Tanzania is situated just south of the equator in East Africa. The mainland lies between the areas of the great lakes: Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi, with the Indian Ocean on its’ coastline to the east (Africa Guide Online 1). Tanzania has frontiers with the following countries; to the North; Kenya and Uganda, to the West: Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo, to the South: Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, to the East: Indian Ocean (Tanzanian Government Online1).
The country is also the home to the Kilimanjaro which is with its 19,340ft, the highest mountain in Africa (Africa Guide Online 1). Dodoma is the political capital with a population of 300,000, while Dares Salaam is the countries commercial capital (Tanzanian GovernmentOnline 1).
Tanzania has three main climatic areas; the coastal area and immediate hinterland, with tropical conditions and an average of 26.6°C(80°) and which is high in humidity; the central plateau, which is hotand dry and the third region is the semi-temperate highland areas, witha healthy and cool climate (Africa Guide Online 2). The hot periods arebetween November and February and the coldest areas between May andAugust (Tanzanian Government Online 1). In regards to when the bestseason for tourists to visit is, writers seem not to have found aconsensus; some suggest the standard tourist season is January andFebruary, as the hot dry weather at this time of the year is generallyconsidered to be the most pleasant (Lonely Planet Online). While othersargue that the best times to travel is between July through to Marchfor the Northern and Southern parts of Tanzania as well as Zanzibar.And for the Western area the months from May through to March are mostsuitable for tourist activities (Tanzania Online).
Tanzania belongs to the poorest countries in the world. In 2005 thecountry has a population of 36,766,356 and a population growth rate of1.83% (2005 est.), while 36% (in 2002 est.) of the population is belowpoverty line (CIA Online). However, there are various numbers inregards to this subject, and some of them even claim that it is 50% ofthe population which lives below the poverty line (Tanzanian GovernmentOnline 1). And although the numbers are still shocking, there seems tohave been some improvement in terms of the poverty in Tanzania in thepast 20 or so years. Since in 1988, according to IFDA, there werenearly 12 million rural Tanzanians, or 60 per cent of the ruralpopulation, living below the poverty line (IFDA, 1992, Cooksey, citedin Bierman and Moshi, 1997:77).
The population in the mainland consist of 99% native Africans (of which95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes). And the other 1%consists of Asians, Europeans and Arabs. However, in Zanzibar the mixof populations differs, there are much more Arabs, some native African,and then mixes between the two (CIA Online).
This again is mirrored in the religion represented, in the mainland its30% Christians, 35% Muslims and 35% indigenous beliefs, where as inZanzibar it’s more than 99% Muslim (CIA Online).
The official language is Kiswahili or Swahili (called Kiunguja inZanzibar). English is the official primary language of commerce,administration and higher education. But Arabic is naturally widelyspoken in Zanzibar, and on top there are various further locallanguages all over Tanzania, naturally with more than 130 differenttribes (CIA Online).
The GDP composition by sector looks as followed: agriculture: 43.2%, industry: 17.2%,
services: 39.6% (2004 est.). The economy heavily depends on agriculture(coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum, cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves,corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle,sheep and goats), accounting for almost half of GDP (85% of exports,employing 80% of work force). The official aid flow in 2000 was1,044.6million USD, which was 11.6% share of GDP in the year 2000.(Ellis and Freeman, 2005)
Tanzania seems stable under the Mkapa president leadership, however,political paralysis and deep rifts between minorities seem to havemanifested themselves and are unlikely to disappear within the nearfuture. Also is the support of the opposition (against Mkapa) growing,leading in 2001 to massive rallies and sometimes even violence.
The economy received massive boosts in 2001 with the opening of theBulyanuhu gold mine and in 2004 with the opening of the Songosongonatural gas field.
Tanzania was also one of the countries affected by the recent December2004 Tsunami. However, thankfully the government had enough time toreact to the warnings, and thus evacuate most of the area, leaving“only” 13 killed (Lonely Planet Online).
Please see Appendix I on page 32&33 for a brief outline of the earlier history of Tanzania.
The following dissertation will begin by looking at the current statusand issues in Tanzania’s tourism industry. The second chapter will lookat the very timely issue of sustainability in tourism and in regards toTanzania and the also the UK consumers attitude towards it. The thirdchapter will examine the role of governments in the tourism process. Inthe fourth chapter the marketing tools for a tourism destination willbe analysed. This is then followed by the methodology, which willexplain the methods and methodology used for this dissertation. Thenthe findings are presented, and interpreted. Finally a conclusion willbring to a close the dissertation. Furthermore, naturally, there arethe references, bibliography and some appendices.
