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Precast Prestressed Segmental Concrete Bridges

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0 General

Owing to day to day increase in the construction activities there been the scarcity in the ingredients of concrete. In addition to this restriction imposed by the government department for safe guiding the environmental problems also increase the shortage of such materials. Hence researches are being undertaken to find the other natural and durable resources for the above.

Natural resources are of two types-the renewable and non-renewable. Renewable resources which can be recycled and utilized for our benefits. But non-renewable resources are those, which once removed and utilized are lost forever.

The closeness of scaled down scale breaks at the mortar-add up to interface is accountable for the common deficiency of plain concrete. The deficiency can be removed by joining of fibers in the mix. Assorted sorts of strands, for instance, those used as a piece of customary composite materials have been familiar into the strong mix with increase its strength, or ability to restrict break improvement. In this way one may state that the Fiber braced strong pavements are more capable than standard bond strong black-top. “FRC is described as composite material including concrete invigorated with discrete discretionarily yet reliably scattered short length strands.” .FRC is believed to be a material of upgraded properties and not as braced security concrete while bolster is obliged neighborhood strengthening of bond in strain district. Strands generally used as a piece of bond strong black-tops are steel fibers and characteristic polymer fibers, for instance, polyester and polypropylene.

An endeavor is made to by utilizing copper mineral following as an admixture in the planning of fiber strengthened cement by supplanting the bond and iron metal following for sand in various rates of 0,35 and 45%. The major properties like Compressive quality of solid shapes, split rigidity of chambers, and flexural quality of bars are resolved.

  1. Copper Ore Tailings

HCL presently delivers around 3 million tons of Copper Ore per annum from its open pit mine at MCP and underground mine at KCC. Out of this, around 2 million tones is delivered at MCP and around 1 million tons is created at KCC. Copper Ore having around 1% copper content is subjected to mineral beneficiation process (including pounding, crushing, floatation, thickening and filtration) to deliver Copper Concentrate, having around 25% copper content at MCP, and around 17% copper content at KCC.

In the beneficiation procedure, just 5 to 7% of metal amount reports to focus and adjust 93 to 95% of the mineral are disposed of as Tailings. The Copper Ore Tailings (COT), which are forgotten material in the wake of extricating copper from the metals, are put away in following darns developed at both MCP and KCC. Over some stretch of time, tremendous amount of COT has cumulated at both MCP and KCC.

The copper metal following might be utilized as part substitution of Ordinary Portland bond furnished uniform mixing with concrete is guaranteed. In figure 1.0 we can watch copper mineral tailings.

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Fig 1.0: copper ore tailings

1.1 iron ore tailings

The expanding interest for substantial development material like steel and iron has brought about the foundation of numerous iron metal mining organizations. Press Ore Tailing is a waste created from the Iron Ore industry. It is a fine total buildup coming about because of the extraction of Iron from Iron Ore. The deposit left after extraction is as slurry. Issues engaged with the transfer of iron metal following are absence of room, specialized issues, cost and natural dangers. Typically the mineral following is discarded in the region of plant as waste material more than a few hectares of significant land prompting water and land contamination. So this iron mineral following might be utilized as fine total in concrete. Press metal following is appeared in the fig 1.1

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Fig 1.1: Iron ore tailings

1.2 Steel Fiber

It is a standout amongst other most normally utilized strands. Various steel fiber writes are accessible as fortification. Here I am utilizing creased steel fiber with particulars which affirms to ASTM A820. M04 TYPE 1STANDARD. Youthful’s modulus 210 N/mm2. Rigidity >1000MPA.Use of steel fiber makes huge enhances flexural, effect and weariness quality in concrete. Figure 1.2 speaks to the creased steel fiber.

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Fig 1.2: Steel Fiber

1.3 Aim And Scope of Present Work

The point of the present examination is to ponder compressive quality of shapes, elasticity of barrels and flexural quality of shafts conduct with press mineral following as a constituent material for fine totals and copper metal following as constituent for bond in steel fiber fortified concrete and 0.8% steel support is accommodated pillars to upgrade a viable use of copper metal following and iron metal following as adding to reasonable development, To conquer the deficiency/shortage of normal sand in the market and furthermore Effective use of mechanical side-effect lessening the gigantic prerequisite of land for the transfer. This energizes bigger amount of iron mineral following and copper metal following as fixings in solid, which lessens trouble on condition by controlling the elements, for example, contamination and wellbeing risks.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

  1. Historical back ground

Ananthayya M B. Prelim Kumar W. P (1) conducted an experimental work on the effects of steel fiber and partial replacement of sand by iron ore tailings (IOT) on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete are experimentally studied. The mx proportions used for concrete are 1:1.43:2.94. The percentage of steel fiber by weight of cement used were 0.0, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0. The sand substitution (by IOT) rates utilized were 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 35. Compressive strength tests were conducted on 150 mm size concrete cubes and splitting tensile strength test on 150 mm diameter and 300 mm length concrete cylinder as per Bureau of Indian Standards specifications. For concrete without steel strands, the compressive and splitting tensile strength were found to vary with the percentage of IOT and maximum compressive and splitting tensile strength were obtained for 35 % of sand substitution by IOT. For concrete with steel filaments, the compressive and part rigid qualities were found to fluctuate with both level of steel strands and level of IOT. Most extreme compressive and part rigid qualities were acquired for 25% of sand substitution by IOT and 1.2 % of steel strands. The following conclusions are made based on the above experimental study.

