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Processes in Achieving Sustainable Biomimetic Design

BIO-MIMETICS

A Process of achieving sustainability

ABSTRACT:

Janine M. Benyus in 1997, created a field of subject called Biomimicry (also known as biomimetics) that combined engineering and biology, which made humans again look back into nature for solutions.

Even though Biomimicry is a rather new field of subject it is very likely to have a great impact on our society in the future, as a new way of thinking bringing forward a sustainable solution harmonizing with nature, as a result the solutions in those projects they participate in are moving humanity closer to Nature.

Through biomimicry humans have achieved miracles in Architecture and Design. Buildings have achieved great efficiency in energy by application of biomimicry. Sustainability (in the usage of energy and resources) is a key for satisfying the human needs and comfort. Biomimetic approach to design is seem to be an opportunity to bring nature work into design in a systematic way.

The study explores and analyses the process involved in achieving sustainable biomimetic design from the perspective of 3 main parameters Aesthetics, efficiency and economic. The main aim is define the research to explore the different process involved and how it deals with design factors of projects.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE

  1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………1
    1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………….1
    2. AIM ……………………………………………………………………………2
    3. Objective ……………………………………………………………………..2
    4. Scope …………………………………………………………………………3
    5. Limitations ……………………………………………………………………3
    6. Methodology …………………………………………………………………4

 

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………5

 

  1. ARCHITECTURE IN NATURE………………………………………………….6
    1. Ventilation……………………………………………………………………..6

3.1.1 Termite mound…………………………………………………………6

  1. Thermoregulation…………………………………………………………….8
    1.    Humming bird’s nest………………………………………………….8
    2.    Weaver bird’s nest……………………………………………………9
  2. Structure………………………………………………………………………9
    1.    Honey Comb…………………………………………………………..9
    2.    Bird’s Wing……………………………………………………………10

 

  1. PROCESS…………………………………………………………………………11
    1. Principles of Biomimicry……………………………………………………..11
    2. Approaches to Biomimicry…………………………………………………..13

3.1.1 Problem based approach……………………………………………..13

3.1.2 Solution based approach………………………………………………14

 

  1. CASE STUDIES…………………………………………………………………..16
    1. Primary Case Studies………………………………………………………..16

5.1.1     Lotus Temple………………………………………………………..16

  1. Secondary Case Studies…………………………………………………….19
    1.    The Eden Project……………………………………………………..19
    2.    Aldar Headquarters……………………………………………………24

 

  1. ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………27

 

  1. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………….28

 

  1. REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….29

 

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List of Figures:

Figure 1: Formation of Spider Silk

Source: https://veroldin.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/kc3b6ngulc3b3asilkiskirtlar.jpg

 Figure 2: Fire Beetle

Source:  https://userscontent2.emaze.com/images/93e5de86-ba04-461c-aa98-8eb96dd4fa9a/7aa5f4d685db2b1991149f8bd41c32ff.jpg

Figure 3:Cross-section of termite mound

Source: https://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/termite20mounds.jpg

Figure 4:Termite Mound

Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Cathedral_Termite_Mound_-_brewbooks.jpg/1200px-Cathedral_Termite_Mound_-_brewbooks.jpg

Figure 5:Humming Bird’s nest adapted to Summer Climate

Source: https://i.pinimg.com/736x/a4/42/dd/a442dd01ef45ff33c9bb0857e992e2f2–baby-hummingbirds-hummingbird-nests.jpg

Figure 6:Humming Bird’s nest adapted to winter climate

Source: https://ssl.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000F19Q_c3ZKmk/t/200/I0000F19Q_c3ZKmk.jpg

Figure 7:Weaver Bird’s nest

Source: https://ak7.picdn.net/shutterstock/videos/4685057/thumb/1.jpg?i10c=img.resize(height:72)

Figure 8:Honey Comb showing Hexagonal Cells

Source: http://www.llafoundation.com/wp-content/uploads/monitoring-beehives-bees.jpg

Figure 9:Anatomy of bird’s wing

Source: http://www.twitt.org/LordsBird02.jpg

Figure 10:Section of wing

Source: http://pubs.sciepub.com/materials/1/2/2/image/fig4.png

Figure 11:Biomimetic Design Process in spiral

Source:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nariman_Lotfi/publication/303587913/figure/fig32/AS:366646561656838@1464426760569/Figure-39-Biology-to-Design-spiral.jpg

Figure 12:Top–down, bottom-up based approach…………………………………14-

Source: http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1110016815001702-gr1.jpg)

