In recent years, there have high number of occupational death and injury to occur in warehouse. This number of occupational accident not only damage for worker. This also is a greatly affect the productivity of society. Follow the Government statistics result in 2005, there have HK$ 1.02 billion compensation to injury worker and their family.
This table are show the number of accident are decrease from 35,986 to 33,652 is decreasing compare with one year.
Furthermore in economic way, after accident are also affect team morale, feeling and productivity. Under the statistics result to find that about 1.7 million sick leave day after occupational accident to lead the economic loss. In individual way, not only physically damage for worker. In psychology way, are also needs to pay more time to recovery and step by step to build up their working feeling to improve the productivity.
To reduced the number of occupational accident and injury in warehouse and workplace. Need to evaluate and analyses more detail before setup the workplace. So that why we need to depend on Occupational safety and health management systems.
Apply technical simulation, research and analysis the normally cause of injury and accident from unsafe workplace, environment, insufficient safety facility, unsafety working behavior with worker. In Fig 2 are separate to three main industry field to make more easily to evaluate and make technical comparison and convenience to analysis the data to make some decision
Before to analysis and evaluate the cause of occupational accident. Firstly to study occupational guideline and review cause to evaluate the potential hazards in the existing or in progress workplace environment. In Fig 3 are show the potential hazards in site are damage to the worker. Cause the accident are the mild steel board are pressing to his leg.
Then organize the good safety and occupational management specific system for specific work place. This mean not all-occupational management system can fully satisfy for all warehouse and workplace.
But following the previous case, In real condition to analysis their right safety attitude and his working method from worker and operator is very difficult to know. So need to really understand specific workplace for different condition and different ways. For example: Occupational accident involves human, tools or machine and workplace. In human way, require knowing worker or employee working background, enough safety aware knowledge and operation experience for employer reference. Furthermore in external ways are also become factor to affect the employee working performance. It can include working duration; temperature, actual workplace, and rest time are really enough provide for employee to reduce mental fatigue. Try to study those following factors to establish for the occupational safety and health system for different working area.
Then to use this effective human and environment data to redesign or rearrange to reduce or prevent the occupational accident and improve the confident for their job.
Our goals have been try to really know the main cause depends on operator’s perspective and his working experience. Furthermore can apply this knowledge or experience to establish solid know base to prevent or reduce the occupational accidents in warehouse or industry field and improve to high standard of occupational and health in Hong Kong.
These aims of the final year project are introduce the occupational and management system in warehouse and to analyze this management system for some simulation approach.
1. To develop and set up a safety and health management system.
2. To determine the major cause of occupational accident in warehouse.
To satisfy the objectives, this report can divide into two parts. The first part is collect major data from our warehouse. The second part is using the result to improve the safety and health management for warehouse.
In the first part, we step by step to collect and research some data from the working location. We need to record the working behavior and observe their working process to analyze their working sequence. And then base on their working process to find out which working process will cause occupational accident. That following data I will collect from my part time job location in the garment warehouse. And I will develop the safety and management system to help for this warehouse to reduce number of accident.
This following data for case study will show into next part, such as causes of accident, working environment. For these case studies, warehouse supervisors and staffs are interview from survey Questionnaire. From this questionnaire will list number of possible cause can lead the occupational accident. The survey result will show in the following chapter.
This case study is divided into eight chapters and following the sequence to satisfy the project objective. Then will list the introduction of content.
Chapter One – Introduction
Chapter One is introduces the background, objective, aims and methodology of the case study in the listed chapter.
Chapter Two – Literature Review
Chapter Two will separate into six sections, in the first part will overview different type of stages of safety and health management system. System structure, simulation, and implementation.
Chapter Three – System Design
In chapter three will show my possible system design. Firstly to collect the real data, make some case analysis and use simulation software to simulate the cause of accident. The method will show in this following chapter.
Furthermore, the format of the survey questionnaire is shown in the below. Then the possible cause of accident will also list in the literature review. This purpose can fulfill the achievement for the objective. Which criteria of accident cause will choose more detail in this chapter and fulfill objective 1.
Chapter Four – Result Survey Questionnaire
Chapter four will list the following result and problem finding from the questionnaire. Depend on the serious mistake and then analysis the result. Then will present the survey result into this chapter. From the analysis result to calculate the mark and using statistical method to present which condition will easily to have occupational accident. This following result can satisfy the objective 2.
