media and electronic media.

d. Written Data: The written data was collected from libraries, books, newspapers, periodicals and journals published in Pakistan and abroad. Online research was also used for reliable and speedy information. These tools will show triangulation in research, from which research will be more authentic.

e. Experiment:  An experiment was used to determine the response of learners through media technologies to assess the strength and weaknesses of media, to determine the teaching of oracy skills i.e. listening and speaking skills.

The research has been carried out in a college. Both teachers and students have been involved in the study. The population of present study was teachers and students of BA level in the Semi Government college of Lahore. In t his research two classes of BA level students were taken as a sample. Random sample was taken for teachers as it was difficult for the researcher to collect data from the population as a whole. The sample was selected randomly to get the answers of research questions. Sample size for this research is sixty students, who have been selected for this research. Test was conducted in which they filled a questionnaire consisting close ended questions class A attempted the test after reading the novel (print media) and class B attempted the test after watching the video of the same novel (electronic media). Likewise ten teachers were selected for interview and two teachers for observation based interview. Data is presented in two ways. The close ended questions in questionnaire are represented graphically while interview questions are discussed thematically.

Triangulation is being used for this pragmatic research as all three tools have been used all together; questionnaire, interview and observation. Two classes of BA level were chosen. One class A was given the article to read and then fill the questionnaire while Class B was shown a video and after they were asked to fill the questionnaire. After that both the teachers who conducted the test in the class were interviewed because they were the observers who were observing students while the test was conducted. After this the comparison was done from the result of Class A and B. Then few English language teachers were interviewed.

3.7 Analysis Techniques

Data is presented in two ways. The close ended questions in questionnaire are represented graphically while open ended questions are discussed thematically. The data was interpreted and analyzed by using percentage method through SPSS. The results are presented in the form of bar graphs and analysis of data is given at the end of each table with the help of SPSS.

3.8 Quality Criteria

One good research or study is distinguished by verification that it must be based on honesty, supposed to be applicable to realistic settings, stable and unbiased. Thus, quantitative and qualitative study shared same principles for good evidence or quality criteria. There are number of methods utilized by the researcher to reach their quality criteria. Some of the methods contributed for different kinds of criteria at the same time.

3.8.1 Techniques for a Good Quality In Quantitative and Qualitative Method

  • Sample size calculated statistically
  • Providing information on non responses
  • Using a random or stratified sampling
  • Anonymizing the respondent identities
  • Replicating the study in other contexts
  • Let the fact speak for themselves
  • Maintaining the original data for accountability to journals and the public
  • Usage of multiple data sources, methods and theories for triangulation
  • Collecting data for an extended period of time
  • Responses and feedback from the participants on the data
  • Explaining the sampling strategy
  • Meaningful findings by more description in detail
  • Literature review and findings should be linked
  • Analyzing the data

3.8.2 Quality Criteria Principles

The quality principles were based on the research truth value of evidence, consistency of evidence and neutrality of evidence. The whole research was done while keeping these principles in mind. The research quality criteria principles have been described further on which the quality of the research is dependent.

  1. Internal Validity – the extent to which observed effects can be attributed to the independent variable.
  2. External Validity – the extent to which the results can be generalized from the research sample to the population.
  3. Reliability – the extent to which the results are consistent if the study would be replicated.
  4. Objectivity – the extent to which personal biases are removed and value free information is gathered.
  5. Credibility – the extent to which the study’s findings are trustworthy and believable to others.
  6. Transferability – the extent to which the findings can be transferred or applied in different settings.
  7. Dependability – the extent to which the findings are consistent in relation to the contexts in which they were generated.
  8. Conformability – the extent to which the findings are based on the study’s participants and settings instead of researchers biases.

3.9 Limitations

This research has been conducted for academic paper. The research on this topic is limited because of time constraints did not allow going to other colleges. Public sector could not be chosen because of no use of electronic media in those institutions.