The dissertation will by no means be exhaustive, due to the time, word,monetary and access restraints. It is merely designed to give someideas towards a possible way of a better promotion of Tanzania inregards to the UK market.
Chapter 1: Tanzania and Tourism
Before looking at what the means for promoting tourism are, firstly ananalysis of the current state of tourism and its problems in Tanzaniais necessary.
Wangwe et al. (1998:67) write on tourism possibilities: “Tanzania isblessed with many attractions for tourism including wildlife, MountKilimanjaro, and beautiful beaches. There are also many cultural andhistorical attractions as well, such as traditional ngomas, andZanzibar and other coastal towns whose sights show the interaction ofEast Africa with many ancient civilizations including the Romans, theIndians and the Middle East”.
Tourism in Tanzania is a fairly new development. In fact “for nearlythree decades after Tanzania’s independence, tourism kept a very lowprofile. However, the National Tourism Policy, which was put in placein 1991, and the government policy of trade and economic liberalizationhave had a positive impact on the acceleration of tourism development”.And “As of 1994, the National Park system had expanded to eleven,namely, Serengeti, Ruaha, Ngorongoro, Mikumi, Tarangire, Katavi,Kilimanjaro, Rubondo, Manyara, Arusha and Gombe Stream”. Also “ In 1994about 262,000 tourists visited Tanzania” (Wangwe et al. 1998:67)”.
In fact, tourism is Tanzania’s fastest growing sector, however stillcounting for less than 10% of GDP (Author Unknown, Nov.2002). Andtourism is also Tanzania’s second largest foreign exchange earner(Author Unknown, 01/02/1998). Pollock (cited in Fennell, 2003) writesthat tourism has started to be an important part in the economy ofTanzania. However, the importance of game conservations has beenrecognized nationally as well as internationally, standing in directcontrast to tourism development. And also although tourism may help tofund conservation and development, the reliance on it can beproblematic due to the fickle nature of the market (Smith and Duffy,2003).
However, the tourism industries mission statement which forms the basisof the tourism planning policy is to: “….develop quality tourism thatis ecologically friendly to the conservation and restoration of theenvironment and its people’s culture” (Author Unknown, TanzaniaGovernment Online 2).
Nevertheless, National Parks are already often overcrowded, and this isdeveloping into a serious problem (Hein, 1997). The Sopa Lodges inTanzania are fully booked throughout the summer, and Agent NinaWennersten of Woodcliff Lake says that Tanzania’s tourism has doubledin each of the last two years (Ruggia, 2004). Also the Africa SafariCo’s chief executive Susie Potter said that the year 2005 was shapingup to be a great year for them (Travel trade, 17/11/2004). Smulian(2005) writes that “agents should advise visitors hoping to see thestunning wildlife of Tanzania’s national parks to book early this year,after the countries best-ever season saw overbooking at lodges lastsummer”. All in all it seems that Tanzanians tourism market is booming.The UK is in fact the largest tourism market for Tanzania, saysdirector of the Tanzania Tourist Board, Peter Mwenguo. He also notes in2004 that the tourism industry in Tanzania is booming now (Ruggia,2004).
And although environmental efforts seem to be taken seriously, such asthe Serena Hotel Chain in Tanzania, which operates to environmentalstandards that are among the world’s best (Middleton and Hawkins,1998). Nevertheless, the country is lacking in adequate infrastructureand there seems to be no multi-sectoral approach, nor has thedevelopment of tourism been very coordinated (Wangwe et al. 1998:68).
This then leaves the government with various difficulties in developinga sustainable tourism policy, and writers such as Schmale (1993) giveexamples of Tanzania in regards to the socio-political and economicalenvironment and the challenges local organizations face. For examplethere is the problem of the socio-cultural impact on the Maasai peoplewhose traditional territory includes the National Parks. “Employmentfor the Maasai living around these parks was limited to posing forphotographs and selling craft souvenirs (Bachman, 1988, cite in Halland Lew 1998:63)”.
Tanzania targets high-spending tourists and the steep rise in touristnumbers have increased the pressure on services (Author Unknown,Nov.2002). The country is thus opening up opportunities along theIndian Ocean shoreline (Author Unknown, Nov.2002) namely the CC Africalodges on less-visited parts of Tanzania (Dunford, 2004).