Chapter Five – Discussion
In Chapter five, It will group some similar data from each survey. According the relevant result or pattern of warehouse accident cause. After that to following the average to arrange the importance level from worker’s feedback. Next part of this chapter
Chapter Six – Conclusion
Chapter Six is the final chapter for evaluates the analyzing result. Depend on the result and develop the suitable occupational and safety management system for this warehouse to prevent accident to make worker injury.
This following aim for this chapter are show the literature review related for the occupational and safety health management system, cause of occupational accident for real case. Firstly to divide into two part. One part is Cause of warehouse occupational accident and next part is safety and health system.
As the cases are depend on various components and different situation will make different warehouse accident occurrence,
Moreover are included some tasks with workplace design, implementation, and outcome will be discussed.
In the next part, these purposes for make a summary for different types and possible accident in the warehouse and notice in the different literatures. Then will classify this possible cause, and make details revision for different cause to find out the cause of accident in warehouse.
2.2 Definition of Terms
2.2 Definition of Occupational Safety and Health Definitions
A definition of safety and health means in the working area with cross-disciplinary have safety facilities, protection, and health for the worker. The goal is provide the safe working environment for all occupational fields.
The purpose is protecting for the employer, employee, client, and worker’s family, supplier, public and community work by the work place. Such as public health field, occupational medicine, ergonomics, industrial field in production factory, warehouse, construction site.
2.3 Definition of Safety and Health Management System
Occupational safety and health management system is integration management method to reduce risk in work place.
It followed safety guidelines and reassigns this process need to teamwork support and management leadership to monitor the status.
Depend on different business organization to form based conclusions and various results. And require higher usage rate of the safety and management system than type selected. It should be provide good atmosphere for implement the occupational safety and health to implement and practices.
2.4 Structure of Safety and Health Management System
Structure of Safety and Health Management System are divide into SIX main criteria is Planning, Developing, Organizing, Implementing, Measuring and Reviewing.
Planning is procedure to evaluate which criteria should be to complete. Firstly to classify which safety and health task should be suitable to apply in warehouse and use relevant Safety and Health Management Regulation. Then will accord sequence for the safety and health object to design and achieve that. Furthermore need accomplish this safety object may be lead to arise the financial and usage of resource.
Secondly, for the management team need to determine the initial stage to analysis for existing safety and health system to make are some lay outs. Then will make some estimation to define the priorities of working process for risk management control and hazard reduction. After will setup the standards for the system outcome. Later should be make regular status assessment to analysis for the safety and health system in the daily process.
Additionally, there are detail to show how to define the initial status analysis, regular analyses and risk estimation is shown as follows –
a) Initial status analysis
This is a measuring step to find out exist job location are focus the importance of the safety and health business for the initial in the warehousing in progress. It should be first time to setup done in the safety management system depend on the proprietor of the working process.
Furthermore, the employer should provide enough facility to worker for the Safety Management Regulation properly.
b) Regular status analyses
After operate initial status analysis, employer need to keep regularly applying the improving safety and health management system in warehouse continuously. The safety officer or supervisor should be classify the scope and regularly to apply assessment for analysis to be following:
~ The problem findings / safety and health management system revision
~ Introduce usage the new technology
~ Rearrange in management of organizational structure.
c) Risk Estimation
This aims for planning task, risk estimation is apply to test and establish the data file for overall risk in warehouse operation Then the problem findings will apply into the formula to create the risk reduce strategy, assign the safety and health object and set up the performance standards and object priorities.
Basic procedure in risk estimation include as follow:
1) Classify of potential hazards
This is procedures of classify all-important and potential hazards are related into working process and need to concern the damage of the user.
2) Evaluation for risk
This is the procedure of the evaluation for specific subject of risk with every potential hazard that suppose each facility are in control in workplace, and decide the effective task and the result of their failure.
Then need to concern if the risk assessment have some tolerance, if the tolerance occur, the supervisors need input into record which in or out of the statutory standard are also need to transform to international approve standards. If the risk can met or lower for the suitable level that will take it into tolerance counted.