  • The percentage of sand replacement by IOT that gives maximum compressive strength varies with the percentage of steel fiber.
  • For concrete without steel fiber, the splitting tensile strength varies with the percentage of IOT. Maximum splitting tensile strength of 2.64 MPa was obtained for 35 % of sand
  • For concrete without steel fiber, the compressive strength varies with the percentage of IOT. Greatest compressive strength of 36.5 MPa was obtained for 35 % of sand replacement by IOT (the compressive strength for zero percentage of sand replacement by IOT being 31.5MPa).
  • For concrete with steel fiber, the compressive quality fluctuates with both level of steel filaments and level of I0T. Greatest compressive quality of 42.5 MPa was acquired for25% of sand substitution by IOT and 1.2 % of steel strands (the compressive quality for zero substitution by IOT (the part elasticity for zero level of sand substitution by IOT being 2.10 MPa).
  • For concrete with steel fiber, the splitting tensile strength changes with both level of steel fiber and percentage of IOT. Most extreme part rigidity of MPa was 25% of sand substitution by IOT and 1.2 % of steel fiber (the splitting tensile strength for zero percentage of sand replacement by IOT and zero level of steel strands being 2.10MPa).
  • The level of sand substitution by IOT that gives greatest part rigidity fluctuates with the level of steel strands and lies in the scope of 25 to 35

Prahallada M. C.  Dr. Shanthappa B. C. (2) Directed a test work and an endeavor has been made to think about the reasonableness of copper metal tailings as an admixture in the readiness of cement by supplanting the concrete in various rates viz., 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and half. Compressive quality and Water retention test were directed on the readied examples. The outcomes demonstrate that the substitutions of common Portland bond by copper metal tailings safe up to 20% considering normal least field quality. In the event that trademark quality is considered substitution copper metal tailings upto 30% might be considered as sheltered and the water ingestion diminishes at 20% copper metal tailings substance and increments for all other copper metal tailings content. The conclusions were:

  • It can be conducted that the feasibility of utilization of copper tailing improves the properties of concrete has been identified in this experimental work.
  • It can be conducted that the water absorption decreases at 20% copper tailing content and increases for all other copper tailing content.
  • It can be conducted that the replacement of ordinary Portland cement by copper tailing proves to be economical by 17.28%.
  • Utilization of copper tailing for partial replacement of cement on concrete solves the problem of dumping down the waste materials.

 ObinnaOnuaguluchi* and OzgiirEren [3] explores the reasonableness of copper tailings as a concrete substitution material in mortars. The effect of copper tailings at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% concrete substitution level by mass on the religious philosophy, mechanical and sturdiness properties of mortars was assessed. Results uncovered higher yield pressure and stream misfortune in blends joining copper tailings. High mortar compressive quality, flexural quality and scraped area obstruction were resolved at 5% bond substitution level. Besides, regardless of expanded rate of water retention, higher protection from corrosive assault and chloride infiltrations were additionally seen in tests containing copper tailings. These enhanced properties were more articulated in tests containing pre-wetted tailings at 5% bond substitution level. The utilization of copper tailings in mortars could realize noteworthy natural protection and maintainability picks up.

 

ObinnaOnuaguluchi [4] examined the consistency, Hardened and poisonous metal immobilization of cement containing copper mineral tailings as an addictive. To look at copper mineral tailings on quality related properties crosswise over two solid classes, two arrangement of cements with 0.57 and 0.50 water fastener proportions are utilized. For every arrangement, three blend consolidating copper tailings at 0%, 5%, and 10% expansion levels by mass are readied. Copper tailings has slight negative effect on droop , setting time and porosity of blends. Anyway enhanced mechanical quality and scraped area obstruction, and lessened chloride entrance contrasted with controlled examples are seen in blends containing copper mineral tailings. General it appears that there is a potential for the utilization of copper tailings as a zero-cost, naturally inviting addictive in concrete, particularly at a 5% expansion level.

Prahallada M. C. Shanmuka K.N. [5] In their test work made an endeavor to think about the reasonableness of iron mineral tailings in the planning of building hinders by settling it through concrete. Distinctive rates of bond are being utilized for the adjustment. Dry compressive quality, wet compressive quality, water assimilation and disintegration opposition were discovered on the readied examples. The iron metal following concrete pieces are prescribed for super structure and they are not suggested for sub structure due to soluble bases and acids display in the dirt respond with manganese substance of square which influence the quality. The outcomes demonstrate that the settled squares of Iron metal following with 7% substitution of iron mineral following by bond demonstrate the most extreme compressive quality and with advantage in different properties. The iron piece demonstrates a diminishing in retention with the expanded stabilizer rate and curing period.

