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Impact of Job Satisfaction on Employees Turnover Intention in Information Technology

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Impact of Job Satisfaction on Employees Turnover Intention in Information Technology Department of DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd (Myanmar)


JSS   Job Satisfaction Survey

EQ   Emotional Quotient

SPSS   Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

CSR   Corporate Social Responsibility

HRMD   Human Resource Management and Development

CLT   Central Limit Theorem

IT   Information Technology



This paper work will investigate how the various elements of job satisfaction affect the turnover intentions of employees in the organization. In the long run, we support this by investigating the core competencies of the competitors in the market and the turnover rate of employees who are essential to the success of existence for businesses. Through review of the literature that emphasizes the specific desire of terminate to change the organization and its employees with several important elements and decide to move to another company or change the workplace.

Based on the research results requesting, 138 employees of DIR-ACE Technology Co., IT division. Ltd are selected to take part in survey data. According to the results of the data analysis adapted to the literature review carried out in the paper, the most important factor is employee benefits that influence the turnover intention of these workers, using a complete structure questionnaire using the paper-based method. Therefore, the nature of the work and the availability of participation in CSR are the second and third important factors that affect employee’s willingness to leave in this research. For the least important factor influencing the proportion of turnover intention, it results that it is communication. Therefore, it is recommended that it is a suitable area for future researchers to believe that the recognition factor is the meaning of the importance of communication and interaction for all employees for daily cooperation and internal friendship factors not most important to other corporates or within the organization.

Keywords: job satisfaction, turnover intention, motivation

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background of the Research

1.2 Research Objectives and Outcomes

1.3 Research Questions

1.4 Structure of the Project

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS Framework) (Spector, 2004)

2.2 Job Satisfaction Literature and Theories

2.2.1 Talent Development

2.2.2 Promotion

2.2.3 Communication

2.2.4 Remuneration Package

2.2.5 Employee Benefits

2.2.6 Organizational Commitment

2.2.7 Leadership, Supervision and Management

2.2.8 Working Conditions

2.2.9 Colleagues (Co-workers)

2.2.10 Nature of work

2.2.11 CSR Participation Availability

2.3 Summary

2.3.1 Hypothesis Development

Chapter 3: Research Methods

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Philosophy

3.2.1 Positivism Research

3.2.2 Realism Research

3.2.3 Interpretivism Research

3.2.4 Adopted Philosophy for this research

3.3 Research Methodologies and Tools

3.4 Research Approach

3.5 Research Strategy

3.6 Data Collection: Research Design and Sample Selection Methods

3.6.1 Sample Selection Method

3.7 Data Collection Methods, Techniques and Procedures

3.8 Ethical Issues

3.9 Research Limitations

3.10 Summary

Chapter 4: Survey Findings, Data Analysis and Discussion

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Validity and Reliability Testing

4.3 Descriptive analysis of statistics on Demographic Variables

4.3.1 Analysis of Worked Years

4.3.2 Analysis of Education

4.3.3 Analysis of Types of Employees

4.3.4 Analysis of Gender

4.3.5 Analysis of Age

4.3.6 Analysis of Marital Status

4.3.7 Analysis of Annual Income

4.3.8 Analysis of Employees’ Education Group by Gender

4.4 Analysis of Correlations between Job Satisfaction and Employees’ Turnover Intention

4.5 Analysis of Association between the strongest job satisfaction factor ‘Employee benefits’ and some demographic variables

4.5.1 Perception of Employee Benefits based on Types of Employees

4.5.2 Perception of Employee Benefits based on Gender group

4.5.3 Perception of Employee Benefits based on Annual Income

4.6 Summary

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Directions of the Future Research

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary and Discussion of the Research Result

5.3 Implications of this research

5.4 Conclusion and Recommendations of Future Research


Appendix 1: Information Sheet to Respondents

Appendix 2: Research Organization Informed Consent Form

Appendix 3: Research Questionnaire

Appendix 4: Reference Figures

Appendix 5: Research Ethic Form Scanned Copy

Appendix 6: Question Coding Plan

List of Figures:

Figure1 Research Framework

Figure 2 Hertzberg Two-Factor Theory

Figure 3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Figure 4 Adams’ Equity Theory

Figure 5 Worked Years of the Employees

Figure 6 Education of the Employees

Figure 7 Employee Types of the Employees

Figure 8 Gender of the Employees

Figure 9 Age of the Employees

Figure 10 Marital Status of the Employees

Figure 11 Annual Income of the Employees

Figure 12 Education Level group by Gender

Figure 13 Interrelations between Employees’ Turnover Intention and Job Satisfaction

Figure 14 Correlations Summary between Employees’ Turnover Intention and Job Satisfaction derived from Employee Benefits

