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Impact of Technological Developments in the Media Industry

Technology plays a critical role for all the world-wide media industries. Every year the technology is advanced and created to make the work easier for employees who work in the industry. The technology has also advanced the audience in how they make use of the evolving media world. The developing technology which is used in the media industry are satellite, YouTube, Pay per view, Streaming content and 3d television.

Satellite TV

Satellite television is a key part of the development of the media industry and is quickly increasing around the world. Satellite television is a service that provides buyers access to television programs through a dish receiver that is placed on the side of the house for it to receive signals from the communication satellite.

In 1945, a British science fiction writer Arthur Clarke planned a worldwide communication system that would world by evenly spacing out 3 satellites in the earth’s orbit. The first public satellite television was signalled from Europe to North America were transmitted through the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic Ocean on July 23rd, 1962. The signals were acknowledged and broadcasted in North America and European countries and it watched over 100 million people. The satellite television industry was established first in the united states from the cable television industry being used as a communication satellite and used to allocate television programming to remote cable television. On October 18, 1979, the federal communications commission started to let people have home satellite stations without a government licence. The dishes were approximately 20 feet in diameter and were controlled remotely. On April 26, 1982, the first satellite channel in the UK was launched: it was called satellite television Ltd and later became Skyl. Dishes became smaller, about 1.7m in diameter and as a resulting sale increased throughout America and Europe. In the 21st century, satellite pictures have become much brighter and the satellite television industry has developed to over 33 million subscribers. The broader reach of satellite technology allows customers in remote locations can get satellite television.

An advantage is that all the satellite television channels are digital, so it enables the viewer to watch programmes in high-quality picture and audio. Viewers can also have access to hundreds of channels worldwide. Satellite television providers obtain their line-up of shows from successful channels like HBO, ESPN, and CNN as well as from numerous local channels like ABC, Fox, NBC, and PBS. The choice of programmes is almost infinite in comparison to the standard digital terrestrial channels and customers can choose which package they want by selecting the channels they would like and wouldn’t. Their television needs are tailored to them, which increases the chance they will use the product and enjoy it. The skill to obtain and send signals using the satellite technology raises the likelihood of gaining access to many channels from around the world that use the same technology for broadcasting. This gives the consumer of satellite television more channels, as it does not limit them. The wider reach of satellite technology enables customer in remote locations can get satellite television. Satellite television also comes with a parental lockout option. It allows parents to protect their children from adult channels and films that are inappropriate by putting a block on the certain channels on the TV. The satellite television packages usually have a range of different channels. This means that the monthly cost per channel is much cheaper than the monthly fee and Satellite television has better coverage and it is available nearly everywhere.

The disadvantage of satellite television is the initial investment of satellite television can prevent potential customers from buying into satellite technology, as the receiver and satellite dish can be expensive. If the viewer wishes to have multiple television sets multiple receivers are required which can also increase the initial price. Plus, the satellite television equipment needs to be installed which companies charge extortionate rates for and while many people opt to attempt to fit the dishes themselves, it is extremely dangerous to do and has resulted in many injuries and deaths over the years. Apart from having the monthly fee, you will also have to additionally pay for the equipment and for it to be installed. This original expense turns off many possible satellite TV customers. To make the option more financially understanding, some satellite TV companies offer discounts to their customers who are willing to sign up for a long-term agreement. The method of fitting the satellite television devices is also relatively bulky. You can try to do the installation by yourself, but most people will need someone professional to do it for them. This is the biggest issue when installing it is that it stops some people from enjoying the benefits of satellite TV. Many urban areas make the correct installation of a satellite dish challenging or in some cases impossible. Regardless of the technological developments that have been made, it is likely that there would interruption due to bad weathering. The satellite dish is situated outside the house and because of this characteristic, it is vulnerable to environmental impacts.

Because of the influence of satellite TV channels, youths are exposed to modern values and modes of life. They are blindly following their ways of life. These values create a profound impact on youths. Instead of following olden day duties, traditions, beliefs and social values, they are instinctively running after the recent way. The old day culture carries no value to them, so the traditional culture is losing its own identity. We see an alter to the way people dress, what they eat, entertainment, moral and social values. Most people find that this is due to the direct influence of satellite television. Furthermore, young people get distracted by watching TV and forget about their school work. Satellite channels are extinguishing the creativity of young people and controlling them in the wrong way as people are more intrigued in watching a variation of shows and a few people watch the educational programs on TV. So, the satellite television poses a big threat to the cultural traditions. To prevent the young generation from the accumulation of satellite channel and distinguishing the local culture, a clear picture concerning the effect of overseas satellite TV channels on the people of our country and its penalties is needed.