3.10 Research Ethics

Complete confidentiality was ensured while conducting this research. So while filling the questionnaire there was not the requirement of name so that everyone may express his/her views freely.

3.11 Overview

In this chapter, research methodology has been discussed. For this research mixed method was adopted along triangulation. The rationale behind the adopted approach was deeper insight into the facts of the study. The tools selected for this research were adopted for testing students on the basis of more effective medium is electronic or print. For the study private sector was taken because in public sector they are not exposed to electronic media whereas, private sector students are exposed and well aware of usage of electronic media as well the print media. So, the fishbowl sampling method was adopted so that whoever will do research upon the same study can have the same result likewise this will show more authenticity in the result. So for this research confidentiality was kept for the students, as this is required for being ethical in doing research.

Furthermore, the next chapter is about presentation and analysis of findings. This chapter will present and discuss the data that was elicited from the research in pie charts and tabular data form.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4 – Presentation and Analysis of Findings

4.1Preface

In this chapter the data has presented which was collected through questionnaires, interview, and test. The results are shown in the form of pie charts, bar graphs along the tables with percentages while interviews are discussed in a comparative way. There are 20 questions of questionnaire, 6 questions of interview A and 10 questions for interview B. there are 9 questions for both the tests A and B. After every question its interpretation is done for more clarity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.2 Questionnaire Analysis

Sex Male Female
0% 100%
Age 20 21 22
10% 75% 15%
Education Background Graduation BA
Mass communication,  Economics, International Relations, Information Technology, English, and Geography
  1. At which age you started learning English?
3-6 7-10 11-13
58% 27% 15%
  1. How did you learn English?
At school At home Other
75% 25%  
  1. What is your mother tongue?
Urdu English Other
82% 4% 14%
  1. Were you educated through the medium of English or other?
Urdu English Other
20% 80%  
  1. In which language you can communicate better?
Urdu English Other
58% 28% 14%

 

Demographics (Table 4.1)

 

4.2.1 Demographic Profile of students

The demographic profile of the respondents is presented in this table. It indicates that students who participated in the study mainly belonged to the age group of 21. The numbers of male students were 0% because it was a girl’s private college who participated in the study. The students were enrolled in six different disciplines as go to know from their educational background. These disciplines were Mass Communication, Economics, International Relations, Information Technology, English, and Geography.

The students came from a different educational background and the medium of instruction in their schools was different. The majority of the students reported that they started learning English at the ages from 3 to 6. The students of this age started learning from kindergarten/ playgroup. However, the category of students aged 11 to 13 learnt English from class 6th. They studied in Government public schools, while rest of the students was from private English schools as they started learning English 7 to 10. All together 75% Students verified the formal learning of English at school. Those who learnt English at home were 25 % through their friends, neighbors or they belonged and lived in a foreign country. Majority of the students were from English medium schools as 80% students responded while from Urdu medium schools the number was 20%. None of them reported any other medium. It shows parents preference for English schools, despite the fact of a very expensive tuition fee of these private institutions.

Few of the students spoke 3 to 4 languages. As 2 students were able to read and write in Arabic and English and they use Arabic for their communication. Another student reported that she could communicate equally well in 3 languages; English, Urdu, and Persian. 58% of the students reported that they communicated better in Urdu however, 28% found their communication skills better in English. 15% students had better communication skills in other languages.

As most of the respondents around 82% reported their mother tongue is Urdu while only 4% was having English mother tongue because they belong to a foreign country and the rest 14% were other.

So, the high figures for English language support the conclusion that English is the dominant medium in English. It is the most important language for students in their academic life. During academic hours they might have talked to their friends in Urdu but the medium of communication with teachers is English. It shows student’s preference for English medium school is getting higher, they want to learn English for their development and promotion in their future lives. However Urdu was considered the best medium for informal communication with friends and family as it is easier for them to communicate in their mother tongue. But in these private institutions English is a compulsory medium, so students have no choice than to respond in English and learn English.