Hong-zhen KANG ,et al [6] go for creating and using ferrous factory following assets to spare vitality, secure condition and create feasible society, the test contemplate on ferrous plant following (FMT) concrete are done. The quality evaluations of Concrete utilized as a part of tests are C30, C35, C40, C45, C50 and C55. In light of the compressive tests, the cubic quality and crystal quality of FMT concrete alongside their relationship were acquired. Then, with crystal compressive test, the versatile modulus of FMT cement and its association with compressive standard quality additionally were acquired. The test outcomes demonstrate that the proportion of crystal compressive quality to cubic compressive quality for FMT concrete is around 0.8-0.9 and the FMT solid versatile modulus increment with its quality evaluations.

Sujing Zhao, et al [7] considered plausibility of utilizing iron mineral tailings to supplant characteristic total to get ready UHPC under two diverse curing administrations was explored. It was discovered that 100% substitution of common total by the tailings essentially diminished the workability and compressive quality of the material. Notwithstanding, when the substitution level was close to 40%, for 90 days standard cured examples, the mechanical conduct of the tailings blends was tantamount to that of the control blend, and for examples that were steam cured for 2 days, the compressive qualities of the tailings blends diminished by under 11% while the flexural qualities expanded by up to 8% contrasted with the control blend. What’s more, pore structure investigation uncovered a coarsening of miniaturized scale pore structure with an expansion of the tailings content and a decent connection between’s the porosities and compressive qualities of the UHPC lattices, and microstructure picture demonstrated a conceivably poor interfacial progress zone around a few tailings particles.

 

BlessenSkariah Thomas, et al [8] researches the reasonableness of copper following in bond concrete as a fractional substitution of common stream sand. M25 review of cement is planned according to May be: 10262-2010, with water/bond proportions of 0.4, 0.45 and 0.5. 0% to 60% substitution of fine totals was finished with copper tailings. The examples with 0% copper following was taken as control blend. Tests were done to decide the compressive quality, flexural quality, pull-off quality, scraped spot obstruction, drying shrinkage, air and water porousness, quick chloride penetrability, alkalinity and protection from sulfate assault in solid examples. It was watched that Copper following might be used for the fractional substitution for normal fine totals till 60% substitution, with water—bond proportions 0.4, 0.45 and 0.50. As the copper following cement (up to 60% substitution) showed great quality and solidness attributes, it might be suggested for all development exercises.

Claire (1967), [9] studied the fatigue behavior of fiber reinforced concrete. He indicated that, the fatigue strength was significantly increased by increase in the percentage of steel reinforcement and is not affected by the diameters of fibers with approximately 3% fiber reinforcement, the fatigue of plain concrete was approximately increased by about 40% of the fatigue limit.

Yi (2004), [10]and his associates worked on cracks arresting mechanism of fiber reinforced concrete and showed that the stress intensity factor due to the fiber is extremely great at the moment the fiber just strides cross the cracks, which greatly reduces the stress intensity factor of FRC.

2.1 Brief Summary of Literature Review

Many researchers have been done on iron ore tailing as a partial replacement of sand with steel fiber and some have been done on copper ore tailing as a replacement of cement. But however there is no literature available on both replacements of iron and copper ore tailing for cement and sand. From this literature review we can observe that characteristic strength is considered safe up to 30% and water absorption decreases at 20% for copper ore replacement. Maximum compressive and split tensile strength were obtained for 25% of sand replacement by iron ore tailing.

CHAPTER 3

PROBLEM DEFINITION & OBJECTIVES

  1. Problem Context

Looks into on concrete for a very long time made numerous sorts of uncommon cement with improved properties that prompt the better exhibitions in basic application and make less harming impact the nature in their creation procedure. As bond is the fabricated constituent of cement there’s dependably an interest for cost reductive and successful substitution material. Late years have seen increment concern in regards to consumption of crude materials vitality request and ensuing condition harm. Moreover, sand as progress toward becoming panics and expensive because of diminishment in common sources. These worries have prompted more extensive use of concrete and sand trade materials and further scan for different less vitality using materials. A large portion of these mineral admixtures are modern result and considered as waste. Transfer of waste is another issue in the concerned business. The utilization of modern side-effect in concrete as mineral admixtures diminishes ozone depleting substance outflow, brings about naturally well-disposed cement and is by and large more prudent and sturdy than conventional Portland bond concrete.

3.1 Problem Definitions

In this experimental investigation, structural behavior of fiber reinforced concrete wii be studied with copper ore tailing and iron ore tailing as a partial replacement of cement by 0%,20, 35% and 45% and sand by 0%,35% and 45% respectively for M20 grade of concrete. To study the strength characteristics such as compressive strength split tensile strength and flexure strength. The results will be compared with normal mix.

 

 

 

 

3.2 Objectives

1. To study, in general, the physical properties of component material.

2. To study the strength properties like: Compressive strength of cube.

Split tensile strength of cylinders.

Flexural strength of beams.

3. To study the effect of copper ore tailings as partial replacement for cement with variation of 0%,20%,35% and 45%.

4. To study the effect of iron ore tailing on above mentioned properties as a partial replacement of sand with variation of 0%,35% and 45%.

To obtain the experimental result for the properties and analyzing the same concrete mix is arrived by IS method and is re-proportioned with a known optimal percentage replacement of copper ore tailing and iron ore tailing as cement and sand respectively with 1% of steel fiber in concrete. Use of steel fiber makes significantly improves flexural, impact and fatigue strength in concrete.

