Table of Content
2.Literature review …………………………………………………………………………….
2.1 Major problems and obstacles ……………………………………………………………..
2.1.1. Insufficient consumer demand for green buildings………………………………..
2.1.2. Materials have high cost and technique have low level……………………………
2.1.3 Some negative market phenomenon affects the choice of developers……………..
2.2 Some discussions about known effective methods to improve green building markets…
2.2.1 Policies support……………………………………………………………………..
2.2.2 Developing Green Life Cycle Costs for the Construction of LEED Systems……
2.2.3 Improve the brand image and brand value of green buildings……………………
2.2.4 Increase public awareness of environmental protection…………………………….
2.2.5 Improve Green Skills…………………………………………………………………
3.1 Research method of qualitative anlaysis…………………………………………………
3.2 Research method of questionnaire survey……………………………………………….
3.3 Discussion on ethical issues……………………………………………………………………
Interim report of a study of improving green building market incentive systems
In past proposal report, this research has mainly focused on the consumers’ willingness to purchase green buildings for providing advises and useful information to the policies of governments and marketing. The original intention of studying this direction is because after investigation and research, it is found that the concept of green building still belongs to a new idea and idea in the consumer’s intention to purchase a house. However, consumers’ misconceptions about green buildings often influence the developer’s strategy and the construction market’s assessment and prediction of green buildings (Hostetler & Noiseux, 2010). Therefore, the mechanism for investigating the purchase of green buildings by consumers is to analyze which factors become the constraints and major factors for consumers to purchase green buildings, which can influence developers in formulating strategies and investment construction processes and provide a guiding opinion for the green building market.
However, considering only focusing on the perspective of the customer, the study of green building marketing would be underestimated and have over strong subjectivity, this is because the group of customers which easily generate group and following psychology, is not presented as professional individuals for assessing and providing accurate marketing information for green building. As a result, the next research will research from multiple perspectives, including governments, relevant enterprises, developers, clients and media for establishing effective model to provide effective information to promote incentive system of green building marketing.
This interim report focuses on discussing literature review and research method for next research.
In below literature review, this report will demonstrate some existing problems and deficiencies in current stage. Mainly including consumers’ lack of demand for green building, low level and high cost of existing materials and technologies, some negative market phenomena affecting developers’ choices. Through the discovery of problems, this report explores how to improve and discuss the improvement of the green building market based on known issues.
In addition, some existing researches and what has known in current stage concerning this topic will be discussed. It mainly includes the government’s policy support, establishing a green building life cycle to reduce costs and raising public awareness of environmental protection and energy conservation.
Moreover, this interim report will give some suggestions for these issues for the next phase of the study. Mainly including the establishment of a model, considering how to promote the development of the green building market from multiple perspectives.
On the other hand, the main research method would be giving for the next research. This study will use qualitative analysis and questionnaire survey. In this part, some effective and specific design for questionnaire survey will be shown. In the interim report, the main purpose of describing research methods is for indicating and explaining the research aim an purpose of the researcher in next stage of study.
2.1 Major problems and obstacles
It is not easy to establish a series of effective measures to promote the development of the green construction market. This is because the researchers need to consider multiple perspectives due to many aspects will have a profound impact on the green building market and a chain reaction, such as the government’s implementation of policies, the risk assessment of green buildings by developers, and the improvement of green building construction materials and the development of design by companies, the willingness of consumers to purchase green buildings, and the evaluation and promotion of green building by online media. Therefore, in these complex and diverse perspectives, there are many problems that are worthy of attention and discussion for giving suggestion of improving green building market.
2.1.1 Insufficient consumer demand for green buildings
There are some reasons concerning the willingness of consumers which affect the development of green building market.
First of all, green building market will be rapidly promoted in the urban construction because cities are the areas where the population is most concentrated. However, the basic conditions of the lager number of big cities are: the serious state of traffic congestion; the unbalanced distribution of urban infrastructure and the supporting facilities such as work, life, and school. There are quite different in different areas of the city. According to Liu (2012) demonstrated some main factors about analysis of consumers’ willingness in Beijing that the consumers mainly consider the traffic conditions of the building, the surrounding infrastructure factors, the surrounding environment, and whether it is convenient for them to go to school during the stage of considering the location factor of the apartment. It is not an important reference factor for them to consider as to whether the building itself is green and energy-efficient.