In_this_global_scenerio_is_it_important_to_know_english
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 16 25.4 26.7 26.7
Agree 40 63.5 66.7 93.3
Neutral 1 1.6 1.7 95.0
Disagree 3 4.8 5.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

 

(Table 4.2, Figure 4.1)

The linguistic aspect of globalization is seeking questions about the languages. Most prominent and powerful the responses around 26.67% have been received in the favor of this statement. 66.67% also tends to say yes as they also agreed to the statement. On the other hand 5% are very sure that it is not essential to know English in a global scenario and 1.67% tends to support them. Globalization has indirect but highly effective and long-term impact on language. It has increased the strain of learning English Language on a lay man. As a result in Pakistan more people are required to learn English. Mainly it has affected the poor who find English language education to be out of his reach. But education and language has become synonymous, just as education and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to know English in a global scenario.

 

 

Media_playing_role_in_developing_communicative_competence
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 10 15.9 16.7 16.7
Agree 38 60.3 63.3 80.0
Neutral 4 6.3 6.7 86.7
Disagree 8 12.7 13.3 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.3, Figure 4.2)

60.3% respondents were agreed to the statement that media is playing significant and beneficial role in developing communicative competence among students. 16.67% respondents tend to support the statement as well. They agreed to the statement because media is promoting such programmes keeping in view the societal and cultural norms which give the students confidence as they can relate themselves with them. Along their thinking ability enhances through media which make them communicative competent. Then there are different media and technologies which can again give them information so that they can communicate about anything any where confidently. While 13.3% respondents disagreed to the statement because media didn’t helped them for their communicative competence as they belong to public sector schools earlier and shifted to private sector for their higher studies. Such schools are not activity based learning as these schools doesn’t use any kind of media. This is the reason that these students weren’t more capable and used to it that’s why they are least interested in the media, but with the passage of time they might get into it as they have no exposure towards electronic media.

English_is_a_status_symbol
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 39 61.9 65.0 65.0
Agree 18 28.6 30.0 95.0
Neutral 1 1.6 1.7 96.7
Disagree 2 3.2 3.3 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.4, Figure 4.3)

In this pie chart English is clearly associated with the elitist status and position in all societies. 65% think, if they posses this wealth they can reach the highest peg of the ladder of success. 30% also tend to agree, though they have some reservation. A small number 3.3% is inclined to disagree, where as 14% do not see English as a sign of status, they consider it just another language in the multilingual setting of the country or simply a language of utility. Nevertheless, the impression of English as a status symbol is the basis of stratification in Pakistani society.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English_remain_the_official_language_of_Pakistan
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 3 4.8 5.0 5.0
Agree 30 47.6 50.0 55.0
Neutral 2 3.2 3.3 58.3
Disagree 10 15.9 16.7 75.0
strongly disagree 15 23.8 25.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.5, Figure 4.4)

This pie chart shows that 25% of the respondents would not like to see English to carry on as an official language of the country. And 16.67% seems to support them. Because it is embedded in their minds that it is the language of colonization. And fifty percent of the respondents would like to carry on English as an official language of the country. The reason for these different views is that English was expected to be replaced by Urdu in the years to come in post independence period. However, as Urdu could not be developed as a language of government, science and of technology despite hectic efforts made by various governments. Now, the discontinuity of English is difficult because we will get into declination. The internal conflicts and controversies have already spoiled the institutions largely in the country. In the wake of globalization, it is impossible as it is the language of international relations and conciliation therefore; majority of the respondents up to 50% tends to agree the statement and 25% respondents support them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English_newspaper_playing_any_role_in_developing_our_country
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agree 16 25.4 26.7 26.7
Neutral 4 6.3 6.7 33.3
Disagree 10 15.9 16.7 50.0
strongly disagree 30 47.6 50.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.6, Figure 4.5)

