MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The Project Delivery Partner (PDP) Requirement Management Plan as top level document describes the PDP activities and organisation in order to demonstrate that requirements within the PDP, Work Package Contractors (WPC) and Consultant contracts are captured and demonstrated.
The PDP will install a PDP Requirement Manager who will monitor the process. The PDP Requirement Management will be supported by Line Wide Consultant (LWC), Detailed Design Consultant (DDC) and Supervising Consultant (SC) in order to ensure that requirements of the PDP Employer Requirements and WPC requirements are captured and compliance will be demonstrated by the responsible party.
The Requirement Process is applicable for:
- PDP Systems and;
- PDP Infrastructure and Electrical & Mechanical (E&M);
- WPCs (Systems and Infrastructure and E&M) as well as for;
- other PDP Departments;
- PDP Consultants.
The PDP will use the ComplyPro software in order to manage the requirements resulting from the Employer Requirements, General Specifications, Particular Specifications, Consultant Requirements and the particular WPCs contract documentation.
The Government has appointed Prasarana Malaysia Berhad as the Project Employer and MRCB George Kent SdnBhd as the delivery partner (PDP) of the proposed LRT3 Rapid Transit system project. The LRT3 Line is located in the State of Selangor and traverses through the jurisdictions of 3 local Municipalities (refer to Figure 1: LRT3 Railway Alignment) as follows:
- Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya (MBPJ)
- Majlis Bandaraya Shah Alam (MBSA)
Majlis Perbandaran Klang (MPK)
LRT3 is to serve as a backbone system to minimize and alleviate traffic congestion along the highways/roads towards the western corridor of Klang Valley. It will provide good accessibility to ridership, primarily for job catchment areas, commercial, residential, centre of education and recreational. LRT3 is to traverse through a corridor with a high population density and focus on existing catchment areas that are not served and underserved as identified in URDP from SPAD.
LRT3 Line will be complimented by a feeder bus system serving the locality of areas in close proximity to the LRT alignment. The feeder bus system is vital for the LRT system as it serves and covers wider catchment areas that are beyond walking reach to the station. Park and Ride have also been considered and will be strategically located at ten (10) stations with an estimated number of 6,000 parking bays. The LRT3 principally comprises of the followings:
- Approximately 37.9 km length of distance (35.4 km of elevated sections and 2.5 km tunnel sections)
- 26 passenger stations (25 nos elevated and 1 no underground).
- LRV Depot located in Johan Setia
- 10 Park and Ride Facilities located along the alignment
- Bus Depots located in Subang, Shah Alam and Klang
- Power Intake and Distribution Stations.
The PDP is responsible for the delivery of a full commissioned project within the specified time, cost and quality, as well as meeting the requirements of the Railway Scheme, Employer and Operational objectives. The PDP will recommend for the implementation and the construction of all parts of the project, work package contractors, based on the Tender Documentation prepared by the PDP. The PDP is responsible for ensuring that all contractual and national requirements safety requirements are identified managed and allocated to the work package contractors. The PDP will control that these requirements are adequately defined, agreed and implemented by the WPCs, supervised and managed by PDP organization.
The Preliminary Design Consultant is responsible for the development of the design concept for LRT3 project following the initial employer requirements. The responsibility includes the preparation of the vertical and horizontal alignment including data collection.
Detailed Design Consultants (DDC’s) are involved for systems and Infrastructure and E&M. The Detail Design Consultants are (DDC’s) are responsible for the preparation of the detail design and construction drawings for Infrastructure and E&M Works.
The Linewide Systems Consultant will undertake the functions of preparing works package tender specifications, reviewing and managing the functional, technical and safety aspects of the various systems WPCs to be selected for the provision of fully integrated, tested and commissioned systems. The LWC, in charge for the V&V process on PDP side, will provide sufficient support throughout the duration of the project to ensure the Systems functions of the Line are in line with the requirements of the Employer right through to Testing and Commissioning.
SC will be reporting to PDP to supervise the infrastructure constructions implemented are in compliance with approved design, construction drawings, constructability reports and other relevant documents. Should there be any changes to requirements, an impact analysis shall also be done by SC. The SC will also review and endorse documentations submitted by Works Package Contractor (WPC) and conduct regular inspections to ensure WPCs carry out works complying with the approved Design. For major non- compliance matter, SC submit an observation report and Non-Conformance Report to PDP, which may lead to the issuance of Stop Work Order if necessary.