Secondly, consumers’ “green ideas” are relatively weak and they are skeptical of green buildings on the market. Luo, Kanzaki and Matsushita (n.d) indicated that at present, the government and relevant social organizations have a serious shortage of publicity and promotion of green building concepts and basic knowledge. Consumers generally have weak “green ideas” such as energy saving, water saving, land saving, material saving, environmental protection, and ecology when purchasing houses. At the same time, false propaganda and excessive publicity by many real estate developers have caused consumers to have a skeptical attitude towards green buildings, and they are not willing to pay more for green buildings.
Thirdly, in many developing countries and regions, the incentive mechanism for consumers to purchase green buildings has not been effectively formed. Liu (2018) pointed out that in many developing countries, some green buildings related policies and laws are not perfect, leading to a lack of incentives for the purchase of green buildings. Specifically, the high cost of green buildings results in much less pollution to the ecological environment than in traditional buildings. However, traditional buildings generate a lot of pollutants during the process of construction and operation but they are not charged by the relevant departments. Therefore, consumers often did not care these penalties which caused environment contamination.
In consequently, it can be seen that when formulating incentive system for green buildings, it is necessary to focus on how to effectively stimulate consumers’ purchase of green buildings at the demand side of green buildings. This is a key prerequisite for solving the problem of insufficient effective demand for green buildings and promoting green buildings.
2.1.2 Materials have high cost and technique have low level
In the process of construction of green buildings, the company always need to require higher construction costs for scientific design, environmentally friendly materials as well as advanced technologies and skills which could achieve “green” goals to be extended. However, for some developing countries, green building costs and skills are fundamental obstacles to the development of green buildings. The technical standards, equipment materials and methods for the development of green buildings are still at a stage of development, and large-scale promotion will take some time. According to Zou, Zhao and Zhong (2017) indicated that the promotion of green building design, construction and other related technical standards system is still not perfect. The green building project is still in the demonstration stage. Insufficient supply of green building-related equipment and materials. At the same time, energy-saving technologies are one of the key technologies for the development of green buildings such as building energy systems (mainly heating, air-conditioning and lighting systems). It is inconvenient to implement the system, practical and economical control and temperature control.
In addition, Lapinski, Horman, and Riley (2006) showed that green building project teams often find it difficult to achieve “green” standards in construction projects and may therefore result in additional construction costs. Although the “investment” of high-performance building functions can alleviate this situation, the project delivery methods currently adopted by most teams are full of process waste.
The LEED (Energy and Environmental Design Leadership) LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), the most recognized worldwide framework for building environmental assessment, it provides the world with a framework for creating healthy, efficient and cost-effective green buildings. Many buildings are often unable to meet the standards of the system during construction and operation. This is affected by many factors. According to Onuoha, Aliagha, and Rahman (2018), in some developing countries, especially in Southeast Asia, there is also a lack of technical and material basis for large-scale promotion of green buildings, in addition, research on green building development and investment is very limited. Developed countries reduce green building costs by providing a large number of green building incentives, and develop advanced green building skills in design, construction, maintenance, and technology in terms of energy efficiency, water efficiency, and material utilization efficiency. And their construction department cannot respond positively to changes in the market, lacking incentives to improve their skills. As the ILO pointed out, due to changes in demand, there is a shortage of skills in the green building sector. The previously satisfactory skills no longer meet the current requirements of green buildings.
Therefore, in the process of considering the low level of technology and capabilities, the adoption of policy incentives is often to promote the effective role of the green building market.
However, Morris and Matthiesen (2007) did not agree with these views. Their research using the green star rating and sustainable building certification system showed that in Australia, the construction cost of 5-star solutions increased by 3-5%. The 6-star non-signature building increased by 5%. Moreover, Kim and Greene (2014) showed that compared with the traditional buildings that integrated the green system to increase the building cost by 10.77%, they even found that the construction cost increased more. The cost of building a LEED-certified Silver rating building is approximately 1-5% of the total cost of the underlying project.
In conclusion, it is unavoidable that increasing cost of construction. Therefore, this cost factor causes the price of green buildings to be higher than that of traditional buildings, and thus does not have a price advantage in the construction market. How to further circumvent this shortcoming is the reason for further discussion. For example, from the perspective of the government to provide subsidies to increase the ecological tax, or from the perspective of developers to open up the green building market, start the brand effect and so on.