Time is fast in this digital age and respondents are not interested in reading. 50% students strongly disagreed while 16.67% supported them. So, how students can develop their language skills that is why the role of Newspaper is decreased by the time. As role is changing so the impact of newspaper is less effective, because students read and declining culture of reading is decreasing day by day due to the exposure of electronic media. But 26.67% respondents agreed to the statement and this showed that those students who were influenced through their elders which posses’ good reading habits with respect to newspaper. That is why for them newspaper is playing positive role in developing the language skills.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Any_interest_in_learning_Ebglish_language
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 16 25.4 26.7 26.7
Agree 42 66.7 70.0 96.7
Neutral 2 3.2 3.3 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.7, Figure 4.6)

70% respondents agreed to the statement, that they are interested in learning English language while 26.67% respondents tend to support them as well. It is obvious in this digital fast age that there is a demand of English language everywhere. As it is a universally acknowledged language around the world. It is the language of communication globally. These respondents are eager to learn English language because it is very important in this need of time to learn it. It is required in the education, in jobs, and used a s a social language too. It is an official language which students will have to learn. As it is required in the offices, education level and even in the government level everyone should have the competence to acquire language skills. And only 3.3% respondents were neutral because they seem least bothered and interested toward the filling of questionnaire as well.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Any_interest_in_reading_English_print_media
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 3 4.8 5.0 5.0
Agree 20 31.7 33.3 38.3
Neutral 5 7.9 8.3 46.7
strongly disagree 32 50.8 53.3 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.8, Figure 4.7)

53.33% respondents did not agree with the statement; likewise 8.33% respondents supported them as they were not having any interest in reading English print media because reading interest is vanishing due to the exposure of electronic media. People are more like to read e-books then the printed versions. In this digital age and rush of time everyone is busy with their busy routines and schedules so that is why they don’t have time to read the print media and lack interest in it as well. Others might not have interest because they are not habitual to read, they don’t read for pleasure either. They cannot sit quiet for long and read that is why they are least interested. On the other hand 33.33% agreed with the statement and 5% tend to support them, they have interest in reading print media because they read for pleasure, they like to sit and read for their relaxation and to gain knowledge with respect o vocabulary, information and to entertain themselves.

 

Do_you_get_any_knowledge_through_print_media
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 5 7.9 8.3 8.3
Agree 19 30.2 31.7 40.0
Disagree 4 6.3 6.7 46.7
strongly disagree 32 50.8 53.3 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.9, Figure 4.8)

53.3% respondents strongly disagree with the statement and 6.67% respondents tend to support them. The reason for this is that they are not interested in reading neither they have any reading habits developed and if they need to get any knowledge they don’t have to search in print media, they rather use internet and Google what they exactly want to know and that is time saving as well for them. And some belong to public sector background, therefore in such education system they start learning English language after primary classes, which makes their main focus on Urdu rather than English. They find reading Urdu print media more easy to understand than the English print media, so how can they get any knowledge from it. 31.7% respondents agreed and 8.3% respondents supported them because they are keen readers, they find print media more credible and authentic than the internet material for getting knowledge.

Do_you_spend_more_than_30_minutes_on_reading
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 3 4.8 5.0 5.0
Agree 20 31.7 33.3 38.3
Neutral 5 7.9 8.3 46.7
strongly disagree 32 50.8 53.3 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.10, Figure 4.9)

Mostly the respondents 53.33% and 8.33% disagreed with the statement because in this digital age they prefer using electronic media, which is fast and has a much wider reach than print media. So according to them to spend 30 minutes reading print media is a waste of time rather they can Google any information they want in seconds. To gather their information they prefer internet. 33.3% and 5% agreed because they love reading for them 30 minutes is nothing, when they sit and read they don’t even get to know about the time as they are pleasure seeker readers and they prefer extensive and intensive reading and they are used to it. So for them reading consistently 30 minutes is not a big deal.