Figure 15 Scattergram- Employees’ Turnover Intention Vs Employee Benefits

Figure 16 Kruskal-Wallis Test

Figure 17 Independent Samples Test

Figure 18 Kruskal-Wallis Test

Figure 19 Correlation Summary

Figure 20 Summary Statistics of Type of Employee

Figure 21 Summary Statistics of Gender

Figure 22 Summary Statistics of Annual Income before Tax

List of Tables:

Table 1 Reliability Check

Table 2 Worked Years of the Employees

Table 3 Education of the Employees

Table 4 Employee Types of the Employees

Table 5 Gender of the Employees

Table 6 Age of the Employees

Table 7 Marital Status of the Employees

Table 8 Annual Income of the Employees

Table 9 Analysis of Employee Education Level group by Gender

Table 10 Summary Statistics of Worked Years

Table 11 Summary Statistics of Education

Table 12 Summary Statistics of Employee Types

Table 13 Summary Statistics of Gender

Table 14 Summary Statistics of Age

Table 15 Summary Statistics of Marital Status

Table 16 Summary Statistics of Annual Income

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1        Background of the Research

Professional and technical professionals are valuable and fundamental human resources for each organization to take a long-term perspective. Therefore, the job satisfaction of all employees is an important element and awareness of their work commitment about their roles and responsibilities. It is recognized that it should be critically assessed and achieved based on its employees’ willingness to participate. In the article, “Kenya Journal of Education Planning Economics and Management”, the author articulates that job satisfaction means a measure that is positively correlated with the strength against the requirement of individual employees satisfied by employment conditions (EMW, 2011). The lower the degree of job satisfaction, the greater the impact on employee’s willingness to terminate, absenteeism, employee’s morale, productivity, loyalty and creativity skills. As a result, it may affect the effectiveness and efficiency added to their work to expand their abilities and productivity.

Among the disadvantages of the various job satisfaction levels mentioned above, this research clarifies how the professional employee willingness to leave work and the degree of job satisfaction with respect to the related behaviour are affected. The reason and purpose of choosing this area of study were to identify the main causes and major problems of employee turnover rate from the viewpoint of job satisfaction of IT employees of DIR – ACE Technology Co., Ltd. The dedication and commitment to their organization is to identify the impact on their intentions to leave. In order to achieve satisfactory workforce, justifying the necessity and important requirements of employee loyalty to the organization faithfully, it is important to fulfil an important role related to the employees, to employ a technical or professional employee who can easily move between organizations, depending on job experience and related backgrounds, so that it can demonstrate and bring a high level of performance in meeting organizational goals.

Job satisfaction is focused for employers and regarded to be a favourable result of employment and accordingly it would seem to highlight that the intentional resignation rates of employees in such creative organizations increases with job dissatisfaction when tasks and time constraints prohibit the opportunity regarding to residents and enhance the probability for error while performing the tasks (Moyle, et al., 2003). Turnovers are likely to be a major factor for all industries especially because they do not have integrated knowledge in business domain functions and do not maintain technical staffs, which is a problem that has an undesirable effect on the IT industry (Zheng & Hu, 2008). An important basis for turnover decision making emphasizes that lack of workplace satisfaction is the first major reason for employees to retire. The article, “Job Satisfaction amongst Information Technology (IT) Employees in Bangalore City” articulates that retaining skilful IT employees can bring more complexities. Organizations are paying their skilful knowledge employees privileged and higher salaries, incentives and vacation programs to have job satisfaction to acknowledge their competencies and workforce (Nanjamari.K, 2013).  As a rapid and dramatic change in technological innovation, IT professionals must deal with high needs in the professional market because of the high risk of skills, experience, knowledge gaps and the high cost of recruiting talent person is essential.

Subsequently, the most of IT corporates need to emphasize on the quality of work environment simply as it is a place where IT employees spend most of their time at outside of home. Such organizations need to emphasize on the employees’ commitment of long term periods of intervals to the organizations in terms of their hard work, loyalty, setting up fair policies and level of interactions between management and employees. In comparison, the modern relationship of the 21st century also focuses on employee career development, due to personal growth and career success of organizational commitment toward mutual benefit for both employees and employers (Dharmaraj, 1998).

The higher the job satisfaction of employees, the greater the willingness to employ more skills and knowledge in collaboration with the organization for mutual success and achievement. Since it has been widely suggested that dictatorship organizations must be democratic for occupational design and action planning to harmonize job satisfaction and perception related to professional purposes and transparency. Organ’s (1997) theory on Organizational citizenship behaviour adapted from his investigation that job satisfaction and its effects of people’s desires and attitudes to aid colleagues, work relation and lack of organization citizenship behaviour to organization can bring misleading to the organization structure that manage work and turnover intentions rate.