2.1.3 Some negative market phenomenon affects the choice of developers
The effect of “bad money driving away good money” led real estate developers to have no incentive to develop green buildings. According to Liu (2012) explained that, there exist some phenomenon in Beijing’s green building market. If some real estate developers may actually carry out real estate development and construction according to green building standards, then green building is used as a selling point of advertising marketing to increase sales of homes, while other real estate developers see that “playing green building cards” can promote real estate sales. Therefore, the non-green buildings that were developed by themselves were also promoted as green buildings. This would not only save the incremental cost of green building development, but also promote real estate sales performance. As a result, more and more real estate developers will follow suit. The non-green buildings that were developed advertised as green buildings in advertising campaigns and conducted false propaganda to mislead consumers into buying houses. Due to the serious information asymmetry between buyers and sellers in the housing sales market, consumers cannot identify real green buildings and falsely advertised green buildings. As a result, consumers are skeptical about the green construction promoted by the developers and they are reluctant to Buy green buildings at higher prices. The result of this game in the real estate development market is that for real estate developers with false propaganda, they will not be punished for false propaganda and they will be able to obtain the benefits of false propaganda. As a result, there will be more and more real estate development. Businesses falsely advertise that they are developing green buildings; for developers who are really developing green buildings, they have to bear the increased costs of developing green buildings, and they cannot get the incremental benefits of developing green buildings (because consumers cannot identify whether they are Green buildings are never willing to pay a higher purchase price, so developers who develop green buildings will become less and less. The above game results in the “bad money driving away good money” effect. Developers are reluctant to develop real green buildings, and false propaganda develops more and more green buildings, which leads developers to have no incentive to develop green buildings.
2.2 Some discussions about known effective methods to improve green building markets
2.2.1 Policies support
It is necessary to encourage relevant government departments to issue relevant incentive measures and building regulations to promote the development of green building markets. Runde and Thoyre (2017) demonstrated that the impact of green building policies, including rebates, financing, and tax incentives, which cause some effects on the green building market. According to their research, some government incentives and rebates have shortened the cost gap between traditional commercial buildings and green commercial buildings. Specifically, various incentive plans can be used to increase energy efficiency and save energy. Among them, the largest proportion of renewable resources are saved, mainly including resources of water and electronic. To be more specific, some equipment will be used and improved, such as solar energy, photovoltaic (PV), geothermal equipment, solar hot water equipment, and other green building certified other equipment. They pointed that the United States has also established the National Renewable Energy and Efficiency Rewards Database (DSIRE), a database of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies and incentive programs in each state. In addition, local governments at all levels in the United States provide some direct financial incentives and indirect fiscal incentives to support the operation of the green building market. Direct financial support includes tax rebates, tax reductions, grants, and financing plans; indirect fiscal measures mainly include accelerating approval plans. And density bonuses. Finally, they pointed out that in assessing the value of the real estate market, real estate tax relief and other tax implications are also included in the assessment process. Other technologies are also qualified to receive such support. These technologies can minimize credit and taxation.
Shazmin, Sipan, Sapri, Ali and Raji (2017) explained that government involvement has always been considered an effective way to stimulate the development of green buildings. The local government provided two types of incentives to encourage the development of green buildings, namely financial incentives and structural incentives. Financial incentives are related to property support, such as property tax assessments, grants, and development costs. On the other hand, structural incentives provide technical support such as marketing, technical assistance, expedited license processing and density bonuses. According to Shazmin Sipan, and Sapri (2016), fiscal incentives, especially property tax assessment incentives, have been included in several Spanish, Romanian, Italian, Bulgarian, US, Canadian, Malaysian, and Indian versions. Widely used in federal countries such as tax exemptions, deductions and rebates. In addition, the practice of providing property tax assessment incentives for green buildings has been empirically proven by several researchers to encourage the development of local green buildings. These incentives were developed on the basis of four established benchmarks, including specific assessments of the increase in the property tax assessed for green buildings, the cost of the green portion, the tax rate for property tax assessment, and the level of green certification.
However, Cansino, Pablo-Romero, Román, and Yñiguez (2011) pointed out that these incentive policies require local governments to bear considerable implementation costs. Only governments with strong financial capabilities can reasonably respond to this measure; otherwise, these measures will be affected. Restrictions on budgetary constraints. Therefore, supporting the green industry will become a constraint factor for local governments’ financial capacity.