 

 

Print_media_help_to_deal_with_english_language
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 3 4.8 5.0 5.0
Agree 20 31.7 33.3 38.3
Neutral 5 7.9 8.3 46.7
Disagree 2 3.2 3.3 50.0
strongly disagree 30 47.6 50.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.11, Figure 4.10)

Half of the respondent percentage 50% and 3.33% did not agree with the statement because when they don’t even come across reading activities, due to lack of interest they don’t get any help from print media. Likewise their language doesn’t develop. While 33.3% and 5% agreed with the statement, good readers grasp new vocabulary words from the print media and try to experiment with them by using in their daily routines as they have English medium educational background. But 8.33% were neutral as they thought that sometimes they get help in learning language and sometimes they do not.

print_media_enhance_english_language_skills_in_education
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Agree 30 47.6 50.0 50.0
Neutral 3 4.8 5.0 55.0
Disagree 2 3.2 3.3 58.3
strongly disagree 25 39.7 41.7 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.12, Figure 4.11)

50% and 5% respondents were agreed to the statement that print media does enhance English language skills in education because firstly it is a tangible resource, which gives an impression of authenticity and credibility. It is readily available so, for learning or enhancing language skills one should do deep reading as more of the written covers it, and good quality content will make the learners to approach and gather new vocabulary, highlight them and then do research on it which will give them a very good knowledge. But almost 44% disagreed with the statement as according to them electronic medium is the best option for enhancing their language skills. From electronic source one can learn by listening and side by side by seeing the gestures.

Print_media_used_as_a_teaching_tool_for_english_language
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 10 15.9 16.7 16.7
Agree 36 57.1 60.0 76.7
Neutral 3 4.8 5.0 81.7
Disagree 2 3.2 3.3 85.0
strongly disagree 9 14.3 15.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.13, Figure 4.12)

60% respondents agreed with the statement that print media should be used as a teaching tool, while 16.67% tend to support them. Because they think it is a tangible source, and it’s a human nature if one could have something in front can grasp that thing easily. Other than text books students should be exposed to novels, newspapers, magazines and they should be given good quality education with activities using print media. Reading newspapers, novels and magazines, one come across very new vocabulary words, sentence constructing ways. But around 17% respondents disagreed because they think print media is not that effective tool and instead electronic media should be used.

Do_you_watch_english_programmes_on_tv
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 10 15.9 16.7 16.7
Agree 40 63.5 66.7 83.3
Neutral 1 1.6 1.7 85.0
Disagree 3 4.8 5.0 90.0
strongly disagree 6 9.5 10.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.14, Figure 4.13)

A very high percentage 66.67% and 16.67% respondent watch English programmes on TV because it is a very good and easiest way for them to learn English. They can develop their communication and language skills with watching English programs on TV. And almost 15% don’t watch English programmes because probably they don’t understand what that show is talking about, as they don’t understand English language much.

Do_you_spend_more_than_30_minutes_watching_english_programmes
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 10 15.9 16.7 16.7
Agree 40 63.5 66.7 83.3
Neutral 1 1.6 1.7 85.0
Disagree 3 4.8 5.0 90.0
strongly disagree 6 9.5 10.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.15, Figure 4.14)

High percentage 66.67% and 16.67% of respondents spend more than 30 minutes watching English programmes when they are interested in watching English programs then they spend more time on it also because they want to learn and improve their English language skills. They want to learn English language by watching such programmes as both senses are working while watching, sight and hearing. AV aids are very effective for one to learn. They rest of the respondents they don’t agree because when they don’t even watch then how they can spend more than 30 minutes. They are not interested in learning English language either. So they don’t watch English programmes often.