3.3 Methodology

  1.  My aim is to determine the characteristics of constituent materials, strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete produced by partial replacing cement by copper ore tailing and sand by iron ore tailing. Several experimental works are to be carried out. Here work study is laboratory oriented. Material such as copper ore tailing, iron ore tailing, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, steel fibers are needed. M20 grade concrete and required slump are to be chosen.
  2.  Collection of material and properties of the materials are to be studied.
  3.  Using the obtained properties, mix design is to carried out with suitable w/c ratio for M20 grade of concrete.
  4.  Required slump can be obtained experimentally by slump cone test and compaction factor test.
  5.  Concrete cubes of size 150 x 150 x 150mm, using copper ore tailing as partial replacement of cement, iron ore tailing as a partial replacement of fine aggregate and with 1% steel fiber will be cast to study the compressive strength of concrete. Then the cubes will be tested in compression testing machine.
  6.  Concrete cube specimens will be tested at 14 and 28day age, in hydraulic type compression testing machine.
  7.  Utilizing 150 mm by 300 mm chambers, copper mineral following as a fractional substitution of bond and iron metal following as an incomplete supplanting of fine total and with steel strands will be thrown to think about the split rigidity of cement. This example will be tried at 14 &28 days age in pressure driven write pressure testing machine.
  8.  Also, by using700x 150x 150mm size shafts shape, with fractional substitution of bond and sand by copper and iron metal tailings with 1% of steel strands and by giving 0.8% steel fortification bars are threw to ponder the flexural quality of cement. Here the bar example will be tried for 28days age in all-inclusive testing machine of 1000KN limit by single point stack strategy.
  9.  Using these test results suitable graphs are to be plotted.
  10. Conclusion are to be made based on the test results.

CHAPTER 4

CHARACTERIZATION OF CONSTITUENT MARERAILS

  1. Introduction

The materials used for the preparation of concrete in this investigation are as follows

  1. Ordinary Portland cement 43 grade.
  2. Course aggregate.
  3. Fine aggregate.
  4. Copper ore tailing.
  5. Iron ore tailing.
  6. Crimped steel fiber.
  7. Steel reinforcement.
  8. Water.

 

4.1 ordinary Portland cement 43 grade

Cement is a binding material in concrete with adhesive and cohesive properties and it is extremely fine grounded material.

The properties of concrete are much influenced with the properties of cement, therefore it is essential to know the properties of cement. To know the properties of cement, the following tests are conducted in the laboratory:

  1. Standard Consistency Test.
  2. Initial Setting Time.
  3. Final Setting Time.
  4. Specific Gravity.

43 grade ordinary Portland cement is used in the present investigation. The cement was tested for various physical properties according to IS: 4031-1988. The results are presented in the table 4.1.

Table 4.0 physical test results of RAMCO 43 grade cement

SL.NO. PHYSICAL TESTS OBTAINED RESULTS REQUIREMENTS AS PER IS CODES
01 Fineness 3.50% Not >10%as per IS 4013 part 1
02 Standard consistency 26% 4031 part 4
03 Initial setting time 34 minutes Not less than 30 minutes as per IS 4013 part 5
04 Final setting time 431 minutes Not more than 600 minutes as per IS CODE 4013 part 5
05 Specific gravity 3.10 IS 2730 part 3(3.15 generally assumed)

 

4.2 Coarse Aggregate

The material which is holding on BIS test strainer No.480 is named as coarse total. The broken stone is by and large utilized as coarse totals. Totals are imperative constituents and they constitute 75 to 80% of aggregate volume of cement. The idea of work chooses the most extreme size of the coarse totals. The totals to be utilized for bond solid work ought to be hard, strong and clean. The totals ought to be totally free from chunks of earth, natural and vegetable issues, fine clean and so on. The totals were gotten from the neighborhood quarry and the tests have been done to know the physical qualities like,

  1. Bulk density of compacted aggregate.
  2. Bulk density of loose aggregate.
  3. Specific gravity.

Table 4.1 Properties of coarse aggregate

Properties Results
Bulk density of compacted aggregate 1583 Kg/m3
Bulk density of loose aggregate 1680 Kg/m3
Specific gravity 2.70

Table 4.2 sieve analysis of coarse aggregate

SL NO. IS Sieve Weight retained in gms % weight retained Cumulative % weight retained Cumulative % passing Standard requirement for zone 2 as per IS 383:1970
1 20mm 121 24 24 97.61 85-100
2 12mm 4415 88.34 90.50 9.24
3 10mm 404 8.08 98.84 2.26 0-20
4 4.7mm 50 1 99.84 0.26 0-5
5 Pan

4.3 Fine Aggregate

Common water way sand which is locally accessible has been chosen for the work. The sand was tried for their physical trademark as indicated by the important IS coda provisions.