However, Vesely (2000) comments that there are also plenty ofpossibilities for not so wealthy visitors to go to Tanzania, and thatthere are well developed camp-sites, tented camps and motel stylefacilities.
However, in the past eight years, there also has been some negativenews on Tanzania. Just recently there were two British students shot ina violent ambush on the Island of Pemba in Tanzania (Dennis, 2004). TheForeign and the Commonwealth Office immediately updated the traveladvice, since last month there was already a fatal shooting of aBritish tourist and a fatal shooting of a British businessman inTanzania. And tour operators do believe that this will hit touristnumbers in a negative way (Dennis, 2004). Unfortunately, theseincidents have not been the first once, and there have been eventsalready in earlier years. In 1998, US embassies in Kenya and Tanzaniawere bombed by terrorists, naturally resulting in heavy cancellationsfrom US tourists at the time (Berger, 1998). Furthermore were theresome political violence incidents in Zanzibar in 2001, which spoiledthe reputation of Tanzania as a stable and progressive democracy(Vesely, 2001). One could expect and argue that all of these incidentshad negative impacts on the tourism in Tanzania, and thus a specialpart in Chapter 4: Tourism and Marketing will be allocated toward themarketing of a destination in crisis.
The above chapter has outlined that Tanzania’s tourism industry isperforming very well, and that indeed the UK tourists are their primemarket. In fact, there were even overbooking last year, due to suchhigh demand. Consequently, there are new resorts opening up and it isquestionable to whether one should further exploit the tourismopportunities, in the light of sustainable development and tourism.
Although modern mass tourism only appeared post war 1950’s (Weaver andOppermann, 2000 and Winpenny, 1991), the results that uncontrolledexploitation of tourism opportunities has shown is catastrophic, as canbe seen on examples such as the Spanish coast (Richards and Hall,2000). Thus unsurprisingly, sustainability is arguably the new fad wordin the tourism industry, since many destinations now faceenvironmental, socio-cultural and even economical damages caused by thechaotic growth of (mass) tourism. In fact; “There are examples fromalmost every country in the world, where tourism development has beenidentified as being the main cause of environmental degradation”(Lickorish and Jenkins, 1999:85).
Therefore, the practice of sustainable development is of crucialimportance. The definition offered at the Globe ’90 Conference inVancouver for sustainable tourism and development was as followed;“Sustainable tourism development is envisaged as leading to managementof all resources in such a way that we can fulfil economic, social andaesthetic needs while maintaining cultural integrity, essentialecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems”(Tourism Stream Action Committee 1990, Ledbury cited in Hein, 1997:30).
Tourism’s impacts can be divided into three elements; economical,environmental and socio-cultural (Coltman, 1989). Thus, those are thethree headings that not only the sustainable debate, but also otheroutcomes should be measured at. Therefore, according to sustainabletourism, three points have to be achieved through tourism development:
1. Increasing economic value of tourism
2. An improvement in the life quality of people
3. Protection and responsible use of natural resources (Keyser, 2002)
And also consumers are responding to this new sustainability “trend”.In fact, mainstream consumer preferences are being influenced by thismovement for responsible forms of tourism (Goodwin cited in Jenkins etal. 2002). And Butcher (2003) notes on an important shift to a growthin ethical consumption. Thus, sustainability also indirectly influencesthe economic impact, in terms of consumer choices for sustainability.
Especially our target market, the UK, seems to show an interest incriticism of tourism development and “bad tourism and tourists” (Allenand Brennan, 2005). Therefore, sustainability development and tourismshould be practiced by the Tanzania government and tourism industry.Not only because it will help to ensure that the environment will notget too spoiled and thus leave good prospects for future tourismbusiness, but also because it might arguably be seen as favourable bythe UK target market.
The involvement of governments in the process of tourism promotionarguably varies in levels depending on the country. And thus thequestion arises whether and when governments should be involved, notonly in the marketing, but in the business of tourism.
Jeffries (2001) argues that due to the cooperation and coordinationrequired, due to the complexity of the industry and its products,debatably only the government has the authority and apparatus toorganize such successfully. Furthermore does he outline that “in verypoor developing countries (such as Tanzania) governments are encouragedby aid programmes to use tourism not only as a tool to combat povertybut as a means for encouraging and financing biodiversity and natureconservation, a matter of considerable interest in donor communities”(Jeffries, 2001:106).