Based on the research and evaluation of the two parties’ views, this report finds that government incentive measures are important factors in promoting the green building market. These incentive factors mainly include tax support, technical support, and fiscal incentives. However, this is also a limiting factor because the government The low financial capacity will affect the implementation of this measure. At the same time, the implementation of this measure will also affect the government’s financial capacity.
Therefore, in the process of promoting policies, the government should make use of its own administrative advantages. First of all, it should implement related policies in public buildings, and it can stipulate that the public sector adopt green building materials and provide more market opportunities and technologies for green industries. In addition, the government can formulate a series of evaluation criteria. According to Kuo, Lin, and Hsu (2016), due to the differences in geographical and economic conditions of the region, local conditions should be adapted to improve the standards of green buildings, and they can choose to implement incentive policies in the suitable areas. According to Onuoha, Aliagha, and Rahman (2018), the government’s ability to motivate green products has attracted investors to provide green buildings.
2.2.2 Developing Green Life Cycle Costs for the Construction of LEED Systems
It is widely known that reducing the cost of life cycle construction will increase the competitiveness of green buildings in the market.
Many people think that green buildings are not worth buying because they are expensive and not worth the additional cost. According to the explanation of Kats, Alevantis, Berman, Mills, and Perlman (2003), this statement was accurate under the past construction level, but this view is wrong now. Together with the U.S. Green Building Council, they developed more than 100 pages of analysis reports for more than 40 California agencies on the cost and economic benefits of green buildings under the LEED system. In their research report, they showed that the cost of designing and building green buildings is more than 2% lower than that of traditional buildings at present, the level of this cost is far lower than people generally think. And, more importantly, the economic benefits far outweigh the increased costs. This economic benefit can reduce energy, water, and waste costs, lower mobile costs, reduce operating and maintenance costs, increase productivity, and improve the health of occupants. According to their calculations, green buildings will continue to show such excellent economic benefits during the construction life cycle and will gradually become more apparent as time passes. According to their estimates, the initial investment is about US$100,000, and the LEED green building function (which accounts for less than 2% of the US$5 million for the green building project) is included in the life cycle cost savings of up to US$1 million. In 20 years, it is ten times more than the initial investment. the above. In addition, Lee, Syphers, Rasmussen and Scott (2000) showed in a study that the use of the LEED system in the construction of three green buildings in Portland can save energy efficiency of 15%, water efficiency and material use efficiency.
In addition, the LEED (Energy and Environmental Design Leadership) label green building averages 25% to 30% energy savings over traditional buildings. The economic benefits of green buildings include higher sales/rental premiums, higher occupancy and productivity, and lower long-term costs (Choi, & Miller, 2011).
It can thus be seen that planning and construction of a green life cycle green building using the LEED green building assessment system in the initial stage of its design can continue to save costs during the life cycle, especially during the long-term operation period, rather than relying on the previous construction. In the process of energy conservation and environmental protection or in the short term rely on some incentives to increase revenue. In detail, the sources of cost savings are mainly energy, waste water recycling and management, cost savings and health costs in the operations and maintenance phases.
However, according to Kim and Greene (2014) explained that in modern cities, developers often cannot enjoy the continuous cost return that the entire construction life cycle brings to them, because they often play the role of a middleman. In other words, they obtain the land for construction. After the sale to the owner, the building was separated from the building relationship, and economic benefits were not obtained again. The return on the cost of this green value was indirectly transferred to the owner. Therefore, how to make the owner accept the green building instead of traditional Buildings, making them more aware of environmental protection and energy conservation, thus supporting this kind of green building with higher initial cost, become more critical.
2.2.3 Improve the brand image and brand value of green buildings
Establishing a reasonable market strategy is an important factor in enhancing the competitiveness of green buildings in the market. As a result, establishing the correct brand image of green buildings and enhancing their brand values and green features are the main methods for promoting the development of green buildings.
This article summarizes a series of literature data and finds that the most critical method is to increase developers’ expected return on investment.