Figure 13: Baha ‘I’ Temple

Source: http://media2.intoday.in/indiatoday/images/stories/delhi-heritage-2-monuments-1_647_050716084345.jpg

Figure 14:Concept Sketch of Design

Source: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_O2E3FjX-jK0/TSWGnG269RI/AAAAAAAAAHQ/2pjwC3DUSOo/s1600/sj12-0001.jpg

Figure 15:a)Temple view from Top, b)9 bridges with 9 water bodies

Source:http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_O2E3FjX-jK0/TSWGnG269RI/AAAAAAAAAHQ/2pjwC3DUSOo/s1600/sj12-0001.jpg

Figure 16:Aerial view of Lotus Temple

Source: https://www.holidify.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/lotus-temple.jpg

Figure 17:Eden Project aerial view

Source: http://www.edenproject.com/sites/default/files/ep-t1/HERO-Eden_by_Tamsyn_William_0.jpg

Figure 18:Site Topography0

Source: http://edenproject.eu5.org/images/eden%20project%20location-1.jpg

Figure 19: Site Topography0

Source: https://revitalizationnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Eden-project-before-65.jpg

Figure 20:Form of Bubbles

Source: https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-sirIooqQnik/WNLywcsurSI/AAAAAAAACOQ/VBNTOZ2KLXYF7lPqs61JtO85G8fO8knmgCLcB/s1600/bubbles.jpg

Figure 21: Design approach to the site1

Source: https://buildingskins.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/eden-3.jpg

Figure 22:Pentagonal and Hexagonal structure of Radiolaria

Source:http://lh6.ggpht.com/_DeVkd7Dag10/TcAYGbRousI/AAAAAAAAGvI/1PduUS3GFGY/amazing_pollen_grains_under_microscope_03_thumb.jpg?imgmax=800

Figure 23:Hexagonal Structural members2

Source: http://s.hswstatic.com/gif/eden-63.jpg

Figure 24:Inside view of Eden Project3

Source: http://raredelights.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Eden-Project-11.jpg

Figure 25:Aldar Headquarters4

Source: http://www.cppwind.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Aldar-HQ.jpg

Figure 26:Clam shell4

Source: http://www.vorply.com/media/1087/aldar-headquarters-building-abu-dhabi-seashell-10.jpg

Figure 27:Conceptual Sketches showing a)form, b)Structure resolving5

Source: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Aldar_boc_concep_2.jpg

Figure 28:Aerial view of Aldar Headquarters6

Source: https://d3sux4fmh2nu8u.cloudfront.net/Pictures/2000x2000fit/2/0/9/1669209_101.jpg

1.1 INTRODUCTION:

Nature is the most important part of life, without which a human cannot survive. The word Nature is derived from Latin word ‘Natura’ which means birth. Nature is also Conceptually close to word ‘physis’ which refers to System that exits and grows. Accordingly, nature by no means static and is constantly regenerating and transforming itself. What actually Nature can deliver? For Example, Spider web which is strongest fibre ever made in the world. Scientists tried to create the strongest fibre which is still not as strong as spider silk and manufacturing of that fibre results lots of energy usage, pollution etc which spider can produce from the waste left out from the dead insects. In the same way, Fire beetle which is capable of detecting fire from 80 m range. When compared to the scale of detection, it is million times when compared to manmade technologies. (Micheal Pawlyn,2011)

Figure 2: Formation of Spider Silk

Source: https://veroldin.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/kc3b6ngulc3b3asilkiskirtlar.jpg

Figure 1: Fire Beetle

Source:https://userscontent2.emaze.com/images/93e5de86-ba04-461c-aa98-8eb96dd4fa9a/7aa5f4d685db2b1991149f8bd41c32ff.jpg

But the increased population and human scale has unknown consequences for the balance of systems on the species and our own. As the population is being increased, the amount of usage of resources is increased. For shelter and living propose humans started to cut-off trees which resulted in deforestation and also excessive use and wastage of resources. Cities are growing day by day and which results in the depletion of trees, forests (i.e. nature). Because of which so many animal and plant species are under extinction. Over the past million years, so many species are extincted because of humans which result in collapsing the systems of nature. (Climate change (IPCC), 2007)

Nature recycles and reuses most of the resources. In the same way, we should recycle and reuse the materials and natural resources from nature. We can’t regulate everything happening surrounding us, atleast as a person with architecture background, we should design building which will be cost efficient, energy efficient, resource efficient and sustainable design. (Lehni,2001)