English_programmes_help_learn_and_improve_your_vocabulary
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 10 15.9 16.7 16.7
Agree 50 79.4 83.3 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.16, Figure 4.15)

Almost 100% respondents agreed to the statement because the one who are not even interested in watching, when they watch they learn new vocabulary from English programmes as it is a new language for them. And many are interested in learning English language so they see such programmes with keen interest. Firstly, people get lots of correct English sentences into their head. Secondly, they can learn what words they use in their programmes. Thirdly, they can learn how they say these words. Fourthly, they learn to understand spoken language. Finally, the respondents can also learn a lot of things from watching English programmes, such as pronunciation, vocabulary, style, and intonation even western culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Avail_the_knowledge_of_english_language_through_electronic_media

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 5 7.9 8.3 8.3
Agree 55 87.3 91.7 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.17, 4.16)

91.67% respondents agreed with the statement and 8.33% tend to support them that they avail the knowledge of English language through electronic media because whatever medium they use with respect to electronic media that is linked to English language. When they use internet, social media, television, radio or any other medium that help the respondents to avail the knowledge of English language. They can improve their language skills. They can enhance their communication skills. They can learn new vocabulary. They can adopt good English accent as that requires listening also.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electronic_media_role_developing_english_competence_in_country
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 10 15.9 16.7 16.7
Agree 40 63.5 66.7 83.3
Neutral 1 1.6 1.7 85.0
Disagree 3 4.8 5.0 90.0
strongly disagree 6 9.5 10.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.18, Figure 4.17)

66.67% and 16.7% agreed with the statement that electronic media playing role in developing English language in our country. They agreed because electronic media is relatively more innovative form of media and it includes motion pictures, animation etc which makes things more attractive. Then it works better for people with hearing and seeing disabilities. It is very effective medium for spreading awareness at national and international level. Then it is deteriorating much faster than the print media. So they think that country is developing English language as all are gaining knowledge in English and learning this official language. The other who did not agree around 15% because they are stick to their national language and they don’t find it important to learn English language.

Electronic_media_effective_role_in_teaching_English_language
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 9 14.3 15.0 15.0
agree 36 57.1 60.0 75.0
neutral 3 4.8 5.0 80.0
disagree 2 3.2 3.3 83.3
strongly disagree 10 15.9 16.7 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

 

(Table 4.19, Figure 4.18)

Almost 75% of the respondents were agreed to the statement that electronic media play effective role in teaching English language because they think it is a more better and convenient way of learning a language. As one can hear and see side by side. Students will learn better if they come across activities related to electronic media with respect to learning a language as it is an innovative form of media which includes motion pictures, animation etc . By this it become more interesting and attractive for the students as it will engage them in the activity and will help to learn a language. On the other side 16.67% and 3.33% respondents were against to it because they fine print media more effective as they are good readers.

Electronic_media_provide_opportunity_enhance_listening_skills
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 19 30.2 31.7 31.7
Agree 38 60.3 63.3 95.0
Neutral 3 4.8 5.0 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

 

(Table 4.20, Figure 4.19)

Around 90% respondents agreed that electronic media provides opportunity to enhance listening skills because when they will hear something in English first they will try to understand, if they will hear any unknown word they will rather try to find out the meaning of that particular word. Like this people listening skills enhances when they come across electronic media. When students come across any activity they will have to answer few questions also, so for that they will have to listen it carefully. Then the listening through the electronic media helps disable people and works better for them. Only 5% people were neutral because they were not sure that this can happen or not.

 

Electronic_media_provide_opportunity_enhance_speaking_skills
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strongly agree 18 28.6 30.0 30.0
Agree 38 60.3 63.3 93.3
Neutral 4 6.3 6.7 100.0
Total 60 95.2 100.0
Missing System 3 4.8
Total 63 100.0

(Table 4.21, Figure 4.20)

93.33% respondents agreed with the statement that electronic media provide opportunity to enhance speaking skills because they think electronic media is far better than the print media, as through electronic media they get the knowledge while seeing it and along hearing it. When one is hearing and seeing anything on the same time it helps many people to understand what English programmes are talking about through their gestures. Then they get a lot of command on the accent which helps them to communicate in the real world in their jobs, social circles or any other official places. So speaking skills does enhance according to them through the electronic media usage. Only 6.7% were neutral because they were uncertain about it that whether it enhances or not. And some were non sincere to answer that is why they give it a neutral remarks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.3 Test (A) Analysis