Therefore, it could be suggested that the governments involvement seemsof crucial importance to the success of Tanzania’s tourism future, butalso to the country in itself in terms of sustainability on theeconomic, environmental and socio-cultural aspect.
In fact, the Tanzanian government seems to have recognized such, andis highly concerned with improving the infrastructure quality anddiversity, ease of destination entry formalities, revision ofapplicable taxes and maintenance of peace, stability and security,regulation of foreign exchange regulations and controls (TanzaniaGovernment Online 2).
“…. marketing is a strategic process that aims to fit the resources ofa destination to the opportunities existing in the market” (Godfrey andClarke, 2000:125). Following the thought of this quote, one couldpostulate that marketing is finding a way to identify the market whichwill be interested in the resources available.
Before the promotion of the destination starts, a marketing plan should be established.
The marketing process which results in a marketing plan should focus on answering four questions:
• Where are we now? [situation analysis; PEST and Porter’s 5forces and SWOT];
• Where do we want to be? [marketing objectives];
• How do we get there? [strategies and tactics];
• How do we know if we’ve got there? [monitoring; before-and-afterresearch, marketing productivity ratios, evaluation and control].
(Godfrey and Clarke, 2000)
This should then lead to 2 different marketing plans, a 3-5 yearstrategic marketing plan, setting the outlines for the activities andthe directions for the annual plans. And the annual or the tacticalmarketing plan which should have detailed actions and methods formonitoring achievement (Godfrey and Clarke, 2000).
Then it is important to look at the consumer behaviour. The consumerbuying process can be broken down into five steps: Problem Recognition,Information Search, Evaluation of Alternatives, Purchase, Post-PurchaseEvaluation or behaviour (Dibb et al., 2001 and Kotler et al. 1993:47).It is debatably of crucial importance to understand the behaviour ofthe consumers, as especially during the information search and theevaluation of alternatives stages they are faced with so many possibletourism destinations. Pike (2004) argues that consumers nowadays havemore product choices but less decision making time than ever before.Therefore underlining that the means in which the consumer comes incontact with the marketing effort of Tanzania, arguably needs to bememorable and favourable. Pike (2004) further outlines this by arguingthat the size of a consumer’s decision set of destinations will belimited to approximately four, and destinations not included in thatset, are much less likely to be chosen.
Next the market segment for Tanzania needs to be identified. “A marketsegment can be defined as ‘a subgroup of the total consumer marketwhose members share common characteristics relevant to the purchase oruse of the product’” (Holloway, 2004: 116).
There are different types of segmentation; geographic segmentation,demographic segmentation, psychographic segmentation and behaviouralsegmentation (Kotler et al. 1999). Due to the given constraints, it isimpossible to undertake serious market segmentation in thisdissertation.
After the segmentation has been decided upon, the destination needspositioning. The successful implementation needs to follow these sevensteps.
1. Identify the target market in travel context
2. Identify the competitive set of destinations in the target market and travel context.
3. Identify the motivation/benefits sought by previous visitors and non-visitors.
4. Identify perception of the strengths and weaknesses of each of the competitive set of destinations.
5. Identify opportunities for differentiated positioning.
6. Select and implement the position.
7. Monitor the performance of the positioning strategy over time.
The positioning elements consist of the destination name, a symbol anda slogan (Pike, 2004). The name, in a case for a tourist destination isnaturally already given, However, the Tanzanian government should thinkof a creative symbol that will stay in people’s mind. Also (accordingto Pike, 2004) does Tanzania not have a slogan yet, therefore a catchyslogan such as “I New York” should be developed.
All of those efforts will help in creating a brand image. A brand ismore than a symbol; it’s a promise to the consumer, and thus representsmore than a logo (Pike, 2004). And since holidays are a high-riskpurchase, due to the fact that the tourist can neither directly observewhat is being bought nor try it out (Goodall and Ashworth, 1988), itseems of vital importance that a strong brand image is developed. Andbrand loyalty can be easily measured by repeat and referral customers(Pike, 2004).
There are three marketing strategies that lead to commercial success;low cost leadership, differentiation (high added value) and focus(specialization to uniqueness) (Holloway, 2004). From the aboveanalysis it could be argued that Tanzania does not rely on low costleadership, but rather on a differentiation strategy. In fact;“Differentiation is the path chosen by most brand leaders in anyindustry” (Holloway, 2004:270).