Works Package Contractors are appointed after the Tender stage to carry out various works packages for constructions and systems foreseen for the project. WPCs need to obtain relevant (from government or Employer) approvals required for the execution of the said Works. The WPC will submit specified documentations to PDP and LWC and SC before, during and after performance of works in order to demonstrate its compliance with the contract. The WPC will liaise with PDP, LWC and SC on issues that might affect the project’s progress and contractual requirements.
As the Employer of the LRT3 project, Prasarana Malaysia Berhad will take delivery of the project upon its completion.
Prasarana will also monitor and involved where necessary during the project delivery process, including the designs, award of tenders and progress supervision to ensure the PDP performs accordingly.
The ICE provides oversight on behalf of Prasarana Malaysia Berhad. The ICE will assist Prasarana Malaysia Berhad to define the operational, technical, safety concept and standards to be implemented by PDP for the LRT3 project. The ICE will also review project related documents submitted by PDP to Prasarana Malaysia Berhad. The ICE also has its task of performing duty carry out regular audits to ensure PDP carry out its duties and responsibilities in accordance with its appointment terms.
As the supervising agency for the Light Rail Transit Line 3 (LRT3) project, SPAD will ensure planning, construction and operation of the line will follow all the necessary statutory regulations and ensure that the project achieves its objective of providing Klang Valley residents with a safe, comfortable and efficient public transport system.
The Operator is responsible for the Operation and Maintenance of the fully commissioned LRT3 system is in charge for the preparation of Operation and Maintenance Rules and procedures. They shall form part in the hazard analysis process and preparing rules and procedures for hazards exported by the PDP to the Operator which were not being mitigated by designs. They will ensure and demonstrate that requirements transferred to them are fulfilled.
In the project, the ICT infrastructure only provides the knowledge management system where the main objective is to centralise all the documentation allowing for ease of management while controlling levels of access to the document register. Automatically distribute uploaded documents to relevant users, via hyperlinks via transmittals providing email notifications. All transactions and revisions are recorded within the system.
As of now, there is no information system has been implemented in the project. There is only electronic documentmanagement system has been implemented – Teambinder as the single platform that has been used widely in the project. Followings are some brief information about Teambinder.
TeamBinder is one type of cloud-based document management system that offers essential support to a variety of project members participated in extensive engineering and construction projects. We will understand and discover ways TeamBinder handles document assortment and corporation for individuals in certain roles, providing them extra time to deal with their other job. It focuses and arranges document administration in the cloud, enabling access to the whole project member anytime. It can as well deliver progressions and monitoring our document administration. The full series of advantages provided by the complete structure are emphasized as follows:
|It is considered as a serious fragment of project association when it comes to documents uploads. Small number of association systems have succeeded to move yonder allowing users sign in to the application and uploading documents manually prior to determining location to place the particular document and to which to allocate it.|
|Distribution and Endorsement of Documents
Teambinder allows project team members to handle documentation in a more organized method. Yet, to accomplish certain project, every obligation stated has to be entirely fulfil with the purpose of get approval for accomplishment either from customer, specialist and others. Nevertheless, deviations are unavoidable all over the project. Therefore, an obligation management system is essential so as to attain below aspects:
- Traceability is the capability to create connection among requirements. These connections can be utilised for instance to regulate what kind of situation is the cause of a detailed use event. It is also able to be used among different phases in the life cycle, for instance to exhibit which segments of code are accountable for the application of an explicit period in a use event. In addition to manually reviewing these suggestions, it can likewise be used by the method to accomplish coverage investigation, to regulate whether all necessities have been satisfied and all requirements are connected to as a minimum one requirement to avoid redundant code. Extra use for traces is effect study.
- Alteration effect study recognizes every requirement which have to be transformed as a direct or indirect outcome of an anticipated alteration. Data attained throughout effect study can be used to estimate the amount and sort of requirements affected to begin the alteration cost as well as to elect whether to make alteration or not. Simultaneously, it can be used to change to a vibrant picture of every produced requirements to ensure nothing of the structures besides its functionality is affected by the alteration.
The PDP Requirement Management System is part of the overall System Assurance Process documented within the PDP System Assurance System. It explains the approach and defines the responsibilities and obligations of the PDP, Consultants and WPCs and its related entities (i.e. subcontractors) in the capturing and demonstration of compliance with requirements set out in their respective contract documentation.