Everything in this world is evolving day by day and the process of evolution and resulting adaptations have allowed life to sustain itself for a millennium. Architecture design has grown out of need for shelter and expression and today, the adaptations in building designs and with building technologies and strategies helps us to achieve high levels of comfort in any climate.(Janine M.Benyus, 1997)

Every organism in the world will grow, feed and reproduce. When the species first formed, they might not be in a Sustainable in relation to nature. Over the Last Million years, every living species evolved in its own way according to the climate, living conditions to achieve best sustainable living. While every living species is evolving to have sustainable living system, Imitating natures ideas helps in changing the potential of rate of work, effectivity, comfort, Production etc.(Janine M.Benyus, 1997) But the main question is that architects started inspiring from nature, but how they are achieving the efficiency and sustainability? So the main question which we are focus on is

“What is the process involved in achieving Biomimetic Design?”

1.2 AIM:

The main aim of the research is to look into the process that is involved while imitating biomimetics into architecture for efficient and sustainable design.

 

1.3 OBJECTIVE:

Every species in this world has been evolving for the past million years and has adopted a system which is efficient and sustainable in according to surroundings and nature. So, by adopting technologies which are developed by imitating nature helps in achieving more efficient and sustainable designs.

  • Research on the animal and plant species which are evolved and adapted according to nature.
  • Focusing mainly on technologies adapted or inspired from nature.
  • Focusing on advantages of adapting Biomimetic in Architecture.
  • Concentrating on the different types of process involved in achieving sustainable Biomimetic design.

1.4 SCOPE:

This research will study the architecture of a few selected species from the animal kingdom. The environment and the climatic conditions that they face or live in are of great importance to study their ways of building and understanding the complex set of requirements that they have while building their habitats. The research will try to explore the technologies and structural systems used by those few selected creatures to build their shelters and how they can be incorporated in our architecture for our betterment of human life.

The dissertation will also study a few forms in nature that have been adopted by man and converted into architectural structures will be studied to understand the thought process that the designers had while designing those wonders and what we learn from them for designing such wonders in our future.

1.5 LIMITATIONS:

  • There are limited number of built examples which have been inspired from nature and those are too are very limited in Delhi or nearby areas, So the one primary case study is covered, secondary case studies are covered through this research will be very few buildings and through the Secondary sources like journals, internet, publications and documentaries and less on primary observations.
  • And the majority of the research and case studies on the technologies and systems used by animal species and plants are mainly through the secondary sources, journals, internet and documentaries etc and less on primary observations.
  • The research on the animal species and plants is limited till an extent that is required to examine the form, structure and technologies developed through it.

1.6 METHODOLOGY:

  • In the first step, various typologies will be identified from the animal and plant species on the basis of their relevant characteristics. We will concentrate on some of the particular species what they are doing and why they are doing in that way. We will also try to understand the set of requirements and how they are achieving comfortable habitable conditions for themselves.
  • We will also concentrate on the solutions thy have achieved in the process of resolving the problems they have faced and the technologies and systems used by them for those habitable space.
  • After studying the technologies and systems adopted by these species

in designing and building their habitable spaces, we will try to analyse that how can these technologies and systems can be incorporated or used in architecture for the betterment of life and also for the advancement of our architecture.

  • After those studies, we will concentrate on several forms, systems and species in nature that can be adopted by us in our architecture.
  • We will then look at few examples which got their inspiration from nature in terms of form, structure or technologies that have been built by man till now and mainly we focus on the design process of achieving that form, structure by inspiring from nature. We will study the various aspects of inspiration in these examples and finally achieving conclusions from the studies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.LITERATURE REVIEW:

The biomimetic approach to design is given as a important source of adaption to achieve the main three parameters of building – Aesthetics, efficiency and economy. The main important question is that how to integrate these parameters into buildings. Integrating all these factors in a sustainable, efficient is the difficult part. The most promising source of inspiration for such design solutions is nature. Nature has endless wealth of examples will give humans solutions to all their problems. These study is concerned with some of the design solutions like thermoregulation, water management & drainage, Ventilation and some of the structural systems. If we just started looking at the surroundings, we will experience something new through nature. Architecture has a lot to get from nature. The systems in nature, architecture in animal kingdom and the forms in nature are a great source of inspiration for architects to build in an efficient and economic manner to achieve strength, comfortable living conditions and aesthetic appeal. These books are also confined with some of the design solutions that are adapted and imitated from nature.