In conclusion, satellite television is becoming a progressively popular go-to option for television service as it is well recognised and improving quickly as satellite technology improves. Satellite television may be expensive firstly but is worth the investment as it provides a household with high sound and price quality, hundreds of television channels enables families situated in remote locations to enjoy television from all over the world. The first satellite broadcasted over 50 years ago, since then satellite television have been allowing households to have a glimpse into other societies lives and enables people to be more respectful and understanding of other people’s cultures. However, in the future I see satellite television taking a drop-in sale due to online streaming sites that can provide users with the same benefits that satellite television can as well as allowing them to watch on the go.

Youtube

YouTube is an American video sharing website that allows users to upload, view, share, add to favourites, and comment on videos. Available content includes video clips, television show clips, music video, short and documentary films, movie trailers and individual content like vlogging, original videos and educational videos. The purpose of YouTube is to allow people from all over the world to upload and share clips with a wide variety of different content and to have them viewed by anyone with access to the internet.

The site was founded in 2005 by three former PayPal employees, Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim. The group got the idea whilst watching Janet Jackson portray her nipple to the audience during the super bowl in 2004. After the show, search engines showed that people were looking for images of the performance and decided they should create a site that could display the entire video clip for anyone to watch. It took the team a year of coding the website and pitching it to gain funding before the site was created. The first video was uploaded in April 2005 by one of the site creators, Jawed Karim, and is titled ’Me at the zoo’; it currently has over 38 million views. During the summer of 2006, YouTube was one of the fastest growing sites on the web; hosting more than 65,000 new video uploads. The site delivered an average of 100 million video views per day in July 2006, outranking My Space’s rate of growth significantly.

On October 9th, 2006, it was announced that Google would purchase YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock, which was completed On November 13th, 2006. The agreement between Google and YouTube came up with three agreements with media companies to avoid copyright infringement lawsuits. It is estimated that in 2007, two years after the site was created, it consumed much bandwidth as the entire Internet did in 2000. In 2007, the YouTube awards are a yearly award given out in acknowledgement of the best YouTube videos of the preceding year as voted by the YouTube community. Also in 2007, MGM, CBS and Lions Gate Entertainment reached an agreement with YouTube to allow the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site to be watched for a small fee in addition to advertisements in a section for the US viewers. In January 2010, YouTube presented an online film rentals service, which is only available to the UK, US, and Canada. In May 2010, it was reported that YouTube was serving more than 2 billion videos a day, which was nearly double the prime-time audience of all three major US television networks’. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014 and 400 hours every minute in February 2017. The site now has over 800 million unique users a month.

Since the birth of the site over 12 years ago, it has benefited millions of people around the world. YouTube is regularly updated with millions of minutes of new content by billions of users around the globe so there are always new videos for viewers to watch. Plus, language barriers are not a problem as YouTube can be navigated in a total of 76 different languages, which covers 95% of the Internet population.

An advantage of this is that the site also enables people or families who may live on different continents to connect via video clips and be part of each other’s lives despite the distance between them. The site acts as a free service for musicians to advertise their music before it is released, and filmmakers can highlight their talents by uploading short films or creations. YouTube has also created a new community of people who use the site as a job. Many ‘YouTubers’, someone who uploads regular content to YouTube and get paid for it, have created a network of fans and contacts for themselves through the exposure they have gained by posting on the site. Since YouTube launched advertisements on the site, YouTubers can now earn a healthy income by the revenue earned by the ads placed before their videos. YouTube also allows creators to live stream themselves, which makes their fans feel more connected to them thus ensuring the fans will watch the creator’s videos and earns YouTube and the high-profile YouTubers more money.

The disadvantage is that most of the population use YouTube for pleasure and entertainment, as the site contains many different music videos, film trailers, comedy sketches, television shows and YouTuber content. However, YouTube can be used for work and self- education, as many users opt to teach and inform themselves as well their viewership by watching live news broadcasts, university lectures, language learning content and how-to videos.