It describes the management activities of the PDP to assure that contract requirements related to inter alia: Systems, Subsystems and Components including Infrastructure and E&M, Environmental, Health and Safety, Quality, Risk etc. are.
- Understood and Identified;
- Decomposed and captured;
- Structured and proofs are recorded and;
- Followed up and controlled.
The scope of the PDP Requirement Management System covers the complete project life cycle until the reception of the Final Completion Certificate by the Employer. The prime objective of the Requirements Management Process is to administer the development and demonstration of the Project- and other stakeholders’ requirements as identified for example within the Employer Requirements, Particular Specification (PS) and General Specification (GS).
Key to this objective is the traceability between these specifications that supports verification and validation of the stakeholders’ needs and to support the production of the Final Project Documentation not only related to the System Safety Case.
Requirements can derive from the following a pool of generic categories for example:
The above technical requirements are formulated by the stakeholders (Prasarana Malaysia Berhad, PDP, LWC, DDC and other stakeholders) and addressed within:
- Employers Requirements
- Detailed Environmental Impact Assessments (DEIA);
- PDP Consultants Agreements
It then were further decomposed and detailed within WPCs:
- Condition of Contract;
- General Specifications;
- Particular Specifications.
Each statement are formulated throughout the text of these documents. They can be grouped into statement types such as Heading, Information or Requirement.
A typical and generic process to identify requirements herewith outlined for informational purposes only. The particularities will be identified through the ComplyPro documentation which will be submitted under separate courier. It starts with the analysation of the contract text clause by clause:
- Distinguish, if a respective phrase form a requirement or does constitute for example a statement such as: Heading, Information, and Requirement. A category – “Others” could be included but the user shall specify the category, for example on Software related requirements. Testing shall be marked accordingly and further analysed if an identified requirement is testable or not.
- Identify the stakeholder and sources of requirements.
- The primary sources of requirements are inter alia:
- WPC Specification;
- Standards as mentioned in the contract;
- Laws as mentioned in the contract;
- The secondary sources of requirements are inter alia:
- Applicable laws
- Applicable international rules, standards and guidelines
- Supplier data or references from other projects if applicable
Although secondary sources should be complied with, formal requirements management for this contract will be limited to explicit contract requirements.
- Apportionment of requirements
- Assign responsible organisational unit (discipline);
Example: The WPC will allocate its organisational unit. PDP will allocate LWC and SC supervising entities
- Further breakdown in sub requirements, or define a lead party and contributors if a sole organisational unit cannot be identified.
- Define expected verification level
- Reference to document submissions, reviews, and calculations and in case of testable requirements to test procedures and test reports, test records, training etc.
- In case of validation methods the kind of validation (i.e. PICO, Test etc.) shall be outlined with the respective life cycle phase following EN 50126.
- Definition of pass fail criteria
- Allocation of verification activity and identification of respective documents where a requirement will be reflected in, i.e. Designs, Process etc.
This procedure provides the details of the application of Requirements Management, and associated processes, on the Project. It will form the basis for a Requirements Management Procedure to be implemented throughout the Project.
The purpose of the Requirements Management Procedure (RMP) is to define the processes that shall be applied across the Project in order to achieve a consistent approach for Requirements Management (RM). This in turn will increase the chance of successful delivery of the programme and reduce the severity or impact of risks for all collaborators. Formal Requirements Management will be implemented during the course of the Project, through:
- Railway Scheme design
- Infrastructure design, construction, testing and commissioning
- Railway systems design, manufacture, installation, testing and commissioning
- System integration and trial operation.
The Requirements Management process must ensure that, where the specifications have been decomposed into lower level requirements there is bidirectional traceability supported by Satisfaction arguments.
- There is evidence that the Acceptance and Verification Criteria have been agreed.
- There is evidence that the Level 0 specifications have been proven in accordance with the Acceptance Criteria and that the lower level requirements have additional Verification Criteria
- There is evidence that the requirements have been used in the design process.
- As defined in the Verification Criteria, there is evidence that the requirements have been proven during the Testing and Commissioning phases.
- Any changes to the Employer’s Requirements proposed by a formal Change Notice (or equivalent) are properly assessed as part of the overall requirements development and the implications on other aspects of the system are fully considered and communicated.