Forms and structures found in nature are designed in a efficient manner. They use the minimum amount and provide maximum space and structural strength. These natural forms and shapes area result of adaption to the physical forces over a long period of time so that they respond to these forces in a very efficient manner. The structure of honey comb is such that it requires minimum amount of wax to store honey. The hexagonal cells are arranged in such a way that each wall for two cells and hence the amount of wax used in making a honeycomb is minimized with a good capacity of the honeycomb to hold the honey. Such arrangements can be used for creating spaces for humans. Not only this will reduce the cost of the construction, but also the area required and provide with large amount of usable space.

The achievements that some animals or birds are able to achieve in terms of services are remarkable and have a lot of humans to learn and understand so that they can improve their living conditions and reduce the energy spent in artificially creating comfortable habitable conditions.

In the similar manner, efficiency in maintaining temperature and ambient living conditions is shown by termites in their mounds. Their efficiency in thermoregulation is considered the best one in nature. They can achieve this thermoregulation by means of ventilation and reducing heat gain. Heat gain is reduced by orienting the mound in such a way that minimum amount of sunlight falls on the mound. Similar to the design of their mound as was seen in the eastgate building at Harare where the building maintains temperature by means of ventilation and reduction of heat gain and increased heat loss during the night. The concept is not very difficult to apply in designs today. This will not only reduce the running cost of the building to a great extent but also save a lot of energy spent on thermoregulation of the building. Similarly, on studying the shell structures, it is observed that how beautifully nature integrates for designing of structurers. Making shells of concrete allow us to build large span structures as is evident in a few examples like Lotus Temple, Sydney opera house etc. These structures have a great aesthetic appeal along with structural strength. The use of material is very less in these structures that makes them economic in construction. So with the minimum usage of material, shell structures have high structural strength with a good aesthetic appeal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.ARCHITECTURE IN NATURE

C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word42a75870875836c25b4016809e43dbca.gif3.1 VENTILATION –

3.1.1 TERMITE MOUND

The natural habitat of termites is the mound that they build which just looks like a pile of dirt from outside. These mounds can go up to 30m diameter and also 10-15m in height. The structure of the mound is very complex which has an outer wall riddled with holes and lots of shafts or tunnels that themselves lead to a series of chimneys that helps in ventilation. The termites live in a hemi-spherical oval nest under the mound.

Figure 3:Cross-section of termite mound

Source: https://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/termite20mounds.jpg

C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word789px-Cathedral_Termite_Mound_-_brewbooks.jpgHow does the mound dissipate air through its holes or tunnels? Basically, the orientation of these mounds will be in north-south direction so that they have a minimum heat gain from the sun as it faces the sun for very short period of time early in the morning and in the evening.  As the sun moves through the sky during the day, the air in the chimneys on the edges of the mound heated up , while the air stays relatively cool in the mound’s big, central chimney. Cool air in the central chimney sinks and Hot air rises up through the outer chimneys. All these ventilation and insulation systems helps in not varying temperature more than 1°C throughout the Year.

Architects and engineers has improved energy efficiency in building by imitating termite mound in their designs. Mick Pearce, a Zimbabwean architect designed the award-winning Eastgate Center in Harare, Zimbabwe imitating termite mound. (Havard,2011)

 

3.2 THERMOREGULATION –

3.2.1 Nest of Humming Bird

C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Worda442dd01ef45ff33c9bb0857e992e2f2--baby-hummingbirds-hummingbird-nests.jpgThe amount of heat to be retained or resisted in a shelter is totally a response to the climatic conditions of a place. This can be very clearly seen in the shelters that birds, insects and animals make in different climatic conditions. This control over the climate is achieved by the selection of material to build at times by the orientation of the shelter.

C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word5c9b874bdbf14dcc27171dacc592671b.jpgOne good example of this is the nest of humming bird that is built in warm and cold regions. The one in warm regions have a shallow nest without a lining of feather that maintains a comparatively low temperature within the structure as compared to outer temperature, whereas in case of the nest of humming bird in cold regions, the nest is deep with thick walls lines with feathers. The feather lining keeps it warm in the inner part as compared to the outside conditions. The absence of feather lining in the one in warm region keeps it cooler inside.(Humming bird nest facts, 2011)

Figure 5:Humming Bird’s nest adapted to Summer Climate, Souce: https://ssl.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000F19Q_c3ZKmk/t/200/I0000F19Q_c3ZKmk.jpg

3.2.2 Weaver bird’s Nest:

Weaver bird is majorly found in the Sub-Saharan Africa, with fewer species in tropical Asia and also in Australia. The nest of this bird shows a striking insulation property. There is a noticeable difference between the temperature of the nest when it occupied and when it’s not occupied. As the birds live in a community, the nest is big in size and has a nest holes. When the holes are occupied, the temperature inside C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word1.jpgthem is higher than that outside in winters. The nest is majorly occupied majorly in the night and is unoccupied in the day and hence remains warm in the night. The thickness of the wall of the nest is also different indifferent regions depending upon the climatic conditions and requirements of the area. (Avian Reproduction: Nests, 2011)

3.3 STRUCTURE –

3.3.1 Honey comb

C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordmonitoring-beehives-bees.jpgHoney bees live in large family groups called colony that may have to 80,000 individual bees. A honey comb is the central structure I the colony of honey bees and is made up of wax.