After the potential risk evaluation, there is elimination and reduction task to classify and for control purpose:
i) Setup safety and health process and potential control standard
The safety and health process should be no tolerance during the developing.
ii) Maintenance and Carry out the safety and health process
It should be appropriately to support and implement the Safety and health process and risk control. In the other hand, risk management control should be kept in effective.
iii) Review of safety procedures and risk control measures
Regular review is necessary for safety process and risk control. Need to be keeping in suspect way check the system isn’t in function. When the critical change occurs is also related.
After the risk assessment will discuss into next part.
3) Assign person for implementation
The safety officer or supervisor needs to select a reliable staff
or worker to implement analyses in progress and risk assessment.
This reliable person should have:
(a) Make sure this person should be keeping the system in progress.
(b) Provide a technical training course and practice to earn the management experience.
This is a process to how to achieve the safety and health management system
1) Following this status, the warehouse supervisor need to be clearly explain approval safety and health policy and document with specific objective in the initial planning status and make sure that policy involve this following agreement :
i) To accomplish a high quality standard of safety and health to promise to
met minimum requirements and regular to practice to keep in high
ii) The first line supervisor should be have primary responsibilities to create the occupational safety and health system to keep in progress.
iii) Offer enough resource to carry out the system
iv) Make sure acquaintance, maintenance the system, carry out the system for each level of management system.
v) Ensure each worker can provide sufficient safety knowledge and training to work for their job and responsibilities.
vi) Provide the regular review the management system.
2) Implement the safety and health system by the supervisors should be provides and arranges effective management planning for specific objective.
i) Distinctly direction to lead to supervisor and manager cooperate with worker to achieve the specific target of the safety and health management system.
This safety and health management system should be setup in the industrial and warehouse undertaking for first line management team, collect opinion and more helpfully for safety and health individually. All worker and different grade of manager should be participating for each stage of safety and health system. Not fixed format of the safety plan for how detail and pattern.
Furthermore, the plan should be describe the policy of the safety plan, specific objective and which level of standard can be accomplish, measuring level. Then the key point should be set it out:
a) Fully preparation for supervises the management plan to be success.
b) Apply the management system should be implement and well prepare each component into industrial field.
c) The responsibilities should be properly to assign into safety and health system.
For necessary use, it should be include safety guidebook, method statement, and safety manual. Every level of managers, supervisors and worker should clearly understand the plan and their duty and focus in implementation. Developing the effective sharing system in structure.
Lastly, safety and health plan need to fixed period to revise or review to improve the system more effective.
This is a communication and sharing procedure of the relationship between user and resources control in the working structure to complete their goal. The proprietor should be mention for relevant industrial is needed:
i) Fully synthesized in the industrial field and apply into each process by
different size of jobs.
ii) Appropriate to provide enough money and can suitable fit the company
size and characteristic for policy in progress should be suitable to
developing and maintaining the parts of the safety and health
iii) It should be organize by have industrial field experience staff to set up
and provide practice more efficient and effectively.
To from a similar industrial field
iv) To assigned responsibilities of safety and health for each staff.
iv) To assign the operation for the safety member, a safety
department/unit/group (“safety officer” means a person employed as a safety officer in an industrial undertaking under the Factories)
vii) Need to offer authority to implement their safety and health responsibilities
viii) Make a meeting to sharing the occupational and safety and health information more effectively.
This is the process of carrying out or applying the practice and training into accomplish the specific purpose. Make sure that have enough manipulate and applicable control for the performance followed in the management plans.
Follow this step, the employer of a relevant industrial field is needed:
i) To evaluate and carry out the plan to classify the risk and then can fulfill
the legal standard as well to mention the safety management.
ii) Need to provide enough monitoring and make sure that plan can
effectively to carry out.
iii) Well prepare and keep providing adequate documentation work to
record and keep checking the management progress in the work place.
iv) Well design the emergency system plans for special situation and keep it
system into critical precedence.
This is a process for checking the management system performance to against legal standard to let them know where has potential risk need to control and improve.