Despite the many advantages, YouTube does have a few disadvantages that can prevent some people from using the popular free service. The site doesn’t have any restrictions on the comment section beneath videos with can lead to users posting violent threats, racial slurs and inappropriate language which encourages bullying. YouTube does have an age limit on certain videos that acts to prevent inappropriate content being viewed by under 18-year-old users. However, the explicit videos can be found in abundance on YouTube. YouTube is trying to tackle the problem by making changes to their rules and regulations whereby users now must sign up for an account to access the 18+ material, but many of the explicit videos are titled in languages other than English which isn’t detected by YouTube. Parents are advised to create a parental block if their children can access YouTube. The main disadvantage of YouTube is how expensive it is to become a YouTuber. To be successful on the site, viewers expect creators to edit their YouTube videos and shoot high-quality content, which requires editing software and camera and sound equipment. It also takes a lot of time to make good content and YouTube users want new videos from creators at least every week. In addition to this, a creator’s account could be disabled or flagged with no warning if the owner copied someone else’s content or broke the YouTube terms and conditions policy. This can prevent a lot of creators becoming successful through YouTube, as there are too many rules that restrict the aspects of a creator’s creativity and channel optimization.

The good things that YouTube has subsidised to the society, and its live-saving, problem-solving abilities, it has been a bad impact on a certain part of the society. Private videos, sexual harassment, crime, death and lots of uncomfortable videos can be uploaded onto YouTube. Filming and sharing content like these online are an infringement of the persons personal life.  In the drive for more followers and views, individuals care more about recording any of these unlucky events stated above instead of trying to help. Imagine recording or taking photographs of a situation that someone is in that is dangerous rather than helping them out. Lastly, many youtubers upload opinionated videos on current events or topics from their perspective. If viewers believe and/or agree with the content of the video, they will most likely become influence, regardless or not if the topic is positive or negative. Even though some videos on YouTube are not made to persuade or entertain, most of them have a purpose.

In conclusion, YouTube is used by most of the population and is accessible to around the world. There are many boundaries on the site for inventers, but then the main users of the site just watch videos instead of uploading their own, so the boundaries do not have an impact on them. YouTube could advance their site by applying a stricter mediation process to avoid underage users to watch restricted content and to avoid bullying in the comments of videos. Notwithstanding, YouTube is increasing in users every year and is becoming the most used sites on the web. Several users of the site can advance themselves by watching videos to learn a new language, connect with family members from afar and self-teach themselves. I believe that the future of YouTube will be strong from the number of new viewers that are watching. I think YouTube will transform and adopt the practice and profits that major television networks do in addition to including more and assorted content for instance video games and a music streaming service.

Pay per view

Pay-per-view is the capability to watch a television programme that allows subscribers to buy certain programmes; pay-per-view also allows viewers to add any further programme that is not accessible on their television if they are subscribed to the provider. With pay-per-view, the customer pays just for the one time they wish to view a programme and if they want to continue viewing the programme then they must continue paying for it.

The first major pay-per-view event was on September 16, 1981. This was Sugar Ray Leonard and Thomas Hearns boxing for the Welterweight Championship. Viacom Cablevision in Nashville, Tennessee, was the first system to offer the event. Ober 50% of its customers paid to see the fight. Viacom’s Marketing Director, Pat Thompson, put together the fight. He later put together other PVV fights, wrestling matches, and even a Broadway play. After leaving Viacom, Thompson became head of Sports View. He produced the first pay-per-view football game on October 16, 1983. Sports View was important in creating TigerVision for LSU, TideVision for Alabama, and UT Vol Seat for Tennessee. Sports View also produced the Ohio State-Michigan Football game on PPV in November 1983. In 1985, the first U.S. cable channels to show only pay-per-view, Viewer’s choice, cable video store, and request TV began operation within days of each other. Viewer’s Choice was available to both home satellite dish and cable customers. Request TV was available to only cable viewers at first. Dish owners could not use it until the 1990s. The term pay-per-view became more well known in the 1990s when companies like in DEMAND, HBO, and Showtime started using it to show movies and other things. In Demand would also show movies, concerts, and other events at prices between $3.99 to $49.99. HBO and Showtime would offer championship boxing, with prices between $14.99 to $54.99. Pay-per-view is also a very important way for professional wrestling companies like World Wrestling Entertainment, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honour and Asistencia Asesoía y Adminstractión to earn money.