In the article, “Work-life balance as source of job dissatisfaction and withdrawal attitudes”, the research findings obviously show that work-life balance issues were mainly dedicated to bus drivers as a case study and pointed out the defects that can cause the job dissatisfaction issues, job turnover and absenteeism in respective jobs (Hughes & Bozionelos, 2007). In addition, for subsequent stakeholders of the organization, including managers, supervisors, human resources executives, for the long-term success and high productivity of the organization, if there is a subsequent impact of individual positive employment satisfaction conditions, work satisfaction is inherently important (Gregory, 2014). Branham, 2005 suggests that “it seems clearer that one quarter to one half of all workers are feeling some level of dysfunction due to stress which is undoubtedly having a negative impact on their productivity and the probability that they will stay with their employers.”

In the journal “Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Its Impact on Job Loyalty“, the key factors influencing work satisfaction include praise or accusation, promotion or relegation by supervisors, colleagues and administrators. Authorization to subordinates through team wide knowledge sharing, mainly includes either compensation rate, interpersonal relationship between supervisors, subordinate and colleague relations, or supervisory acts, responsibilities of work,  working environment and working conditions, the nature of work, including facilities, qualities and policies (Waqas, et al., 2014).

Saeed, et al. , 2013 stresses that job satisfaction is a fundamental and major source of organizational potency and efficiency, overall productivity and financial benefits. Poor workplace satisfaction and employee awareness raises employee turnover rates and deduces commitment to work, and it is important to greatly influence the image of the organization. The ability to maintain key performers and maintain organizational productivity steadily is extremely challenging and can benchmark and evaluate job satisfaction within the organization by employee’s turnover intention rate and its retention .

Job satisfaction is a critical issue for different types of organizations, both private and public emerging countries and economic stronger countries. The intensity of job satisfaction of an individual employee has side effects on the commitment to work to the respective organization and consequently it is willing to terminate to long term work or from company (Arvey, et al., 1989). As shown, the work loyalty of corporate is positively related to the intention to leave of the staffs.

1.2        Research Objectives and Outcomes

The aim of this survey is to explore the job satisfactory factors at DIR-ACE Technology Co.,Ltd and the impact of intention to leave of IT employees. In this paper work, depending on the determination of employee’s turnover, the findings can either end with the most dissatisfied feelings or work with the most quenched perception towards your organization.

This paper work will be composed of the upcoming objectives of the research:

  1. To discover various characters of job satisfaction facets that impact the turnover intention of IT staffs of DIR-ACE Technologies.
  2. To make In-depth study of each job satisfaction factor by using Spector’s Job Satisfaction Survey Framework and its correlation with DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd. employee turnover intention.
  3. To identify the first three most correlated factors that affect employee turnover intention, actively or negatively helping to leverage the HR capacity of the organization.

1.3        Research Questions

Employee job satisfaction is increasing in critical for organizational competition for major skills and talents of individual employee. (Boyens, 2007) emphasizes the discussion for involuntary turnover, voluntary turnover and promotion for employees to terminate a particular company and describing that these two types of turnover can cause the performance drain, knowledge, expertise, relationship, and loss of the time and resources that it took to train the employee  seriously affect for organizations. The major objective of this project is to identify major job satisfactory dimensions impacting upon employee turnover intentions of DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd

This paperwork is aimed to cover the following major questions of research:

  1. How the upcoming job satisfaction facets (in Research framework in section 2.1) will affect the employees’ turnover intention.
  2. What the first three most significantly correlated job satisfaction facet impacted on employees’ turnover intention are.
  3. How the job satisfaction perception perceived by the most significant correlated job satisfaction facet is different based on the three major demographic factor gender, types of employees and income level.

1.4        Structure of the Project

The paper is arranged for the corresponding structure:

The first chapter introduces the corresponding research objectives and major research questions which reflect the background of this study.

The second chapter reviews the relevant theories of critical literature, concepts, related papers regarding the employees’ job satisfaction and their intention to leave. Moreover, it shows the complexity of the problem areas and the understanding of the path to critically review existing literature, and ultimately, it supports the discovery of research backgrounds adapted from recent academic literature.

The third chapter emphasizes the present utilization of research design, methods and data analysis tools, showing the data sources and the way to process the presenting research collection of data to analyse the data.

The fourth chapter summarizes and reports descriptive statistics and results from the hypothesis of this work to test the adaptation of the methodological analysis of the findings of the interpretation of data to adapt to the aims and purposes of this project.

The fifth chapter summarizes the findings of this paper work by articulating the important results in current project, what the authors have done in the study, and describing the intention to what the study meets the research aims and the purposes prescribed at the introductory phase of the paper. Moreover, it solves the limitations and effects between theoretical and practical observations, and finally provides suggestions and implications for next researches.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1        Introduction

Nowadaysseveral challenges regarding technological changes arises globally and locally so, organizations can meet difficulties to train newcomers or staffs (Mathur & Sharma, 2016). In the article,” Understanding work-related learning: the case of ICT workers” it is highlighted that they might need much more amount of training in order to be more skilful employees and be ready for their job design from the point of view of balancing budget, as well as productivity and other overhead costs (Gijbels, et al., 2012) but the author still encourages that the organizations need to fully sponsor based on job structure regardless of discussing the above issues.