The investment of developers or investors is expected to influence and influence the type, nature and degree of green building supply to a large extent, because they need to pay more for the construction cost of the previous period. The active investment of developers is an important boost to the expansion of the green building market. However, developers are only willing to invest their own funds in investments when they expect high expected return on investment. Therefore, only if the developer expects a high rate of return on investment in green buildings can he continuously improve the level and quality of green buildings from a macro perspective, and enhance his brand image and strength (Onuoha, Aliagha & Rahman, 2018). As Millington (2013) stated, if the chances of getting the expected returns are poor, then the investment may be measured by such investors and considered unsafe. Therefore, higher returns are expected to encourage rapid investment and supply of green commercial properties, while high interest rates reflect the relative scarcity of financing and tend to reduce green investment.
The intention of investors is to pay high interest rates, borrow money or purchase funds to finance the investment of green commercial real estate. However, if the source of financing for green products is guaranteed and interest rates are reduced, the supply of green commercial buildings will be improved.
In related perspectives, Onuoha, Aliagha, and Rahman (2018) found that the price signals for existing and other certified green buildings can motivate developers to invest in green commercial properties. For example, the sale price of similar properties in the same area in the near future may be high, which may induce positive investment in green commercial buildings. When a certified green commercial building is in a good location in the green rating state, the building may have a high rental value and a high sales price.
Iheanyichukwu Joachim, Aliagha, Kamarudin, and Ufere (2015) have developed incentives and expectations models for developers and investors for green building construction and supply commitments. The research is based on the main attributes of social cognitive theory, such as intention, foresight, motivation and expectation, and is conceptualized. Based on the conceptual model, they infer that developers and investors’ motivations for green building construction and supply are expected to result from the pursuit of profit maximization, the financial viability of green buildings, expected returns, currency incentives, green certification and rewards, public image, society and moral responsibility.
Therefore, we should establish a reasonable marketing strategy, establish a market guidance mechanism, allow more and more developers and investors to change their understanding, for the development of green buildings can increase revenue to save capital and operating costs, increase sales and enhance the public image.
2.2.4 Increase public awareness of environmental protection
Public awareness of environmental protection is conducive to the promotion of the green building market. Publicity and promotion of the media, environmental education, and government initiatives to establish related green public facilities all contribute to raising public awareness of environmental protection.
However, according to the survey of Zou, Zhao and Zhong (2017), people from different regions, cultures, and education levels have different concepts and views on green architecture. The higher the education level, the more people pay attention to green education. The local government People who invest more in green industries are more interested in buying green buildings. In addition, it is worth mentioning that the elderly and women have very low interest in buying houses in wooden buildings. The assessment results show that when it comes to public promotion of the green industry, it cannot be generalized, and adequate market research and research should be conducted. Fortunately, different publicity methods are established for different groups.
2.2.5 Improve Green Skills
Improving the building skills of green buildings in the design, construction and maintenance phase of the building is conducive to satisfying the customer and society’s consumption requirements for green buildings. Therefore, the green building design team and the construction unit should have sufficient skills and capabilities to use these green resources to build green buildings. According to Ashuri and Durmus-Pedini (2010), people’s increasing job satisfaction in a green work environment will increase the demand for such an environment in the same industry, thereby increasing the demand for green buildings and favoring the development of the green building market.
This green building design and construction skills mainly include reduced environmental impact during construction and operations. In addition, a good design level is conducive to maximizing the cost reduction and improving the project’s performance impact. In addition, good green skills can also create prospects for the effective use of resources while building healthier, greener buildings. Therefore, green buildings require green strategies, skills, materials, and technologies that are important components of green buildings and supplies.
In addition, this skill is also reflected in the use of skills in the construction of sound materials. Specifically, it mainly includes the procurement of green materials, the award of construction contracts, the management of construction, and the identification of management and support staff at the beginning of the work. Poorly built green commercial buildings may not be able to obtain high value in the market.
There are main two purposes which setting a research method: firstly, how the data is collected or derived, and the second is how the data is analyzed. Based on the summary, it is found that the main research methods in academic research include the following research methods:
a. Case study, which is to observe, record and analyze the background, current situation, environment and development history of one or more individuals, groups, communities, enterprises or institutions, in terms of their internal and external influences. Get some stage change patterns.
b. Comparative study, a study method for comparing the similarities and differences between two or more situations.
c. Correlation-prediction study, a study method for obtaining a statistically significant correlation coefficient between some factors, and to interpret it as a reference for predicting future similarities.
d. Evaluation study, a study method for determining whether a certain plan or arrangement follows a predetermined procedure and achieve its stated goal.