An advantage of pay-per-view is it gives the audience the chance to purchase any programs of their choice for example sport or film channels and they can purchase these programmes by using an on-screen guide or through live customer service or telephone system, this also effects the producer because now viewers can now subscribe to their programmes. Pay-per-view can be popular dues to the content not being shown on other platforms. This changes the way the audience view media content because they now know the choice is their own. This also positively affects Media content because they can now have different programmes on Pay-per-view that way viewers can pay to view them, meaning they make more money on top of their monthly/yearly subscription. Here are some examples of two companies that have a Pay-per-view service;

Amazon Prime- The founder of Amazon, Jeff Benzos announced in February 2005 the creation of Amazon Prime in the United States, a membership offering free two-day within the United States on all eligible purchases for an annual fee of $79 as well as discounted one-day shipping rates. Later, Amazon Prime was launched in countries such as Germany, UK, and Japan in 2007, France in 2008, Italy in 2011, Canada in 2013 and India in 2016 and has begun expanding with users coming from over 200 countries worldwide. Amazon is now an annual membership program which offers users unlimited access to movies, films, music, e-books free shipping and other benefits for a fixed monthly fee. Customers can use their 30-day free trial which allows customers to use all of Amazon Prime luxuries to get a taste of what it has to offer. Amazon Prime is continuously growing, both in popularity and in features. To begin with, Amazon Prime was simply a way to get unlimited next day delivery at no extra cost, but it now includes a video streaming service, music streaming service, access to the Kindle Lending Library and Kindle First, unlimited cloud-based photo storage and more. From the website, www.statistia.com shows the number of paying Amazon Prime members in the United States as of September 2016. As of the last measured period, the source estimated 65 million Amazon Prime subscribers in the United States, up from 63 million in June during the same year.

Blink box is a London based online video company that allows users to stream and download movies and TV series on PC’s, Mac, X-box, Smartphones, and tablets. The company was co-founded in 2006 by Michael Comish, formerly a senior executive at channel 4 and Adrian Letts, the ex-head of content services at Vodafone and was launched in 2006 with the backing of many ventures capital firms. Blink box cannot be used worldwide and is only accessible in the UK. They have content distribution deals in places with a wide range of the UK and international production houses including Warner Brothers, Universal, Fox, Sony Pictures, the BBC, Fremantle and All3Media. Content is either free to the user that is funded by advertising or paid by the user. The amount the user pays can depend on the types of movies or TV series they want to rent, or purchase and users have the option to stream or download content, the prices can range from £3-20+. Compared to other Pay-per-view company, Blink box is not very popular due to its services having around one million users per month.

A disadvantage is that the price of movies on Pay-per-view are often a little bit more expensive than the ones at stores, which results in a struggle for Pay-per-view to appeal Hollywood movie viewers. Another reason for hit movies not being the main sources of revenues for Pay-per-view companies is because Hollywood studios often collect about 40% of viewing fees for their movies.

The outrage with pay per view with UFC August boxing match. Fans had to pay to Floyd Mayweather and Conor McGregor fights on the 26th August 2017, they were left fuming when an interruption was publicised because of the UFC’s pay per view scandal. According to Menezes, news broke out, and it was established that due to high demands, there were distributed scandals from diverse cable and satellite companies. People were scared that they would miss the most anticipated sporting event of the year even having to pay $100 to buy the fight. Following the outrage, the start of the fight was behind schedule to let the systems to get on track and avoid fans watching at home from missing out on the fight when they paid for it.  After, the servers were back, and the fans that had paid to watch the fight at home and online were furious and were afraid that they might not watch the fight, after they were happy with the fact that UFC delayed the match until the server were up and running again. But, the decision to delay the sport angered fans at the main event as they paid and arrived early to watch it live.

In conclusion, pay per view has been a long running technology which everyone uses eventually. The fact that they are certain programs that are only shown on pay per view makes it very popular as there could be something interesting that can only be found on here. But it is very expensive than using other technologies which is a downfall for this. I think that eventually pay per view will become less popular in contrast with other technologies because not a lot of people find it the best option and not everyone is able to buy it.