Figure 8:Honey Comb showing Hexagonal Cells Source: http://www.llafoundation.com/wp-content/uploads/monitoring-beehives-bees.jpg

This honey comb is made up of hexagonal wax chambers or cells that vary in size according to the purpose that they fulfil. The walls of these cells are made up of wax secreted by the abdominal gland of the bees. The wax is secreted as flakes that is then chewed and moulded into hexagonal cells. These cells are storage for honey and are home for immature bees. The shape of these cells is the most efficient shape as it contains the maximum amount of honey consuming minimum amount of be wax and the energy for construction.

This is one good example and that shows that all forms and structures in nature are governed by physical laws that try to achieve maximum efficiency through the use of minimum energy. Some of the designer imitated the hexagonal cells as a roof structure and have achieved incredible spans with efficient structure system.(Honey Bee, 2011)

3.3.2 Birds wings:

C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordfig5.gif.jpgC:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordc305e7c7b3ad498131e3668b7d95de70.jpgBirds has very impressive wing system which is really dense and is very light weight. And the birds body shape is developed aerodynamically to fly easily in the air. The downward force which they can create with wings is greater than the gravitational force applying on the body. Due to the very light wings, some of the birds can fly for hours continuously without any rest. What made the so lightweight? The primaries and the secondary structure members to which the feather lies are hollow which helps in reducing weight but as they were placed very densely it is providing strength to the wings. (Micheal Pawlyn, 2007)

Figure 10:Anatomy of bird’s wing

Source: http://www.twitt.org/LordsBird02.jpg

Figure 9:Section of wing

Source: http://pubs.sciepub.com/materials/1/2/2/image/fig4.png

4. PROCESS:

4.1 Principle of Biomimicry:

Principles Example Example of How Human use this to solve Problem
Nature runs on sunlight Leaves use the sunlight for photosynthesis. Humans are mimicking how plants process sunlight in order to one day split water into clean-burning fuels. This helps eliminate the problem of pollution-causing energy production.
Nature uses only the energy it needs Leaves fall from a tree and are turned into nutrients for the tree A business decides to locate its waste recovery facilities close to the facility where waste is produced, to eliminate the need to transport the waste a great distance.
Nature fits form to function Vulture wings The Wright brothers analysed vulture wings to come up their designs for airplanes. This solved the problem of figuring out how to design planes.
Nature recycles everything Oak-hickory forests Closed-loop manufacturing – a manufacturing plant that runs on sunlight and reuses all its waste. This eliminates waste material.
Nature rewards cooperation Old field succession Do-nothing farming – method that sows rice, barley, and clover together in one field, so they grow in each other’s shade. This eliminates the need for possibly hazardous fertilizer (and eliminates the need to weed).
Nature banks on diversity Red-wood forest Industrial eco-parks – Co-located industries work in a food chain, consuming each other’s waste. This eliminates waste from several industries, at one time.
Nature demands local expertise Native grazers (native animals that naturally migrate as they graze) Holistic ranching mimics the way that native animals graze. This allows grassland to naturally recover, preventing it from becoming unusable
Nature curbs excesses from within Forest fires clear out space for new healthy growth Natural selection forestry
Nature taps the power of limits Plants in a given environment thrive within the range of temperatures of that region. Architects design a Building without overdesigning – that is, they don’t design a home in a moderate climate for extreme temperature conditions. This results in the use of less building material.

(Janine M.Benyus, 1997)(NatureMapping, 2008)

4.2 Approaches to Biomimicry:

 4.2.1 Problem Based Approach:

The approach where designers look to the living world for solution requires designers to identify problems and biologists to then match these to organisms that have solved similar issues. This approach is effectively led by designers identifying initial goals of design.