Furthermore to let them know which objective can fulfill the objective or not. In this measuring part, this part will derive the “feedback system” for this stage for system development and implementation and then to enhance ability of the system maintain to reduce the risk and continues keep it efficiency. Following this stage, the proprietor of an industrial field is needed:
i) to implement the monitoring review, such as, hardware inspections (for example : machine, plant and building) and software inspections (such as : human, working process and working system),
ii) Especially for supervisors, team leader have responsibilities to compactly monitor the performance of the safety and health management system
iii) To implement the monitoring of the potential hazard management control, such as supervise of occupational accident, health display demonstrator and near misses.
iv) To make decision for the immediate situation of performance and classify the potential causes and to involve for the system design and system operation of the safety and health management.
v) To correct whichever situation identified during in the monitoring and checking process.
vi) During the observation procedure to develop and carrying out status to continuously to get the opinion information to improve the safety and health management system in working operation.
These mean to implement to estimate performance in regular monitoring of safety and health management system. Auditing is construct the “feedback system”into planning stage which to enhance, maintain and establish more effectively to prevent the risk occurs.
In addition, the information sharing and flowing into the planning, developing implementing and maintenance stages. In the other hand, reviewing stage also can make sure that working process be correct of the safety and health management system.
Following this reviewing stage, the employer of warehouse field is needed:
i) To periodic a safety auditor or safety officer to regularly present safety audits review with sections 13 or 19 of the Safety Management Regulation.
ii) To setup facilities, safety information for the safety officer review proposes of safety regular evaluate according sections 14 or 20 of the Safety Management Regulation
iii) When safety review assessment hand-in to take the appropriate action, such as design the safety and management plan improvement and carrying out the management system in sections 16 and 22
iv) Regularly to receive the opinion information from the safety assessment and audit for modify the planning, developing, organizing and implementing stages to step by step to improve the safety and health management system in working procedure.
Safety and Health management system model can be diagram summarized for the following:
to develop, implement and maintain a safety management system
Fig.4 Safety and Health Management Structure Model
Chapter Three – System Design
In chapter three will show my possible system design. Firstly to collect the real data, make some case analysis and use simulation software to simulate the cause of accident. The method will show in this following chapter.
3.1 SAFETY CONCEPT
The purpose of this section to make a basic introduction of the safety system concept and indicate some methods by different potential hazard can be produce. This is very important for the system users and system maker of the safety simulation to clearly know the concept of safety and expect which type of risks are show in the simulation. As you know, there are no fully dependable way to prevent hazard during the working process of safety and health system.
Safety concepts difficult for each people fully understand. But we can also say liberty for working place situation can make body damage, death, tools and equipment damage. So we try to develop the safety system to make safe completely, but sometime design safety system is need to concede system performance and function for some design change.
If we following to apply the system into warehouse, the safety system to be effective, but the system are also have some remnants of risk can need accept. After that will be have more interrelate with external condition, then the remnants if risk will need to keep going to solve from safety system. It reminds that no any system can fully to prevent all the risk from safety system, no matter what the system is really outstanding can manage external condition and worker actions are also cannot perfectly to reduce all accident in warehouse.
On the other hand, if insert too many of safety characteristic into safety system may be affect the original goal for the warehouse. The level of safety function is needed to concede based on the level of accident.
The potential hazard caused by the people, tools and equipment and working condition are mixed together to make a possible to occur. Such as, a potential hazard apply in normal procedure, but the working area are existing a number of worker will cause high hazard for the worker.
3.2 System design lay out
Fig 5 The Safety System
In this warehouse environment, this is mixed system that includes people, working process, workplace, and product. There also are important criteria for this process. That complicated system is involving high frequency of interaction with external working environment.
This system can apply into different way of workplace to define number of potential risk. Contrarily, we can apply the result and data to demonstrate and analysis the number of potential hazards. Then apply this system to prevent and reduce the high potential risk.
3.3 Basic Accident Mode
Accident is an unexpected event during in working process that also causes unexpectable damage for worker, destroy the production process, and may be loss the life during the process. Furthermore, we find that result basically in control mechanisms, potential hazards, working exposure and beginning of implementation, that following long chain criteria to from accident.
In unsophisticated way can define that has potential hazard situation, then to start implement the event, that following the event order to acquire the result form accident. In real situation, that potential risk is existing, but we can control by a number of confirmative control mechanisms.
Fig 6 Basic Accident Mode
In the accident model way the accident appears in accident model way, this means the control mechanisms are failure. The model of Basic Accident had shown in Fig 6.