Table gives the point by point physical qualities of the sand which were acquired by directing trials in the research facility. Next table gives the determinations for evaluating zones for fine totals according to Seems to be: 383 – 1970

Table 4.3 Properties of fine aggregate

Properties Results
Bulk density of compacted aggregate 1420 Kg/ m3
Bulk density of loose aggregate 1720 Kg/ m3
Specific gravity 2.6

Table 4.4 sieve analysis of fine aggregate

SL NO. IS sieves Weight retained in gms % weight retained Cumulative % weight retained Cumulative % passing Standard requirement for zone 2 as per IS 383:1970
1 4.75mm 22 2.2 2.2 97.8 90-100
2 2.26mm 40 4 6.2 93.8 75-100
3 1.18mm 110 11 17.2 82.8 55-90
4 600p 230 23 40.2 59.8 35-59
5 300p 500 50 90.2 9.2 8-30
6 150p 72 7.2 97.4 2.6 0-10
7 Pan 30 3 100

4.4 Copper Ore Tailings

 

Copper metal tailings acquired from Raichur Thermal Power Station (RTPS), the examples have been gathered according to the gauges. Table gives the point by point physical qualities of the copper following, which were gotten by directing analyses in the research center. Table gives the properties of copper tailings.

Table 4.5 Physical Properties of copper ore tailings

Properties Results
Specific gravity 3.10
Fineness 7%
Standard consistency 27.1%

Table 4.6 chemical properties of copper ore tailings

Properties Results
Loss of ignition 2.19
Silica 71.52
Magnesium oxide 0.49
Calcium oxide 0.16
Aluminum oxide 13.96
Iron oxide 3.64
Potassium oxide 1.82
Sodium oxide 4.12
Titanium oxide 0.013
Copper oxide 0.32
Manganese oxide 0.072

4.5 Iron Ore Tailings

Press mineral tailings acquired from Raichur Thermal Power Station (RTPS), the examples have been gathered according to the models. Table 4.6 gives the definite physical attributes of the copper following which were acquired by directing tests in the research facility. Table gives the properties of copper tailings.

Table 4.7 Physical Properties of iron ore tailings

Properties Results
Specific gravity 3.1
Sand content 50%
color Brown

Table 4.8 sieves analysis of iron ore tailings

SL NO. IS Sieve Weight retained in gms % weight retained Cumulative % weight retained Cumulative % passing Standard requirement for zone 2 as per IS 383:1970
1 0.75mm 20 2 2 96.8 90-100
2 2.26mm 42 4.2 6.4 90 75-100
3 1.18mm 112 11 17 79 55-90
4 600 225 22.5 40.4 59.8 35-59
5 300 505 50.25 90 12.5 8-30
6 150 70 7 97.8 2.9 0-10
7 Pan 30 3 100

Table 4.9 Chemical composition of iron ore tailing

Constituent Results
Iron 19
Silicon dioxide 69
Magnesium oxide 0.20
Phosphorus 0.20
Aluminum trioxide 3
Sulphur 0.08
Titanic oxide 0.10
Calcium oxide 0.10
Magnesium oxide 0.16
Sodium oxide 0.06
Potassium oxide 0.04
Copper 0.003
Nickel 0.002
  1.  Steel Fiber

Shape of steel fiber used for the present project work is crimped type, which are available in two geometry-round and flat crimped steel fiber. Apart from round steel fiber is selected for casting of specimens. Crimped steel fibers are obtained from Majix steel fibers, Bombay (M & J international). The properties of steel fibers are shown below.

Table 4.10 properties of steel fiber

Tensile strength (ksi) 40-400
Young’s modulus 29
Ultimate elongation (%) 0.5-35
Specific gravity 7.8

4.6 Water

Clean consumable water accessible in the research facility according to IS 456:2000 was utilized for the assembling of cement; the water bond proportion decides the quality of cement. Water is an imperative element of concrete as it effectively partakes in the synthetic response with bond. One troublesome thing when planning is to decide the measure of water to be utilized to accomplish a decent quality in concrete with a higher droop one hour in the wake of clustering on the grounds that, the workability of the blend is controlled by a few factors, the measure of starting water, reactivity of the bond and its level of similarity with the specific concrete. In this trial work, normal faucet water accessible at lab was utilized for blending the solid and curing the solid example

 

CHAPTER 5

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

  1. Workability Test

5.1.0 Slump Cone Test

Test was done for deciding the workability of cement. The technique for testing was done according to IS 1199-1959. Steel packing pole of 16 mm in width, 0.6 m long and adjusted toward one side was taken. The inward surface of the shape was altogether cleaned and free from dampness and any set cement before starting the test. The shape is set on a smooth, even, inflexible and non-retentive surface (leveled metal plate). The form was held immovably while concrete is filled. The form was filled in four layers, each roughly one-fourth of the stature of the shape. Each layer was packed with twenty-five strokes of the adjusted end of the packing bar. The strokes were dispersed in a uniform way finished the cross-segment of the shape and in the second and ensuing layers. After the best layer is packed, abundance concrete was hit off and leveled with a trowel. The mortar spilled out between the shape and the base plate was cleaned. Presently the shape is expelled from the solid quickly by raising it gradually and precisely in a vertical heading. Droop was estimated (in mm) promptly by deciding the contrast between the tallness of the form and that of the most noteworthy of the solid example being tried. The activities were done at a place free from vibration or stun, and inside a time of two minutes in the wake of testing.