Carl hastrich, Design strategist who is practicing Biomimicry for a long time suggested they represent the process in the spiral that would be visually understandable to designers.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nariman_Lotfi/publication/303587913/figure/fig33/AS:366646561656839@1464426760974/Figure-40-Challenge-to-Biology-spiral-According-to-Vakili-and-Shu-who-wanted-to-apply.jpg

Figure 11:Biomimetic Design Process in spiral

Source: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nariman_Lotfi/publication/303587913/figure/fig32/AS:366646561656838@1464426760569/Figure-39-Biology-to-Design-spiral.jpg

(Biomimicry guild, 2007)

Researchers have defined this approach through 6 definite steps:

  • Step 1: Problem Definition
  • Step 2: Reframe the problem
  • Step 3: Biological Solution research
  • Step 4: Define the biological Solution
  • Step 5: Practical Extraction
  • Step 6: Principle Application

(Micheal Helms, Swaroop S. Vattam and Ashok K.Geol, 2009)

4.2.2 Solution Based Approach:

When the Biological knowledge influences human design, the collaborative design process is initially dependant on people having knowledge influences human design, the collaborative design process is initially depandant on people having knowlwdgeof relevant biological or ecological research rahre than on determined human design problems.

An advantage of this approach therefore is that biology may influnce human in ways that might be outside a predetermined design problem, resulting in previously onthought of technologies or systems or even approaches to design solutions.

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1110016815001702-gr1.jpgResearchers have defined thid approach too similarly through 7 definite steps:

  • Steps 1: Biological solution     Identification. Here, designers start with particular biological solution in mind
  • Step 2: Define the Biological Solution
  • Step 3: Principle extraction
  • http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1110016815001702-gr1.jpgStep 4: Reframe the Solution, In this case, reframing forces designers to think in erms of how Human might view the usefulness of the biological function bieng achieved.
  • Step 5:Problem search, whereas search in the biological domain includes search through some finite space of documented biological solutions, problem search may include Defining entirely new problems.

    Figure 12:Top-down, bottom-up based approach

    Source: http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1110016815001702-gr1.jpg

  • Step 6: Problem definition
  • Step 7: Principle application (Biomimicry guild, 2007)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. CASE STUDIES:

5.1Primary Case Studies

5.1.1 Baha ‘I’ Temple

Architect: Fariborz Sahba

Architecture Style: Expressionist architecture

Location: New Delhi

Inspiration: Lotus Flower

Main Contractor: Larsen & Toubro Limited

Structural Engineer: Flint & Neill Partnership

Period of Construction: 1978 – 1986 http://media2.intoday.in/indiatoday/images/stories/delhi-heritage-2-monuments-1_647_050716084345.jpg

Figure 13: Baha ‘I’ Temple

Source: http://media2.intoday.in/indiatoday/images/stories/delhi-heritage-2-monuments-1_647_050716084345.jpg

The Baha ‘I’ Temple also known as The Lotus Temple is the mother temple of the Baha ‘I’ religion in the Indian Sub-continent.

Design Approach: Problem based Approach

  • Step 1: Problem Definition
  • In this project, the design itself is a problem. The project is to design Baha ‘I’ temple which should act as a temple for all religions.
  • http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_O2E3FjX-jK0/TSWGnG269RI/AAAAAAAAAHQ/2pjwC3DUSOo/s1600/sj12-0001.jpgStep 2: Reframe the problem
  • Step 3: Biological Solution research
  • With some research, architect Faroborz Sahba came up with the concept of lotus flower for his design because of its importance in Hindu religion and also Buddhists. Lotus flower is choosed, as it is also the national flower of India.(National spiritual assembly of baha ‘I of India,2011)
  • Conceptually flower symbolizes purity, holiness.
  • The temple looks like a Lotus flower surrounded by leaves afloat on water.
  • The building is in the form of a lotus flower which has three layers of petals with nine petals in each layer. (National spiritual assembly of baha ‘I of India,2011)
  • Step 5: Practical Extraction
  • The lotus flower structure with 9 inner petals and 9 outer petals with 27 petals in total surrounded by gardens and 9 water bodies makes it look like as it is floating on water. (National spiritual assembly of baha ‘I if India,2011)
  • Step 6: Principle Application
  • Like the form, the structure of the temple too has been inspired from the nature. The structure of the building is inspired from the shells.
  • The structure consists of 27 giant marble petals. The structure can be entered through nine bridges which are running over the nine ponds leading the nine entrances.
  • The inner nine petals form nine entrances to the worship hall. These petals are separated at top which slightly looks like a bud. The opening is covered with glass which allows natural light.
  • The shells of the inner petals are supported by 9 radial beams mainly resting on the arches. (National spiritual assembly of baha ‘I if India,2011)

https://www.holidify.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/lotus-temple.jpg