The next step should be to communicate information and messages to thepublic, which can be done through four different ways; advertising,personal selling, sales promotion and publicity (Holloway, 2004).
The advertising can take numerous forms and can vary from persuasive toreminder advertising, variations from high to low budget, from a moodor image to a fantasy or a lifestyle message, from newspaper totelevision, direct mail to radio and magazines to the timing of themedia (and many more) (Kotler et al., 1999).
The success can be measured in the communication effect through copytesting. The pre-testing through the direct rating should naturally bedone prior to the release of the advertising. And for post-testing anadvertisement, recall tests or recognition tests can be used (ibid.).The sales effect should be measured, which however proves a ratherdifficult task. Although there often is a relationship betweenpromotional spend on sales, the exact correlation is almost impossibleto establish, due to so many other influences (Holloway, 2004).
The RETOSA (Regional Tourism Organization of Southern Africa) marketingresearch and promotions manager Francis Mfune says that they need totarget the trade, especially wholesalers if they want to promote theirtourist destinations well (Ruggia, 2004, II). Therefore, it could beadvised that the government tries and establish good relations withwholesalers in the UK.
The public relation is another promotional tool for the government ofTanzania. However, arguably not always are the public relationscontrollable. As can be demonstrated on the case were some tourismofficials of Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia blaming the negative mediapublicity which portrays Africa as a terrorist continent, for thebusiness loss in their tourism industries (Verde, 2003).
The PR activities vary from press relations to product publicity,corporate communication, lobbying and counselling (Kotler et al. 1999).The Tanzanian government could use PR promotion in the form ofpublications, special events, news, and speeches (ibid.)
And as for promoting Tanzania under the current problems with crime andterrorism, there are some steps to marketing of a destination in crisis:
Step 1: Identify the event/problem as either a crisis or a hazard
Step 2: Establish a crisis management team (Media and PR, relationswith the travel industry in source markets, destination responsecoordination with the local tourism industry, liaison with local andregional tourism authorities and foreign governments, governmentsadvisories and travel insurance and alliances with tour operators,airlines and hospitality industry representatives servicing thedestination in source markets)
Step 3: Promoting the destination during and after a crisis
Step 4: Monitoring recovery and analysing the crisis experience
In the methodology, it will be outlined how theresearch was conducted, which designs and methods were used as well ashow the data was collected and an explanation of why the particularmethods were used. The research process onion (please see Appendix IIon page 34) developed by Saunders et al. (2003; 83) was used asguidance and hopefully helps elucidate research method and methodologyused to the reader.
1. Research philosophy
The research philosophy is represented by two different corners ofthought; the realist (objectivist) and the relativist (subjectivist)(Saunders et al., 2003).
Realist: positivistic, a stance of a natural scientist, believes inquantitative data and external realities. Relativist: interpretivism,believes in qualitative research and the social construction of reality(Saunders et al., 2003).
It places a rather difficult task to identify which philosophy theresearch was based on, as there are parts of both corners apparent.However, the realist corner arguably was more present. To furtherexamine the different philosophies, it would be advisable to look atrealism and relativism in the view of ontology and epistemology.Ontology is described as the “assumptions we make about the nature ofreality” (Easterby-Smith et al. 2002: 31), while epistemology is the“general set of assumptions about the best ways of inquiring into thenature of the world” (Easterby-Smith et al. 2002: 31).
1.1 How do we know what is valid
During the first part of the dissertation, the research was focused onsecondary research, including some quantitative data. The disparitybetween some of the research makes it difficult to depict a clearpicture. The realist perspective sees validity in whether the researchprocedures can supply an accurate illustration of reality(Easterby-Smith, 2002).
Arguably this proves almost impossible in the country of Tanzania, dueto the differences between Tribes, as well as due to the lack offormally conducted research, and the disparity of locations andconditions of living standards of people. However, for the secondaryresearch conducted about the theories of tourism, sustainability andmarketing, a reliable picture should have been depicted on the varioustheories and concepts. All the secondary data was gathered from books,academic journals, online databases such as Ebscohost.com, newspaperarticles and online resources.
As for the primary research, only a small sample of research wasconducted, making the reliability of this preposterous. However, theprimary research was mainly used to tests some of the marketingtheories, to elucidate which efforts would be worth furtherconsidering. The reliability of the research is arguably more positive,as it is unlikely that the respondents would have given differentanswers to a different person. The generalizability of the research islimited however, although it might give insights into countries with asimilar tourism package, the research was made solely with Tanzania inmind.