Were_you_able_to_comprehend_the_text
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 18 58.1 60.0 60.0
No 12 38.7 40.0 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.22, Figure 4.21)

60% students were able to comprehend and 40% were unable to comprehend. It was analyzed that, more students were able to comprehend because they were exposed to English language from their earlier stages of education. Secondly it was private sector, so they can comprehend easily as they are exposed to English language more than the public sector. Graduation level was already studying literature and other course in English that is why they didn’t found any difficulty in comprehension. 40% students were unable to comprehend because they were not exposed to English language throughout their educational background, and they got admission to upgrade their degrees after intermediate in the private sector. So they were having issues regarding comprehension and students were not interested to read literary texts because of the declining habits of reading in the age of electronic media.

Did_you_learn_new_vocabulary_through_reading_this_text
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 28 90.3 93.3 93.3
No 2 6.5 6.7 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.23, Figure 4.22)

Almost 93.3% were agreed that they learned new vocabulary and only 6.7 % students already knew the vocabulary used in the text. So the analysis shows that very limited students are reading these days because for only 6.7 % it was not new because of their good reading habits. The other percentage students are not interested in reading newspapers, magazines, novels and any other print media. The vocabulary was new because they are not exposed to literary reading material. Although from the pilot testing it was analyzed that the read text chosen was not difficult for this level.

Did_this_article_arouse_your_motivation_and_interest
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 12 38.7 40.0 40.0
No 18 58.1 60.0 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.24, Figure 4.23)

40% students were in agreement that they were motivated and interested to read this text while 60% students were not motivated and interested to read this text. Analysis was shown that more of the students were not interested to read because of the lack of reading habits, they don’t read for pleasure either then there is a lack of comprehension for the students who were not motivated. They were already studying text books, so they found it little boring. On the other side the students were motivated and interested because of their good reading habits, skills and comprehension. So, they were able to think critically, as it was an authentic text and one can relate it with the real world. This thing motivated them to read with more interest.

Did_you_find_this_novel_effective_for_english_language_class
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 25 80.6 83.3 83.3
No 5 16.1 16.7 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.25, Figure 4.24)

83.3% were in the agreement that this novel was suitable for the English language class because of the age appropriate, the language simplicity and new vocabulary words .It was related to our culture and society also. It gives opportunity to the English language students to relate with the real world. So that they can enhance their all four skills in future enable them to speak and write on the different prevailing aspects of society. 16.7%students were not agreed regarding for the novel being effective in the language class, because of lack of interest, lack of motivation to read and lack of reading habits. They couldn’t get motivated because they are not realizing the importance and the effectiveness of literary text in the language class room in the context of real world.

Share_the_knowledge_with_others_which_you_have_read_in_this_text
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid yes 22 71.0 73.3 73.3
No 8 25.8 26.7 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.26, Figure 4.25)

73.3% were in agreement that they could share the knowledge they read in the text while 26.7% were not agreed. The one who agreed, the reason was they have comprehended the text, and they wanted to share because the novel seem interesting to them. Because of the societal and cultural interest and issues were similar to discuss and relate. The one who could not comprehend properly were not having good command on the English language that is why they could not share it because they were not exposed to the English language from the earlier classes. There was Lack of spoken skills which tend them to lose their confidence.