- There is a mechanism for the Works Package Contractor to propose requirement changes to PDP.
- PDP has a mechanism to signoff the evidence as proof that the specification has been met or alternatively that the Justification for Non Conformance with the specifications, provided through the delivery of Satisfaction Arguments or Non Conformance Reports, are acceptable.
It follows that the principles that govern the Requirements Management process, which are:
- The capture of requirements is a process which successively identifies, refines and structures the requirements in a hierarchical fashion until an agreed specification of the outputs is reached.
- A top-down approach means that the Project can achieve integrity of design, whilst making use of existing materials at the detailed level.
- A requirements database is used as the master source for the requirements, managing changes and providing a detailed audit trail of these changes.
- Requirements are allocated specific attributes to allow sub-sets of the requirements to be extracted according to specific viewpoints (e.g. specific stakeholder views) and/or engineering disciplines (e.g. safety, performance).
- Verification & Validation provides demonstration that the correct article is being designed and built and that it is being built correctly.
- Ensuring that the delivered project conforms to all mandated Standards
In order to achieve these goals it is essential that the Requirements Management procedure is clearly defined, agreed by, and followed by all stakeholders.
The ComplyPro database will be designed and built in accordance with this Requirements Management Plan and supporting ComplyPro Documentation planned to be submitted under separate courier. The following has to be understood as an outline only which will be detailed within the specific ComplyPro Documentation after having finalised the database design and construction in accordance to needs. ComplyPro shall also be used for Configuration Management as change management and traceability, and for Hazard Log to show link between design safety/mitigation measures with the requirement in GS/PS/Design. It shall be used to identify requirements, analyse, categorize, show compliance, traceability, link to evidence of project requirements from Railway Scheme, ER, GS, PS, Design, Installation, T&C, etc.
PDP will set up regular meetings with WPCs, to control the application of procedures relating to the Requirements Management Database. Meetings will be chaired by the designated PDP Requirement Manager. The meetings will include the participation with the WPC Requirement Manager and PDP ComplyPro Consultant, if required. Such meetings will be determined during the design phase during:
- Project Initialisation (within the first 30 days)
- Preliminary Design (PD) (Monthly and at the end of the PD Phase)
- Pre Final Design Phase (Monthly and at the end of the PFD Phase)
- Final Design Phase (Monthly and at the end of the FD Phase and at the time of close out of the design phase);
- All following life cycle phases monthly and at the time of the respective close out process by WPCs.
A series of review on the existing and proposed requirement management system has been done by the Employer, Independent Consultant Engineer (ICE) via Document Review Sheet System (DRS). The following are the summary of data consolidated by the Employers and ICE observation/enquiry and PDP’s response:
|Observation/Enquiry||PDP’s Response||Enquiry By|
|To show the relationship between Operator and Requirement management process||In general, the Operator provides operation requirements in the ER. For operations related issues, the Operator shall support (if required) Prasarana/ICE during review of the operations compliance, design documents or other requirements submitted by WPC. For any operation related requirements, the operator shall be invited and involved in the discussion.||PMB & ICE|
|To confirm/ clarify the frequency of the V&V and/or requirements management audits. What would be the normal agenda to be covered in the “monthly” meetings.||
|Definition of Verification & Validation and the process.||
The EN 50126 Life-cycle represents the system lifecycle sequentially (V Diagram). The system life cycle consists of 14 project life cycle phases (PLCP’s), sequentially starting from the initial concept to the de-commissioning and disposal. The project life cycle provides a structure for planning, managing, controlling and monitoring all aspects of a system including RAM and Safety.
The development of the project follows in principle the successive project phases as graphical outlined within Figure 3: EN 50126 Life-cycle (V-Diagram). Adaptions related to life cycle activities and tasks will be implemented by PDP in order to comply with project specification requirements, if applicable. Characteristics of the left branch of the V-diagram are related to the development and refining process ending in the manufacturing of systems, subsystems and components. Similar approach is herein adapted by the PDP related to the PDP Infrastructure and E&M development, where construction and architectural designs and construction material will be specified prior their procurement and start of construction.