5.1 Strength Test

5.1.1 Compressive Strength Test

This test was done for deciding the compressive strength of concrete. The strategy for testing was done according to Seems to be: 516-1959. The amounts of concrete, fine and coarse totals, copper and iron metal tailings, steel filaments and water for each clump were weighed. Skillet write blender machine was utilized for blending the solid. Coarse total was first stacked into the drum (blender machine) trailed by bond and fine total and different fixings separately. The dry materials were blended for about a moment in dry state. Water was included into the drum and blended for around one moment. Shape molds of size 150x150x150mm complying with IS: 10086-1982 was utilized. A thin layer of oil to the form was connected with brush into the inside surface of the shape to avert attachment of the solid. The solid deliver was filled into 3D shape forms and vibrated utilizing a vibrating table. The test example were put away in a place, free from vibration, in soggy quality of no less than 90 percent relative mugginess and at a temperature of 27° ± 2°C for 24 hours ± V2 hour from the season of expansion of water to the dry fixings. After this period, examples were checked and expelled from the shape sand promptly kept inside water tank. Compressive quality trial of these examples were led on 7,14 and 28days.Compression testing machine of 200 tones limit was utilized for completing the test. Examples put away in water tank were evacuated and the surface water was wiped off and set in the testing machine. The compression strength corresponding to failure of specimen is calculated.

                                  Compressive Strength, fc = P/A

Where, fc= Cube Compressive strength in N/mm2

P=Cube Compressive load causing failure in N

A= Cross Sectional area of cube in mm2

5.1.2 Split Tensile Strength

To determine the tensile (direct) strength of concrete, cylinder specimens of size 150mm (dia) x 300mm (ht) are casted and are cured for 14 and 28 days. After curing the specimens are tested in the compression testing machine of 200 tones capacity by loading it on the longitudinal direction and by keeping cardboard strips just above and below the specimen as per IS :5816-1970. The split tensile strength corresponding to failure of the specimen is calculated using the formula:

                                      Split tensile strength as p= 2P/ πdl 

Where, p= split tensile strength of concrete in N/mm2

P= load at failure in N

d= diameter of the specimen in mm

l= length of the specimen in mm

CHAPTER 6

MIX DESIGN OF M20 CONCRETE

  1.  Introduction

The target of any blend proportioning strategy is to decide a suitable and practical mix of solid constituents that can be utilized for a first trial group to create a solid that is near what can accomplish a decent harmony between the different wanted properties of the solid at the most reduced conceivable cost. The genuine cost of cement is identified with the cost of materials required for delivering a base mean quality called trademark quality that is determined by the planner of the structure. It will dependably be hard to build up a hypothetical blend plan technique that can be utilized all around with any mix of Portland bond, supplementary cementations materials, any totals and any admixture in light of the fact that regardless of the way that every one of the segments of a solid must satisfy some institutionalized acknowledgment criteria, these criteria are excessively wide additionally, to a specific degree similar properties of crisp and solidified cement can be accomplished in various routes from similar materials. This circumstance must be seen as leeway; in light of the fact that in two unique areas a similar solid properties ‘can be accomplished contrastingly utilizing non-costly locally accessible materials. A blend proportioning technique just gives a beginning blend plan that should be pretty much changed to meet the coveted solid attributes. Regardless of the way that blend proportioning is as yet something of a craftsmanship, it is obvious that some fundamental logical standards can be utilized as a base for blend computations.

6.1 Mix Proportions

Configuration blend concrete is wanted to ostensible blend. Blend is planned after the stipulations set down in IS 456:2000 as for least bond content, most extreme water bond proportion and least grade of cement for different introduction conditions and rules. Blend is composed according to IS 10262:2009 – BIS technique for Mix Design.

6.1.1 Mix Design – Specimen Calculation (as per IS: 10262-2009)

Design Stipulations for Mix Proportioning

a. Grade designation — M20

b. Type of cement – OPC 43 grade, IS 8112

c. Max. Nominal size of aggregate – 20 mm

d. Minimum cement content – 320 kg/m3

e. Maximum water cement ratio – 0.55

f. Workability – 110 mm slump

g. Exposure condition — Severe (for reinforced concrete)

h. Degree of supervision — Good

i. Maximum cement content – 450 kg/m3

Design Procedure

Step 1: Target Strength of mix proportioning

fdz= fck+ 1.65 S

Where, fck= target average compressive strength at 28 days

fck= characteristic compressive strength at 28 days

S = standard deviation =5 N/min2

Therefore target Mean strength = 20+1.65 x5 = 28.25 N/mm2

Step 2: Selection of W/ C Ratio

From Table 5 of IS 456:2000, maximum water cement ratio = 0.55 (Severe exposure)

Adopting water cement ratio of 0.48

0.48< 0.55, hence ok

Step 3: Selection of water content

From Table 4.6, IS 456:2000 maximum water content = 186 kg (for 25 to 50 mm slump range) for 20 mm aggregate.

Estimated water content for 75 mm slump = 186 + 3/100 x186 = 191.58 It.