Caprice_reserve_and_saracstic_humor_are
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Synonyms 18 58.1 60.0 60.0
Antonyms 6 19.4 20.0 80.0
Adectives 6 19.4 20.0 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.27, Figure 4.26)

Over_scrupulous_used_for_Mrs.Bennet_as
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Synonyms 4 12.9 13.3 13.3
Antonym 2 6.5 6.7 20.0
Adjective 24 77.4 80.0 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.28, Figure 4.27)

Question 6 and 7 were asked to check the grammatical and vocabulary proficiency, in question 6 only 60% gave the right answer while in question 7 a good percentage 80% gave the right answer. Correct answers given by the students were able because of good command on the English language. Then they could relate with the context of the text that is why they were able to recognize the meanings and identify the synonyms. Others were not familiar with the meanings of the words that is why they were unable to recognize, synonyms, antonyms, and adjectives.

Conjecturing_means
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Relaxing 9 29.0 30.0 30.0
Thinking 18 58.1 60.0 90.0
sleeping 3 9.7 10.0 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.29, Figure 4.28)

Emphatic_exclamation_means
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid said something with emphasis 18 58.1 60.0 60.0
said something with anger 9 29.0 30.0 90.0
said something with crying 3 9.7 10.0 100.0
Total 30 96.8 100.0
Missing System 1 3.2
Total 31 100.0

(Table 4.30, Figure 4.29)

These questions 8 and 9 were focusing on the contextual meanings, and only 60% students were able to understand and were able to relate with the context of the text because the students those were reading with a great interest and understanding from the beginning till the end and only those students the one with good reading skills can only judge what does these statements meant. Those who didn’t answer correctly they didn’t understand properly and might have weak reading skills and unable to make correct interpretations. They were not proficient and competent in English language as well.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.4 Test (B) Analysis

You_were_able_to_learn_english_from_this_video
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 27 90.0 90.0 90.0
No 3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

(Table 4.31, Figure 4.30)

90% students were able to learn English because of audio visual effects. The expressions, dialogues presented interestingly by wonderful actors, impactful scenes and the strong script with simple English used in the video. Only 10% students were not able to learn English because of the lack of listening skills with respect to English and their weak understanding regard to spoken accent.

Video_helpful_in_developing_your_english_vocabulary
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 26 86.7 86.7 86.7
No 4 13.3 13.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

(Table 4.32, Figure 4.31)

86.7% said yes and it shows that students were interested and motivated to learn new vocabulary because they were able to visualize and listen on the same time. Different vocabulary enables them to learn and to comprehend it. 13.3% students were not even interested in watching the video, due to lack of interest and good listening skills and they were not taking it seriously for the learning purpose.

Were_you_able_to_comprehend_the_video_you_watched
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 27 90.0 90.0 90.0
No 3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

(Table 4.33, Figure 4.32)

90% students said yes and it shows that how strong audio and visual effects are on the comprehension skills. Students of this age group are more exposed to electronic media and likewise more interested in videos, electronic gadgets, watching TV programmes and movies. But 10% students were unable to comprehend because of less proficiency in English language showing less interest in watching the video and lack of serious attitude towards learning.

share_the_knowledge_with_others_presented_in_video
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 22 73.3 73.3 73.3
No 8 26.7 26.7 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

(Table 4.34, Figure 4.33)

73.3% students were able to share the knowledge presented in this video because of good understanding, confidence, good communicative skills, and good command on English language. They were able to relate the video with the societal aspects. The impact of video enable them to speak out on the issues prevail in the society. 26.7% students were not able to share because of lack of confidence due to weak spoken skills and lack of vocabulary. They understood the underline meaning of the video and were able to express with code mixing. While code mixing is to speak using both languages English and Urdu so the fact was that they could have express if they were confident. There were some silent students in the class who couldn’t as well.

Mr.Bennet_told_them_they_are_to_the_ball_all_were
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid excited 30 100.0 100.0 100.0

(Table 4.35, Figure 4.34)

All students 100% were able to answer correctly because of the expressions of the characters shown in the video. The scenes related to ball were very interestingly impactful presented in the video that anyone can tell that they were excited to go to the ball.

Splendid_dancer_is_a_synonym_to_a_dancer
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Fabulous 30 100.0 100.0 100.0



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