Streaming content

Streaming content has been one of the biggest developments in the film and television industry; streaming content is viewing content on the internet, for example, television programs and films. Out of all the developing technologies in TV and film industry media producers benefit from streaming content more than any other technologies because they can now upload all their programs and films on their website for their viewers to watch for example the BBC I-player, ITV player, Netflix and Love Film. Media producers upload all their programs and films on their website for their viewers to catch up on if they miss any of their programs or films and if they didn’t record it then viewers can go to their website and catch up, streaming content online has giving viewers the chance to go to media producer’s website and view their product. By this media producers can get more ratings and more viewers because not all viewers have got time to sit in front of their television to watch their favourite television programmes, most viewers will prefer going on the website and watching their programmes on their laptops, phones and I-pads. The advantage of streaming content online is that now viewers don’t have to worry about missing their favourite series or programmes or film anymore because they can now catch up online from episode one onwards. Below are two examples of streaming content;

One of them is Netflix. Netflix is the world leading online platform that allows users to watch TV shows and movies on TVs, gaming consoles, PCs, mobiles, tablets, etc. It enables its services following these three segments: international streaming, domestic streaming, and domestic. It is sponsored by their online subscriptions, in the UK the prices can range from basic- £5.99, standard-£7.49 and the Premium-£8.99. During the beginning stages of Netflix, one of the only popular places to view movies and TV series was Blockbuster. Using the internet during the early 2000s was becoming very popular as more and more people owned computers. More and more people wanted to watch TV series and movies at home. Netflix provided great customer service and an excellent disc and streaming selection of catalogue titles. I suppose that Netflix would have had a difficult time growing at the rate it did without Blockbuster having acted so violently to exploit its customers for money. Blockbuster started an online rental service that its customer enjoyed because the service offered a bonus of free movie and game rentals from their physical locations. As they began indorsing the program, they began to rapidly add customers and Netflix growth began to slow. Blockbuster quickly raised process, withdrawn free game rentals, and harshly cut back on free in-store rentals. Customers were furious. Debatably, Blockbuster presented a whole different audience to the idea of renting movies online.

Netflix was first originated in California in August 29th, 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph, the company started as a small DVD-by-mail service in the U.S and specialised in streaming media and video on demand over the years. Netflix’s website attracted at least 194 million visitors a year (according to the website compete.com from 2008). The number of Netflix streaming subscribers has been continuously increasing over the years reaching a total of 86.7 million in the third quarter of 2016. International figures have been on the rise in the last few years thanks to Netflix’s global expansion tactic. About 37.7 percent of Netflix’s paying subscribers are estimated to be located outside of the U.S. Some of the most important markets for Netflix include Mexico, Canada, Brazil and the UK. Netflix’s penetration in these markets stood at around 50% in the 2nd quarter of 2016. Netflix’s global expansion has a direct effect on its earnings, as the company’s annual income increased approximately a tenfold between 2005 and 2015. Netflix is used in countries such as United States, Canada, the UK, Brazil, Mexico, Sweden, Netherlands, Colombia, Argentina, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Chile and Ireland. Netflix’s has a very bright and big future, in 2016 they launched in more than 190 countries, and is banking on international growth to generate the kind of returns that investors are looking for from the stock that is selling for a multiple of 300 times its profit per share. Netflix is making deals with five major studios in Canada which mean they can make more original content. Netflix’s best performing categories are animated films like the ones produced by Disney, which helps explain why they have a deal with Disney which gives them the rights to first-run Disney movies.

The other one is Love Film. LoveFilm was a UK based provider of DVD-by-mail and streaming video on demand in the UK and Germany. Users can rent and purchase DVDs. The company was founded in 2002 by Alex Chesterman (who is a British internet entrepreneur and is also the founder of the property website Zoopla in 2007), Saul Klein (who is a partner at LocalGlobe, a British venture capital fund formed in 2015), Antony Ceravolo, William Reeve, Graham Bosher, Paul Gardner, Simon Franks.Lovefilm makes their money from renting and purchased DVDs from customers and from advertising. They partnered with partners to advertise its services but started to run TV adverts from 2006. Lovefilm advertises on several media online, TV, train posters, promotions and even toilet posters in clubs, pubs, and service stations. LoveFilm has since changed its name/ brand to Amazon Prime due to the rental company having a pre-tax loss of £934,000 at Companies House in late 2010.