Step 4: Calculation of cement content

Water cement ratio = 0.48 Cement content = 192/0.48= 400 kg/m3>320 kg/m3(minimum cement content)

Step 5: Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate content

From Table 4.2 weight of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm size aggregate and fine aggregate (Zone II) for water-cement ratio of 0.50=0.62 As the water-cement ratio is lowered by 0.05, the proportion of volume of coarse aggregate is increased by 0.01 (at the rate of – / + 0.01 for every + 0.05 change in water-cement ratio).Therefore, corrected proportion of volume of coarse aggregate for Water-cement ratio of 0.48= 0.62

Step 6: Mix calculations

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows

a) Volume of concrete =1 m’

b) Volume of cement = (mass of cement/sp.gr. of cement) x (1/1000)

= (400/3.10) x (1/1000)

= 0.129 m3

c) Volume of water    = (191.58/1) x (1/1000)

= 0.1915 m3

e) Volume of all aggregates  = [a – (b + c + d)]

= 1- (0.129+ 0.1915)

= 0.679 m3

f) Weight of coarse aggregates = (e x volume of C.A x Sp. gr. of C.A) x 1000

= 0.679 x 0.62×2.70×1000

= 1136.64kg

g) Weight of fine aggregates = (e x volume of F.A x Sp.gr. of F.A) x 1000

= 0.679×2.6×0.38×1000

= 670.4kg

Step 7: Final mix proportions

Table 6.0 Mix proportion ratio

M20 grade of conventional mix proportion
Cement=                   400 kg/m3
fine aggregate=         670.4 kg/m3
Coarse aggregate=    1136.64 kg/m3
Water cement ratio= 0.48

Mix Ratio = C:FA:CA:W/C

Mix Ratio = 1:1.5:2.7:0.48

 

6.1.2 Details of Mix Proportion

Where,

C=cement

FA= Fine Aggregate

CA=Coarse Aggregate

COT=Copper Ore Tailings

IOT=Iron Ore Tailing

SF=Steel Fiber

Table 6.1 Mix Proportions Details

Sl No. Ratio Copper Dust Iron Replacement Of Sand Wt. of Cement  (Kg) Wt. Of COT (Kg) Wt. Of Sand (Kg) Wt. Of CA (Kg) Wt. Of IOT (Kg)
1 1:1.56:2.51 0 0 5 7.5 12
2 0 35 5 5.85 12 1.65
3 0 45 5 5.38 12 2.12
1 20 0 3.76 0.94 7.5 12
2 20 35 3.76 0.94 5.85 12 1.65
3 20 45 3.76 0.94 5.38 12 2.12
1 35 0 3.52 1.17 7.5 12
2 35 35 3.52 1.17 4.85 12 2.63
3 35 45 3.52 1.17 4.12 12 3.38
1 45 0 3.29 1.41 7.5 12
2 45 35 3.29 1.41 4.85 12 2.63
3 45 45 3.29 1.41 4.12 12 3.38

CHAPTER 7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

7.0 General

Here we can see the results of the present experimental investigation, in which hardened concrete results such as compressive strength, split tensile strength are noted. The results tabulated were analyzed by drawing graphs and discussed.

7.1 Compressive Strength Test

Compressive strength of cement blends made with ordinary cement and substitution of IOT and COT was resolved at 7,14 and 28days. The test outcomes are appeared in Tables 7.1 and 7.2. Cube Specimen was readied utilizing outline M20 solid blend with the substitutions. 3D square example of size 150*150*150 mm were thrown for M20 ordinary cement and M20 concrete with incomplete swap IOT for sand in 0%.35% and 45% and bond by COT in 0%,20%,35% and 45%. Nine 3D squares each were tried for each blend in a pressure testing machine according to Seems to be: 516-1975 for deciding compressive quality at 14 and 28 days of curing.

Table 7.0 Compressive Strength of M20 Grade Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement by Copper Ore Tailings and Sand by Iron Ore Tailings for 14 Days in N/mm²

SL NO. % Of Variation Of COT And IOT Ultimate Load (KN) Compressive Strength (N/mm2)  
1 0% COT and IOT +1% SF 26.17
2 0% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 35.2
3 0% COT and 45% IOT + 1% SF 32.58
4 20% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF 22.56
5 20% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 21.51
6 20% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 13.89
7 35% COT and 0% IOT + 1% SF 23.08
8 35% COT and 35% IOT+ 1% SF 20.50
9 35% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 10.06
10 45% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF 22.50
11 45% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 17.02
12 45% COT and 45 % IOT + 1% SF 8.56

Figure 7.1 and 7.2 Compressive strength of cubes for 14days test

From Graph it is observed that there is an increase in C.S @ 5% replacement leave. The % Increase in C.S is 10.4%

Table 7.1 Compressive Strength of M20 Grade Steel Fiber Reinforced with Partial Replacement of Cement by Copper Ore Tailings and Sand by Iron Ore Tailings Concrete for 28 Days in N/mm²

SL N0. % of Variation of COT and IOT Ultimate load (KN) Compressive strength (N/mm2) Average value (N/mm2)
1 0% COT and IOT+1% SF 27.08
2 0% COT and 35 % IOT +1 % SF 26.44
3 0% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 29.80
4 20% COT and 0% IOT+1% SF 21.02
5 20% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 26.67
6 20% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 26.91
7 35% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF 24.70
8 35% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 26.11
9 35% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 26.31
10 45% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF 19.71
11 45% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 24.83
12 45% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 25.74

Figure 7.3 and 7.4 Compressive strength of cubes for 28days test

 

 

 

Figure 7. 5 and 7.6 Compressive strength compression for 14 and 28days.