Characteristics of the right branch of the V-Diagram are related to the assembly, installation, inspection, testing and commissioning and least the final operation and maintenance of the system under consideration. Related to the Civil works scope similar approach is considered starting with the construction and ending with the handover of the works to the final customer for operation and maintenance. A PLCP is considered in start or complete stage if the certain conditions are met as listed below:
|Start||The specific inputs for a PLCP are verified and demonstrate that requirements to start with the next PLCP are met. (i.e. Design is complete and in compliance with contract, reviewed and accepted by the PDP and Employer) The WPCs are fully responsible for this condition per PLCP.|
The life cycle concept is considered fundamental to the successful implementation of System Assurance. The principle is adapted for the Infrastructure (Civil Works) and E&M works in order to align particular deliveries to a certain project phase.
A series of review on the existing requirement management system had been done. From the document analysis, it can be concluded that there is proposal on using ComplyPro Software Requirement Management System that have been reviewed by the Employer and Independent Consultant Engineer (ICE) and response by PDP through the Document Review Sheet System during the review meetings.
As the finding from the Document Review Sheet System it can be conclude that PDP would recommend that ComplyPro shall also be used for Configuration Management as change management and traceability. It is one of important engineering process for establishing and maintaining consistency of performance, functional, and physical attributes with its requirements, design, and operational information throughout its life. Managing changes and traceability was part of limitation in using the current electronic document management system, Teambinder.
ComplyPro also shall be use for System Hazard Log to show link between design safety/mitigation measures which should be aligned with the requirement in GS/PS/Design. It is the single source of record for all risk management activities. Where necessary it cross-references other documents to demonstrate how hazards have been resolved. It is the primary mechanism for providing objective evidence of the risk management process and assurance of the effective management of hazards and accidents that might happen in the project involved. Apart from that, ComplyPro shall also be used to identify requirements, analyse, categorize, compliance, traceability, linkage to the evidence of project requirements from various part. PDP also respond that Requreiment Management Manual for ComplyPro shall be part of the training module conducted by the software consultant to WPCs as this will help to ease the introduction and implementation of Requirement Management process especially to WPCs who are new to Requirement Management.
Therefore, it was suggested that recommendation on operating ComplyPro will be a more comprehensive management system software that will help to manage requirement management effectively and efficiently.
The PDP will be responsible for the configuration of the ComplyPro database including access controls and workflows. The PDP plans to keep contract boundaries between the involved WPCs. The levels foreseen, if not otherwise determined during the Initiation Phase are as follows:
|Requirement Level||Subject||Responsible parties|
|DDC / LWC / SC||WPCs||IV&TE, ISA||PDP|
|Level 1||Employer Requirements||
||n/a||n/a||Provision of evidence on requirements which are not Level 2 or other levels. i.e. DEIA|
|Level 2||WPCs Contract Documentation such as General and Particular Specifications per contract.||Verification that Employer requirements are captured within the prepared documentation.||WPC Tender compliance statement.||WPC to appoint IV&TE and ISA consultants.||Monitor and Control of requirement process implemented by LWC/ DDC|
|Level 3||Subsystem level such as ATO, ATP, CCTV,
Public Address, Power Distribution, Traction Power etc.;
|Verification that requirements stipulated within the WPCs contract specifications are fulfilled.||Provision of documentary evidence||IV&TE generally confirms and certifies conformance, technical functionality, and compliance.
safety relevant issues
|Monitor and Control of requirement process implemented by LWC/DDC|
The WPC requirement process to be established by WPCs will be followed up by the PDP System Assurance Management and in particular by the PDP Requirement Manager allocated within the System Assurance Management.bThe follow up will be conducted frequently, once a month with the Department of Systems and Infrastructure and E&M and its embedded Consultants (LWC /SC/DDC). Subject of the follow up is to ensure the correct understanding of the requirement identification and handling and to check the level of implementation within ComplyPro. Comparison with the PDP and the WPC compliance matrix shall be ensured. Documentation evidence by the WPC will be sighted by LWC related to systems. WPC requirements shall have a unique number and revision status as well as a change registers indicating changes made from previously presented WPC documentation with documentary evidence. The reasons for changing requirements will be checked via the WPC Configuration Management.
The PDP, in particular the PDP System Department and the PDP Infrastructure and E&M Department, will monitor the WPC compliance as well as the verification implemented by its LWC / SC (former DDC) Consultant. They will obtain information from the WPCs and inform the PDP Requirement Manager, who will maintain a consolidated project wide Database. The WPCs will provide its Requirement Information via the ComplyPro Database.
LWC / SC verification and validation as per proof will be provided by the Consultant and merged within the ComplyPro Database and controlled by the PDP Requirement Management.