e. Design-demonstration study, a study method concerning whether it is feasible to construct, test and evaluate new systems or new programs.
f. Experimental study, a study method which analyzes the results obtained by controlling one or more of the variability factors.
g. Survey-questionnaire study, a study method to determine, report, and interpret the behavior, beliefs, and opinions of a specific group by questionnaire.
h. Status study. a study method concerning a representative case or sample case of one or more phenomena is observed and examined to determine its special character.
i. Theory construction study, a study method forfinding or describe some principles that explain how things work.
j. Trend analysis study, a study method for analyzing the dynamic structure of the current event to predict or predict the future direction of the event.
k. Concept analysis study, a study method concerning a semantic or logical analysis of some of the key concepts used in the academic field.
The requirement for this study was for individuals to complete the study independently, and the deadline for completing the research will be from March to October of 2018. Therefore, the completion of the dissertation has certain limitations, including time constraints, the energy of individual research and the limitations of financial resources. As a result, this study will use the forms of qualitative analysis and questionnaire survey on the basis of linking subjective initiative and objective conditions, to find an effective solution to improve the green building market, as well as combining individual reasons. Qualitative analysis can be summed up based on a large number of known documents and find the most suitable solution in a short period of time. Questionnaire surveys can be useful first-hand and true data to help improve research on the green building market in period of Auckland. In the following description, these two methods will be explained step by step, including their own data collection and data analysis.
3.1 Research method of qualitative anlaysis
This study will use qualitative analysis as the main research method.
Qualitative research methods are “quality” analysis of research objects. Specifically speaking, the methods of induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and generalization are used to process the acquired materials, as well as choose useful information from these content and data. As a result, it will help researchers to achieving the purpose of understanding the trues from research processes and revealing potential rules of research objects.
In order to find a set of reasonable solutions to improve and modify the green building market, qualitative analysis and summary are needed through a large number of documents. All documentation and citations will be sourced from Auckland University of Technology (AUT) online library and literature displayed on Google Scholar. All references cited will be in American Psychological Association (APA) format. The key words will involve the government’s incentive measures, the improvement of the company’s technology, the investment expectations of the developers, and the purchase of the consumer’s requirements. In a large number of documents, numerious specific solutions for green buildings markets could be obtained, as well as a wealth of case studies, so as to find out which solutions are feasible, which problems need attention, and which new ideas can be generated. These conclusions and solutions will be helpful of improving the green building market.
3.2 Research method of questionnaire survey
In addition to qualitative analysis, this research will also use survey research methods to study the views and opinions of people in Auckland on green buildings, so as to determine which factors affect the development of green buildings and provide relevant solutions.
Considering the group of customers have characteristic of Regional limitations and distributional variations, there are some changes about willingness and thoughts of the customers in different countries and regions. As a result, using qualitative analysis for obtaining information and data for researching the willingness of customers for purchasing green building might not effective and accurate in Auckland. In other word, some discussions about the customers in other regions might not present the willingness of customers who live in Auckland. Therefore, the relevant questionnaire survey which is designed for obtaining effective and useful data will be helpful to study the perspective of customers in Auckland.
According to Zou, Zhao and Zhong (2017) explained, there are regional imbalances in the perception of green buildings among the crowds. They analyzed the spatial distribution and potential factors of green buildings in China, they found that two main factors which are local subsidy policies support and economic development levels, affect the distribution of green buildings, as well as will change citizens’ perceptions. In other words, people who live in different regions might have different understanding of green buildings, support efforts and different purchasing aspirations. This is because there are numerous factors which cause these limitations.
Therefore, by issuing survey questionnaires in Auckland, we can obtain the overall opinions and opinions of the city’s population on green buildings, thereby estimating the willingness of different socio-economic groups in the period of Auckland to pay for green buildings and analyzing the proportion of factors affecting the purchase. On the one hand, it can reflect the influence of green buildings on consumers and the spread and popularity of green building concepts. It also recognizes the importance of green sustainable development. On the other hand, it can establish the impact factors related to the willingness to pay for green buildings and analyze them. The extent to which these factors affect the consumer’s willingness to pay and judge how much consumers can pay for green buildings.