7.2 Split Tensile Test

Split elasticity of cement blends made with regular cement and supplanting of IOT and COT with 0.6% steel strands was resolved at 7,14 and 28days. The test outcomes are appeared in Tables. Barrel Specimen was readied utilizing outline M20 solid blend with the substitutions. Barrel example of size 150×300 mm were thrown for M20 traditional cement and M20 concrete with halfway substitution IOT for sand in 0%,35%% and 45% and bond by COT in 0%,20%,35% and 45%. Nine chambers each were tried by stacking it on the longitudinal heading and by keeping cardboard strips simply above and underneath the example according to ISS: 5816-1970.Determining split elasticity at 14 and 28 days of curing period.

Table 7.2 Split tensile strength of cylinder of M20 grade steel fiber reinforced concrete with partial replacement of cement by copper ore tailings and sand by iron ore tailings for 14 days.

SL.NO. % Of variation of COT and IOT Ultimate load (KN) Split tensile strength (N/mm2) Average value (N/mm2)
1 0% COT and IOT +1% SF 3.14
2 0% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 3.03
3 0% COT and 45% IOT + 1% SF 3.84
4 20% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF 1.59
5 20% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 2.23
6 20% COT and 45% IOT + 1% SF 1.67
7 35% COT and 0% IOT + 1% SF 1.43
8 35% COT and 35% IOT + 1% SF 2.01
9 35% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 1.43
10 45% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF 1.07
11 45% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF 1.89
12 45% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF 1.20

Figure 7.8 and 7.9 Split tensile strength of cubes for 7days test

From the graph it is observed that there is an increase in split tensile strength at 5% is 10.8%

Table7.3 Split tensile strength of cylinder of M20 grade steel fiber reinforced concrete with partial replacement of cement by copper ore tailings and sand by iron ore tailings for 28 days

Sl. NO % of variation of COT and IOT Ultimate load (KN) Split tensile strength (N/mm2) Average value (N/mm2)
1 0% COT and IOT +1% SF   3.22  
2 0% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF   2.80  
3 0% COT and 45% IOT + 1% SF   3.14  
4 20% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF   2.51  
5 20% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF   2.60  
6 20% COT and 45% IOT + 1% SF   3.40  
7 35% COT and 0% IOT + 1% SF   2.45  
8 35% COT and 35% IOT + 1% SF   2.55  
9 35% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF   3.07  
10 45% COT and 0% IOT +1% SF   3.46  
11 45% COT and 35% IOT +1% SF   2.49  
12 45% COT and 45% IOT +1% SF   2.81  

 

Figure 7.10 and 7.11 Split tensile strength of cubes for 28 days test

From the graph it is observed that there is an increase in split tensile strength at    5% is 11.06%

Figure 7. 12 and 7.13 Split tensile strength for 14 and 28days.

REFERENCES

  1. Ananthayya M.B, Premakumar W.P “Influence of steel fibers and partial replacement of sand by iron ore tailings on the compressive and splitting Tensile strength of concrete” international journal of civil engineering and technology volume 5, issue 3, march (2014), pp. 117-123
  2. PrahalladaM. C. Dr. Shanthappa B.C “Use of copper ore tailings – as an    excellent pozzolana in the preparation of concrete” international journal of advanced research in engineering and applied sciences vol. 3, no. 3, march 2014.
  3. ObinnaOnuaguluchi and ÖzgürEren“Rheology, strength and durability properties of mortars containing copper tailings as a cement replacement material” European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2013, 19–31
  4. ObinnaOnuaguluchi, “Copper tailings as a potential addictive in concrete: consistency, strength and toxic metal immobilization properties.” Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Vol.19, April 2012, pp 79-86.
  5. PrahalladaM.CShanmukaK.N“Stabilized Iron-ore Tailings Blocks An-   Environmental Friendly Construction Material”International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research (IJIEASR)ISSN: 2319-4413 Volume 3, No. 4, April 2014.
  6. Hong-zhen KANG, Kai-wu JIA and Wei-huaMA“Experimental Study on Compressive Strength and Elastic Modulus of Ferrous Mill Tailing Concrete”Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 6,may (2013), 123 – 128
  7. Sujing Zhao, Junjiang Fan, Wei SunbUtilization of iron ore tailings as fine aggregate in ultra-high performance concreteConstruction and Building Materials, Volume 50, 15 January 2014, Pages 540-548
  8. BlessenSkariah ThomasAlokDamareR.C.GuptaStrength and durability   characteristics of copper tailing concreteConstruction and Building Materials Volume 48, November 2013, Pages 894–900
  9. L. Zeghichi, “The effect of replacement of natural’s aggregates by slag products on   the strength of concrete” Asian journal of civil engineering (building and housing) vol. 7, no. 1 (2006) pages 27-35

ANNEXURES

 

 

 

 

ANNEXURE 1

 

PHOTOS

 



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