2. Research Approach
There are two different research approaches, one is theory testing,namely the deductive approach, and one is theory building, namely theinductive approach (Saunders et al., 2003). Again, it is most difficultto apply one approach only to the research. In the first part, thetheory is outlined, and in the primary research, it is tested. However,by no means can it be claimed that this dissertation has build atheory, and thus it is arguably more of a deductive research approach.
3. Research Strategies
“By a research strategy, we simply mean a general orientation to theconduct of business research” (Bryman and Bell, 2003:25). Bryman andBell however focused the research strategy on the distinction betweenresearches being conducted through quantitative or qualitative data.Whereas Saunders et al. (2003) see the research strategy more as ageneral plan of how one goes about answering the research question.
3.1 Case Study
Daymon and Holloway (2002) describe the case study research as arigorous examination which uses multiple sources of evidence of asingle entity, which is fixed by time and place. It is best used wheninvestigations into the how and why are done. Saunders et al. (2003)see case studies as investigations into a timely topic, using numeroussources of evidence and collection methods including; questionnaires,observations, interviews and documentary analysis.
In the first part of the dissertation, the focus was on giving aclearer picture of the product to be marketed. Because arguably, if onedoes not know what it is that has to be marketed, one can not identifythe means required to market the destination successfully.
Therefore, firstly the country Tanzania was introduced, then the stateof tourism in Tanzania, followed by a brief outline of the timely issueof sustainability in tourism. Furthermore there is the chapter abouttourism and the government. Then the marketing means were identified,which could possibly yield a good result in attracting UK customers toTanzania, however, to tests whether those means had any ground to standon, the questionnaires were conducted, to analyse the peoples responseto the suggested means. Therefore, the how is attempted to be answered,and sometimes also the why.
4. Time horizons
Again there was a mixed approach. For the first part of thedissertation, there was a longitudinal time horizon in some aspects, asthere were some historical facts. However, the main focus of timehorizon for this dissertation will be the cross-sectional, as it isfocused on what are the means nowadays, to attract UK tourists toTanzania (Saunders et al. 2003).
5. Data collection methods
Non-probability sampling was used in line with the case study approach(Saunders et al., 2003). Only 20 face to face interviews wereundertaken, which actually represents a very small sample from thenumerous possible UK tourists. This was done using purposive samplingin a homogenous way (Saunders et al., 2003). People who came outside ofa travel agent were asked to complete the face-to-face interviews withquestionnaire which consisted of specific questions
5.2 Market Research & Questionnaires
The questionnaire was constructed for the use of face-to-facesemi-structured interviews (Birn, 2000). The questionnaire had somestructured questions, being fixed-choice and pre-coded, and somestructured questions without fixed-choice (ibid.). To capture the data,note taking on the inquirers side was undertaken.
5.3 Questionnaire design
Following is a brief outline of the various issues considered when designing a questionnaire:
Wording; tiny changes in the wording can lead to completely different responses (Foddy, 1993).
Design; as well as layout is of vital importance to avoid confusion (Sanchez cited in Bulmer, 2004).
Sequence; the answer the respondents gives to one question, mightaffect the answer to the next question, thus paying attention tosequencing is important (Foddy, 1993).
Sensitivity; especially when formulating sensible questions (Foddy, 1993).
Memory; unfortunately, there are limits to the human memory (Foddy, 1993).
In order to avoid ambiguity in the interpretation of the questions, thequestionnaire was pre-tested to ensure only one possible interpretationof the questions was possible (Noelle-Neumann, cited in Bulmer, 2004).But one has to take into account, that even if the questions areclearly understood by the respondents, there may still be variations inwhat respondent’s say, as to what they actually mean or do (Lave et al.1977 & Clement, 1982, cited in Machin, 2002).
6. Data Analysis
The data from the face-to-face questionnaires was analyzed in a simplebasic way. Each question was analyzed by itself. The number of times acertain answer was given was counted and shown as findings. The answersin conjunction with the literature, mainly from chapter 4, were thenfurther interpreted in the interpretation of findings
7. Research Ethics
The questionnaires were designed (hopefully) in a sensible way so thatpeople should not have felt uncomfortable answering the questions.
8. Politics of access
There were no issues in regards to politi