  Figure 16:Aerial view of Lotus Temple

                                                Source: https://www.holidify.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/lotus-temple.jpg

 

 

5.2Secondary Case Studies

5.2.1 The Eden Project

Architect: Nicolas Grimshaw

Biologist: Julian Vincent

Location: Bodelva, U.K

Inspiration:  J.Baldwin’s Pillow Dome

Period of Construction: 1998 – 2001

Main Contractor: McAlpine JV

Landscape Designers: Greysmith Associates

Structural Engineer: Anthony Hunt and Associates

Service Engineer: Arup

Design Approach: Problem based Approach

C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.WordHERO-Eden_by_Tamsyn_William_0.jpg

Figure 17:Eden Project aerial view

Source: http://www.edenproject.com/sites/default/files/ep-t1/HERO-Eden_by_Tamsyn_William_0.jpg

  • Step 1: Problem Definition
  • Step 2: Reframe the problem
  • The problem which architects normally faced is to create the form which will work good enough for that topography.
  • Step 3: Biological Solution research
  • Step 4: Define the biological Solution
  • C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Word6853688-soap-bubbles-Stock-Photo-foam.jpgAfter researching, the basic primary concept they achieved for the form is ‘SOAP BUBBLE’
  • Step 5: Practical Extraction
  • Step 1: Problem Definition
  • Step 2: Reframe the problem
  •  For a place like Biome where trees and plants grow inside a building there should be adequate amount of Natural light inside the building.
  • Step 3: Biological Solution Research
  • Designers started researching for the structural element which can be adjusted and can be increase the shape with less structural members.
  • Step 4: Define the Biological Solution
  • Step 5: Practical Extraction
  • The next thing they have concentrated on maximizing the size of Hexagon and to do that they have find an alternative to glass, which is really limited In terms of its unit sizes. And in Nature there are lots of examples of very efficient structures C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.Wordeden-63.jpgbased on pressurized membranes. So, they came up with material alternative ETFE which is high strength polymer. They have started putting that in 3 layers, welded it around the edge and then inflated it. The interesting part in this material is that we can make In units which will be roughly seven times the size of glass, and it is only 1% of the weight of double-glazing. Through this they have factor of 100 saving. By integrating these, they have achieved so much indirectly. Due to the less usage of steel, with less steel they are getting more sunlight in which meant that they didn’t have to put as much extra heat in winter and with less overall weight in superstructure there were big savings in the foundations. (sustainablebuild)

    Figure 23:Hexagonal Structural members

    Source: http://s.hswstatic.com/gif/eden-63.jpg

  • Step 6: Principle application
  • They have resolved the structure accordingly with respect to form. They used ETFE which will allow natural light and it is too lightweight when compared to glass. By using ETFE material in place of glass, they have achieved span 7 times when compared to the glass with steel structure. (Stefin, 2011)
  • Step 6: Principle Application
  • They have already the created the form with respect to site through Soap Bubble. The Steel Structure with ETFE panels used for large span and efficient lighting with the help of Pollen Grains and Radiolaria. C:UsersDheeraj ManikantaAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.WordEden-Project-11.jpg

Figure 24:Inside view of Eden Project

                                                Source: http://raredelights.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Eden-Project-11.jpg

At the end of the project they have worked out that the weight of superstructure is actually less than the weight of air inside the building. Eden project is one of the good example showing how the ideas of biology can lead to radical increase in resource efficiency delivering the same function but only with a fraction of the resource input. (suatainablebuild)

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.2.2 Aldar Headquarters:

Architect: MZ Architects ( Marwan Zgheib)

Contractor: ALDAR Liang O’Rourke

Owner: ALDAR Properties

Location: Abu Dhabi- United Arab Emirates

Inspiration: Clam Shell

Floor Area: 61,900 sq.m

Height: 110m

Started Design: 2005

Project Completion: 2010

Awards: Best Futuristic Design

Design Approach: Solution based Approach

  • Step 1: Solution Identification
  • Step 2: Biological Solution
  • Designers are inspired by the clam shell which has the deep meaning of maritime heritage of Abu Dhabi. (wikiarquitectura)
  • Step 3: Principle extraction
  • Architect imagined 2 giant curved circular walls came together representing the shell. (wikiarquitectura)
  • Step 4: Reframe the Solution
  • Architect Marwan Zgheib enthusiasm for the project resulted a clear goal to create simple, bold and iconic structure. They want design visibly so powerful and fit into the iconic skyscrapers of Abu dhabi and also like a shell with a pearl resting on the edge of beach. (wikiarquitectura)