The quality of the questionnaire determines the success or failure of this analysis, and the design principles of the questionnaire determine the quality of the text. The design principle of the general questionnaire includes the principle of purpose, which is closely related to the subject of the survey; the principle of acceptability means that the questionnaire is relatively easy for respondents to accept; the principle of sequence, that is, the questionnaire should be arranged in a reasonable order, making the questionnaire clear So that the respondents can answer questions efficiently; the general principle, that is, the setting of the questionnaire has universal significance; the logical principle, that is, the design of the questionnaire has unity and integrity; the principle of clarity, that is, the setting of the problem is clearly defined; The principle that the respondent’s answer facilitates a unified inspection.
The questionnaires were divided into self-administered questionnaires and interview-type questionnaires. Compared with the self-response questionnaire, the interview-style questionnaire can better control the investigation process and achieve more realistic results. At the same time, the response rate is higher than the self-administered questionnaire, and the effectiveness and reliability of the questionnaire can be more accurate. evaluation of. Therefore, we adopted an interview questionnaire to investigate and analyze different social and economic groups in Auckland.
Questionnaire survey process, we must first design a questionnaire based on theoretical basis, determine the content of the questionnaire, form and so on. Then, through the guidance of the instructor, the questionnaire is revised, the problems appearing in the questionnaire are adjusted, and the final form of the questionnaire is finally determined.
The questionnaire survey will design about 20 questions centering on consumers’ various views and perceptions of green buildings, including multiple choice questions, multiple choice questions, and table questions. In order to ensure that the results presented by the sample data are diverse and widespread, respondans will distinguish between different genders, age groups, occupations, education levels, income levels, and household population. In order to ensure the authenticity of the sample data, the questionnaire will be distributed in hundreds of different regions to collect data. After finishing collecting data information, organize it. Then use the MICORSOFT excel form to input data and use the computer to process the data for summarization. Then make related pie charts, histograms and line charts, etc., analyze the data and draw relevant conclusions to confirm the conjecture.
The preliminary design of the questionnaire was carried out. The main contents and problems to be solved are as follows:
The questionnaire will be divided into three parts. The first part is the background information of the investigator, including the surveyed person’s gender, age, education level, total household population, monthly income, occupation status, and whether there is a house. The second part is about the respondents’ basic understanding of green buildings, including whether green buildings are understood, the biggest features of green buildings, and whether they are willing to buy green buildings on the basis of understanding. The third part investigates the respondents’ willingness and ability to pay, including whether or not consumers are willing to purchase green buildings under various conditions, and the impact of 9 influencing factors on consumers’ purchase of green buildings:
- Is this green building around education area
- The distance between the green building and the main road or bus station
- Green building property management
- Green building community quality
- Ability of save energy
- Ability of save water
- Green buildings use non-toxic and environmentally friendly materials
- Is there a shopping mall near the green building
- Green house use area
It is very important to collect the opinions of consumers on green buildings and the factors that they care about, because these data will be an important reference factor for making relevant improvements and adjustments to the green building industry. These data will be collected through questionnaires and added to the reference for assessing the green building market.
3.3 Discussion on ethical issues.
Research ethics is not equal to research ethics. The former generally refer to the root causes, manifestations, harms, and countermeasures of scientific research personnel in their own moral cultivation, conduct and honesty and inventing, plagiarism, plagiarism, and academic misconduct. Ethical research ethics refers to the behavioral norms that must be observed when conducting research and refers to the ethical norms and behavioral norms between researchers and collaborators, subjects, and the ecological environment. It mainly includes respecting individual wishes, ensuring personal privacy, not jeopardizing the body and mind of the research subjects, observing the principle of good faith, and objective analysis and reporting.
Therefore, this study is to ensure that no person is harmed or negatively affected in the research activities. Especially in the process of designing and investigating questionnaires, care should also be taken. In the process of issuing questionnaires, we must abide by the principles of will, safety, privacy, and integrity. In considering whether it will affect the subject’s physical and mental problems, the test risk should be maintained within the “minimum harm possible.”
Finally, it is necessary to objectively and correctly analyze and report the results of the research. In accordance with the principles of scientific credibility, appropriate analysis methods should be used, and actual data should not be deliberately selected or abandoned. After the analysis, the objective interpretation of the meaning represented by the data and the detailed analysis of the results of the analysis cannot be deliberately concealed or omitted, and objectively present the results of the study. When the results relate to the subject’s personal privacy information, the subject’s opinions must be solicited and consented before publication.
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