The PDP Requirement Manager will provide overviews of the status of the fulfilment of requirements monthly, if not otherwise determined by the PDP.
WPCs and its subcontractors will involve third parties for certification purposes in areas where such an approach is considered necessary. Such certification forms also verification and validation process. Third parties involved for in the V&V process are inter alia WPCs IV&TE and Independent Safety Assessors, allowed to verify and issue a Certificate of Conformity for applicable systems and sub-systems and Infrastructure and E&M. At the end of a PLCP the WPC will formulate a top-level statement in form of an undersigned certificate stating that all requirements have been traced and full compliance with the requirements were achieved of the particular PLCP.
LWC and SC, as PDP Consultants will be responsible for the technical Verification and Validation process on PDP side. They will issue a certification for the performed Verification and Validation of WPC documentation to the PDP to document that works performed by WPCs are in full compliance with the contractual requirements, required functionalities and Safety. Such certification will be provided for each document under review and WPC activity supervised as well at the end of a PLCP.
The Project source data will include requirement documents, specifications, standards, Contractor compliance matrLWC/DDCs, operational concepts and data extracted from Project information such as project procedures, organisation charts, procedures and work breakdown structures. The documentation may be in held in Word, Excel or PDF formats.
MS Word and PDF tend to hold just headings, contextual information, pictures and requirement text. MS Excel may hold additional attribute information associated with a requirement statement. Before any import is undertaken the content of each document has to be analysed and categorised so that the information is put into the right place. This Requirements Management Procedure will assist in this respect as it documents how the Project will be organised.
Where a document consists of a main body and a series of appendixes will be added to the same table as the main body. Where a specific Appendix is not added then the heading for the Appendix is still created with an information note as follows:
“This Appendix has not been incorporated into ComplyPro. The original can be found in the EDMS.”
If it is necessary to trace to the Appendix then an additional requirement will be added stating, “The xxx shall comply with the requirements contained within Appendix n” where ‘xxx’ is a description of the content of the Appendix and ‘n’ is the Appendix number.
It is essential that the documents are prepared before any import. In all cases, it is necessary to first establish the type of information as well as the format. Since we tend not to write in single line statements, the Employer’s Requirements and General specification documents are not formatted with each requirement having a unique ID. When importing Word documents then follow the guidance below:
- Apply the correct styles and levels so that the headings are imported as Object Headings and the body text as Object Text. Always use the Word paragraph styles
- Remove Title Pages, Tables of Contents and Indexes, and page headers and footers
- Separate the information (providing context) from requirement statements.
- Break the requirement statements (For example, single sentence with a ‘shall’) into separate lines
- Check for word equations and special characters. Consider converting them to pictures
- Remove tables from the main text, convert to Excel and import them separately after the main import
- Remove your pictures from the main text and import them separately as OLEs after the main import
- Convert internal document cross references such as title to pictures and tables to plain text
- Convert external references from the document into plain text
- Remove text boxes
- Convert bullet points using the post import menu option
After the import the headings will be automatically numbered, and each paragraph will have a unique ID automatically assigned. For a requirement then, this becomes the unique identifier that will persist for the lifetime of the requirement.
Note: When loading initial documents through the underlying database into ComplyPro and then later uploading newer versions of those documents through underlying database into ComplyPro it is not possible to implicitly retain links or attributes which were associated with the originally loaded documents so the unique reference can be used as a guide to manually reinstate the links and attributes
The column names must match the attribute names in the underlying database. This includes the Object Heading and Object Text columns.
All documents in pdf format must be converted into MS Word format and then the instructions in Section 3.1.1 should be followed.
ComplyPro is capable of handling the import of XML and HTML formatted documents. However, it is unlikely that these types of documents will be imported on this project.
About LRT3. (2018). Retrieved from LRT3: https://www.lrt3.com.my/
Benefits and Summary. (2018). Retrieved from QA Software: Teambinder: https://www1.teambinder.com/defectinspector-benefits-and-summary/
Case Study: How Qatar Rail are utilising ComplyPro on the Doha Metro & Lusail Light Rail Programme. (28 July, 2016). Retrieved from Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hToJ7pAC2Gs
Rail Compliance and Assurance Software . (2018). Retrieved from Bentley Systems, Inc.: https://www.bentley.com/en/products/brands/complypro