Later will present more complicated model with number of accident chains with different potential risk situation to pass through and number of control mechanisms by passed when the accident appear.
There is the complicated model to show in basic accident mode and try to indicate the point during into the number of effect in accident control to analysis to prevent the chance of accident appearing.
Fig 7 Loop of Accident Feedback
Figure 7 present the loops of feedback and identify what is suitable way to manage the safety and health system. After we receiving this opinion and according this follows mechanisms to classify for the information system for safety purpose. And each criteria insert into accident chain and is a chance to indicated the potential risk, reported the accident details and apply the control mechanisms to reduce the unsafe and potential hazard.
The function of loop A is provide the minimum requisition for safety system and construct the accident reports to show the details and unwanted incidents. But this posting may not actually to prevent in the initial accident and not sometime to make a good effect to avoid the accidents occur in the future for insert into the statistical analysis to solve the system of safety and health management issue.
The loop B is normally lower frequency to carry out and open-heart and regularly to report of dangerous acts. There are the precursors for the accident, Loop B can assign for the safety control.
Loop C and Loop D are commonly more operative and apply for the proactive safety and health management and for classify potential hazard circumstances in the early status during in the chain. That following significant concept is suitable for simulation condition, and partly cause for technical accidents.
Two important fail identification applied in active and latent in the basic concept in this model. Beginning the design, establish and operate the safety and health simulation system.
A. There is meaning of the mistake or to contravene will have contrary effect immediately. These active failures are normally to relate into the worker activity during in the safety and health management system. These modes of active failures are not famous to apply into the system during into decision making in not approval.
B. On the other hand, there is some decision-making and some operation which to make the condition without immediate reaction. They create this condition will to hibernate in long period of time till to touch off the action when the accident to appear. These means the latent failures are famous able to apply for the system from the operator to take out from the operation immediately.
3.4 Potential Hazard management and control flow
When a number of risk and hazard occur can be to calculate for reduce, prevent and easily to control. Figure 8 plates in a risk identify method process. It clearly to show that can fully satisfy the requirement to reduce and prevent the hazard appears from the system design, but if cannot satisfy for different criteria to manage the potential hazard. There are following ways had be provide, provide the system training for the system users and setting the warning system for notice the users.
Fig 8 Hazard preventable Flowchart
However, if can classify the potential risk can be maximize to eliminated and to spread the possibility for long remain. These can transfer the remnant risk to safety and health system operator for control.
Fig 9 Change of Remnant and Unclassified hazard
As shown the diagram 9, the remnant risks are mixed into classified hazard which to consider that acceptable. Then the cognitive risks are transfer to users, they indicate for them to manage the document and link up to users.
3.5 Criteria FOR SIMULATION SAFETY
This is a large size of safety and health guideline for applies into the simulation area.
a) The judgements and care the safety and health simulation by authorized people.
b) Provide safety support and safety advice in working place and other working area.
c) Through latent and active failures to introduce in the comprehensive condition.
d) Comprehensive working environments can advise their working area have owned potential risk as simulation the sickness and prevent the negative training.
e) Need to mention the software and resources to reapply for new system and other new working objective.
f) When issue the simulation need to concern the backgrounds of workers can select their different safety attitudes and standards, and safety technique level. It can prevent the hazards during the safety simulation system.
Fig 10 Life Cycle System
The capability system can operated and progress through the life cycle and therefore included five phases. This process in the beginning stage for classify from new capability and obtain from proceeds, services support.
Then the safety simulation needs to concern the life cycle for system complete. Under the safety and health system are need to prepare the life cycle of the simulation system.
3.6 Key of Safety control
The simulation life cycle are processing are involved a number of tasks. When processing the system is need to planning in the beginning stage for test and analysis activities. Apply this safety and health management system is demand to passing through all existing stage of simulation life cycle. Furthermore, also have number of safety and health management activities are also involve for different phase of a life cycle system are shown in Fig 10.
And detail define total safety and health management events are need to documented information, and involve a number of management activities are applying independently. Then will applied in unfailingly method is passing through to organization. Following the pre-determined planing of the safety and management activities to present the systematic format.
Fig 11 Safety Activity for each Life Cycle stage
Safety Activity to be involved the Life Cycle stage
|Stage 0||Stage 1||Sage 2||
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