    Figure 27:Conceptual Sketches showing a)form, b)Structure resolving

    Source: https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Aldar_boc_concep_2.jpg

  • Step 5: Problem search
  • The main problem in implementing the design is the structure. They have to make the design stand.
  • To make the circular building stand, they have inspired from the cosmic body of human in pentagon inscribed in a circle. (wikiarquitectura)
  • Step 6: Problem definition
  • The place where base of the pentagon resides on circle are the points where building is going to touch the ground. (wikiarquitectura)
  • The circular facades is achieved by using toroidal geometry with triangulated glass panels to achieve perfect circle in the elevation.
  • Step 7: Principle application
  • https://d3sux4fmh2nu8u.cloudfront.net/Pictures/2000x2000fit/2/0/9/1669209_101.jpgThe slabs are cantilevered 25 m from the central core. To support the slabs, internal structure and facade, design team developed a complex diamond shaped steel grid structural system called Diagrid. (wikiarquitectura)

    Figure 28:Aerial view of Aldar Headquarters Source: https://d3sux4fmh2nu8u.cloudfront.net/Pictures/2000x2000fit/2/0/9/1669209_101.jpg

  • Finally, they have achieved iconic structural with well lit natural day lighting and wide view to the beach on one side and to the city on other side.

 

 

 

 

 

6. ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDIES

  Baha ‘I’ Temple The Eden Project Aldar Headquarters
Building type Temple Biome- Visitors Place Office, commercial
Design Inspiration Lotus Flower Bubble Clam Shell
Structure Inspiration Shell Structures Radiolaria, Pollen grains Human with Pentagram
Approach Problem based Problem based Solution based
Design Driven Factor Centre for all religions Site Conditions Iconic Structure
Structure System Steel formwork, concrete shells cladded with marble Hexagonal steel structure with ETFE roofing panels. Diagrid structure with triangulated glass panels.
Parameters achieved Aesthetics and efficient Aesthetics, economic and efficiency Iconic, economic and efficient

 

                 Whatever the project is, whatever the approach is, Biomimeic design will achieve main 3 important parameters of the building- Aetheticity, economic and efficiency.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. CONCLUSIONS

Biomimetic architecture is a contemporary philosophy of architecture that seeks solutions for sustainability in nature, not by replicating the natural forms, but by understanding the rules governing those forms.

Buildings are always judged on three main parameters – aesthetics, efficiency and economy. Most of the buildings do not stand well in all the parameters stated. So, the question is that how can these parameters can be integrated in a building. To achieve these parameters, we need innovative thought process and efficient source of inspiration for design. The best source of inspirations for design solutions is nature. Nature has endless source of examples where humans can learn and improve their living conditions.

Forms and structures in nature are designed in a very efficient manner. They use minimum amount of material and provide maximum space and structural strength. The natural forms and shapes are result of adaptation to the physical forces over a long period of time, so that they respond to these forces in a very efficient manner.

Imitating from nature and integrating into design just don’t give us the efficiency, process involved in imitating and integrating takes the major part. Starting from the Site study, we will find pros and cons. Sometimes we can neglect cons, they might be negligible part in context of design. But sometimes cons are major part, which we have start our design in the process of resolving those problems. This is where we will see the type of approach involved problem based or solution based. In case of solution based, they will what should be their final factor which they should achieve i.e. efficiency or aesthetics and process of design conceptualization starts in achieving the desired solution. Architects might follow whatever process they want but finally if the parameters they are trying to achieve are same, then they are going to face the same factors. Final design product may not be same but the level of efficiency might be almost same.

Bibliography:

  • Dessertation: (unpublished)
  • Augustine.J.T             –        “Sustainability: Lessons from Biomimicry”

Dessertation, S.P.A., 2011

  • Anuj Kandelwal           –        “Nature Inspired Architecture”

Dessertation, S.P.A., 2012

  • Books :
  • Ilaria Mazzoleni           –        “Architecture Follows Nature”, 2013

Biomimetic Principles for Innovative Design

  • Petur Om Amarson     –        “Biomimicry”, New Technology,. 2011
  • Articles and Blogs (from internet):

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150913-nine-incredible-buildings-inspired-by-nature>

  • Micheal J.Maglic, “ Using Nature as Model for Design”, viewed 27th September 2017, <

http://www.schorarworks.Umass.edu/theses/871>

  • Lidia Badarnah, “Form Follows Environment: Biomimetic Approches to Building envelope Design for Environmental Adaptation” <

http://www.mdpi.com/2075-5309/7/2/40/htm>

  • Websites:


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