By 2011 Love Film had turned their first income, making £1.92m before tax. The profit was prompted by the £200m Amazon but out of the company and the fact that their total income from DVD rental subscription, streaming and the site’s online store had increased 14.4% to £111.19m. This meant in January 2011, Amazon bought up to 58% of Love Films shares that it didn’t already own. Love Film knew the link between would have significantly enhanced their customer’s experience across Europe, they’re within the widespread opportunities that Amazon would improve Love Film’s online streaming service. After being acquired by Amazon.com in 2011 Lovefilm had reached 2 million subscribers. It also requested over 70,000 titles and over 4 million DVD, Blu-ray, or game rentals per month in five countries. Love film quickly became the leading online DVD rental and streaming outlet in the UK and Europe. With the rise of customers, Love Film has also increased their prices by as much as 500%, moving customers to a plan that cost £11.99. They have also reduced the number of DVD’s that some customers can have at once, with customers complaining that they are paying more to get two films rather than three. This has made many customers to cancel their accounts. Another complained is there is a limited library on Amazon Prime’s streaming service, because of licensing rules, companies often different library on their streaming and DVD rental services. Streaming content has a very bright future. Streaming content is a concept that dates back at least to the webcams of the early 2000s has become one of the major digital trends of 2016, catching fire on social media and grabbing the attention of brands everywhere. The number of UK households with a television fell in 2013, for the first time since Ofcom collected information in almost 60 years. These statistics highlight the fact that viewers are no longer able to wait for a week for the next episode of their favourite soap or blockbuster series; as they can stream the content online and it is easily accessible. Reed Hastings, chief executive of Netflix predicted in a conference in 2015 that broadcast television will effectively be defunct by 2030. Many conventional broadcasters have already adapted to moving their content online, such as the BBC. The BBC have BBC iPlayer app has appointed its own new drama, as well as permitting the customer to view programmes they have missed.

An advantage of streaming content is instant playback. Content is helped in a way that enables files to play nearly instantly after the file begins to download. Special streaming media servers also allow viewers to go forward and backwards through a video file. Letting your Web site visitors to download video files. Your downloaded video files could be shared with others through file-sharing networks and other approaches. Streaming video technology is tougher to copy and stop users from saving a copy to their computer if you don’t want them to.

A disadvantage of streaming video is that it needs an appropriate bandwidth to play, particularly at higher quality. Though the advantage of giving your users direct playback and yourself protection from content pirates might be appealing, these can also work against you as streaming video works only when there is an Internet connection. If the viewer’s Internet connection stops during playback or they need to watch your content offline, they will be out of luck. In these cases, contemplate offering the user an option to both streams and download the video file, and using copy protection to prevent piracy.

As the internet grows, it becomes a tool for communication and entertainment. Researchers have examined the effects of individual’s psychological factors and media use motives on their excessive use of internet. Since the internet has important distinction, the extreme use of internet application such as social networking sites, online games etc. Studies state that the use of approvals, along with lack of self-discipline, lack of confidence and use motive of looking for information, lead to extreme practice of video streaming services.

In conclusion, streaming is a moderately new technology that allows users of streaming sites to watch a vast amount of content when they are out for a fee per month. It has developed the way in which people consume television and movies along with reassuring numerous people to watch more television, which known as a bad lifestyle, but it is undoubtedly good for the television industry. As the technology is innovative it doesn’t cover the criteria needed to make it the number one way to watch programs, but eventually I hope that the streaming industry will fix the problems for instance not keeping an everlasting back log of films always accessible and buffering issues, which will advance the streaming sites knowingly.

3D TV

3D television sets bring detailed insight to the viewer by using the stereoscopic display, multi-view display, 2d-plus-depth, or other forms of 3D display. Many modern 3D televisions set to use an active shutter 3D system or polarized 3d system.

The stereoscope technique was first developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838. This showed that when the two pictures are viewed stereoscopically, the brain combines them to produce 3D depth perception. The stereoscope was then improved by Louis Jules Duboscq, and a famous picture of Queen Victoria was displayed at The Great Exhibition in 1951. In the late 1890s, the British Film Pioneer William Friese-Greene filed a patent for a 3D movie process. On 10th June 1915, former Edison Studios chief director Edwin S. Porter and William E. Waddell presented tests in red-green anaglyph to an audience at the Astor Theater in New York City and in 1922 the first public 3D movie The Power of Love was displayed.

Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on the 10th August 1928, by John Logie Baird in his company’s premises at 133 Long Acre, London. Baird pioneered a variety of 3D television systems using electro-mechanical and cathode-ray tube techniques. The first 3D TV was produced in 1935, and stereoscopic 3d still cameras for personal use had already become common by the Second World War. Many 3D movies were formed for dramatic release in the US during the 1950s just when television started to become popular. The first movies were Bwana Devil from United Artists that could be seen across the US in 1952. One year later, in 1953, came to the 3D movie House of Wax which also features stereophonic sounds. Alfred Hitchcock produced his film Dial M for Murder in 3D, but for maximizing profits the movie was released in 2D because not all cinemas were able to display 3D films. In 1946 the Soviet Union also developed 3D films, with Robinzon Kruzo being its first full-length 3D movie. People were excited to view the 3D movies but were put off by their poor quality. Because of this, their status declined quickly and there was another attempt in the 1970s and 80s to make 3D movies more conventional with the releases of Friday the 13th Part III and Jaws 3D. 3D films became popular throughout the 2000s, ending in the success of 3D presentations of Avatar in December 2009 and January 2010.

Though 3D movies were usually well received by the public, 3D television shipments totalled to 41.45 million units in 2012, compared with 24.12 in 2011 and 2,26 in 2010. In late 2013, the number of 3D TV viewers started to decline, and as of 2016, development of 3D TV is limited to a few premium models.

Many 3d televisions are unavailable to buy now but while they were being produced they gave consumers several benefits. 3D televisions give the viewer a simulated feel of a movie theatre and allowed them to view any movie, television show or video game of choice in their own home. 3D televisions aren’t limited to 3D either, as they are also able to convert content to 2D viewing as well as converting regular 2D content to 3D which allows viewers to watch their favourite shows in 3D.

A disadvantage is that 3D televisions are no longer in production as the disadvantages counter balance the advantages, which left the viewers unhappy with the product. The main element that left viewers and owners of 3D televisions unhappy, was the required glasses that a person was vital to wear whilst watching 3D content for it to work. The glasses were unappealing, heavy to wear and left many people with eyestrain issues. A few brands of 3D glasses left people with headaches and dizziness. Also, the price of the glasses was sold at £30 a pair, for a family of five, that would be a lot of money to spend on something that causes eyestrain and headaches.

In the start of 3D productions, 3D Blu-ray DVDs were only available for purchasers of a specific brand of 3D television, which stopped a lot of customers from purchasing a lot of 3D DVDs. For example, Avatar was only available for Panasonic 3D television owners, whilst DreamWorks DVDs were only compatible with Samsung 3D televisions.

The great influence of TV on people is undisputable. The Media Dependence Theory specified the fact that there is a direct proportion between human’s having fulfilled needs by the media and their dependence on it and importance of the media to an individual.  However, the media is often used as a method of influencing people’s perceptions, thoughts and minds. Each of us is dependent on the media, but such dependency should be under control. The main goal of the media is giving the needed information. I think, people are more independent on his needs rather than the media itself. 3D television is the innovation of our fast-moving world, which effects the human’s health. In the article “3D TV’s harmful effects on children” by Greg Thorn mentions that Australians are suffering from eyestrain to headaches from 3D TV watching.

In conclusion, 3D televisions were a good technology whilst they lasted but the problems of headaches, self-conscious glasses, and a restricted choice of DVDs to purchase that were likeminded prevented a lot of people buying into the 3D technology and as a result, 3D television is no longer in production. Customers lost interest in this business before the manufactures could fix the problems the products had.  3D televisions will only make a reappearance in the future if the manufactures of the 3D televisions can create televisions that work without the glasses and with more of a deeply engaging atmosphere. I think a possible blend of virtual reality and 3D televisions could be a hit in the gaming and film market.

I now understand the different types of developing technologies their advantages and disadvantages and the impact they have had on today’s media industry. As a whole they have benefitted the industry largely in the sense that it is paid a lot more attention to and is now easier for the audience to access but have also caused some faults to it for example access to content that is not meant to be free which causes the industry to lose out on profit. In conclusion, the TV and film industries have developed so much these years with new technologies in the media industry and this has had an impact on the ways audiences view media content and the ways media producers select media content in the TV and film industries. In my own understanding and knowledge there will more developments of new technologies as time goes by and it will impact the audiences and producers even more. In this assignment I have learnt and I have more of an understanding about the different types of technologies and developments which have affected the TV and film industries and how they have impacted audiences and producers.



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