However, Mawer and Jackson argued that some training issues for existing staffs in small and medium-sized enterprises are identified and these involves limited time, demanded skill required for small business management, high training cost compared to perceived benefits since the mid-1990s (Mawer & Jackson, 2005). This research recognize and emphasizes the importance of training issues including financial needs but due to the time limitation and budget limitation, it currently emphasizes on employee retention as most of the technical employees are likely to move from current position for the reason of getting better potential in perceiving new skills, experience, interaction for better communication, opportunity, development and knowledge and not minded to stay in the current organization for their carrier life as a whole. The upcoming sections will discuss the different job satisfaction facets and their consequences on turnover intention in the company.

Figure1 Research Framework 

Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS Framework) (Spector, 2004)

2.2        Job Satisfaction Literature and Theories

Scholars and many researchers have introduced comprehensive theories related to job satisfaction which are formulating many theoretical frameworks for influencing factors of job satisfaction and its impacts by various dimensions (Man, et al., 2011). Research Framework in Figure 1 is adapted from Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS framework) of Spector and some facets of these job satisfaction are adapted from the well-known motivational theories, especially comprised of two content theories of motivation: Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and two process theories of motivation: Adam’s Equity Theory, Expectancy theory.

Herzberg Two-Factor theory is also known as motivation or hygiene theory which determined whether people feel satisfied or dissatisfied about their job and resultants factors related to job satisfaction (satisfiers) of employee motivation in order to make people want to perform like achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. Accordingly, hygiene factors (dis-satisfiers) are significantly related to the aspects of working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory working practices (Herzberg, et al., 2011). Herzberg theory discussed regarding with employees’ motivation and mostly associated with an individual relationship to the environment that they carry out the job (Sanjeev & Surya, 2016). As can be seen, Hezberg did not consider more widely dynamic or variant factors regarding job satisfaction or dissatisfactions and some job factors are beyond motivation or hygiene factors and Herzberg only used generalized scales on measuring job satisfaction or dissatisfaction which can lead to unexpected errors on his findings.

Figure 2 Hertzberg Two-Factor Theory

Source: (Value Based , 2016)

Moreover, the hygiene factors which are mostly related to the working environment, and this can be overcome through the Maslow hierarchy of needs. Maslow designated that different categories of needs by human being are grouped in a hierarchy of the intensity by ascending order the physiological needs, the safety needs, belongingness or love needs, the esteem needs and the needs for self-actualization (Poston, 2009). The basic needs in Maslow hierarchy can be identified as hygiene factors of Herzberg theory and this can be conceptualized that the basic needs of Maslow don’t give motivation but it can be ensure that there will be no dissatisfaction occurred. Meanwhile, both of these theories can also be difficulties for managers in where employees with lower education can’t be equally same in motivation needs and need to be taken into account for that.

Figure 3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Source: An Exercise in Personal Exploration: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Poston, 2009)

For those above concerns, one of the process theories, Equity theory developed by J.Stacy Adams can bring the fairness to the people for those who have belief that they got unfair benefits or incentives compared to others. They have desire to eliminate the perception of unfairness and restore a perceived sense of equity to the situation (Shore & Strauss, 2012). Therefore, Adams articulated that people motivation is influenced by their perception of fairness when compared with others and they take account of perceived negative inequity by reacting effort made, reward perceived, comparison and work condition (Zheng, et al., 2014).

Figure 4 Adams’ Equity Theory

Image result for adams equity theory

Although, Equity Theory can bring fairness to employees, some challenges can be raised and still not compromised by Equity theory for managerial implications for that well-unpaid people can feel dissatisfaction and angriness and on the other hand, overpaid people can perceive guilt so that negative consequences of equity comparison can be minimized by the belief of Vroom at Expectancy theory(Chen, et al., 2016). The action or efforts of the individual are forced by the expected resulting outcomes and each of the employee is intended to carry out the job with greatest motivation forces formulated by the equation Motivation Force = expectancy * instrumentality * valence of Vroom model (Vroom, 2005).

In the above equation, the multiplier expectancy is trustiness upon that working hard can bring desired level of performance, instrumentality is belief that well-working performance will be underpinned by rewards and also valence is value for a person chosen to rewards and other related work outcomes accordingly (BAUMANN & BONNER, 2017). Motivation of employees can be affected by either one of these multipliers and it seems to be a bit unrealistic as reward can’t be directly proportional to the employees’ performance in many organizations. From the above concerns of the motivational theories, the following section will discuss each of the job satisfaction facets selected on the basis on JSS framework by Spector (Spector, 2004) complied with the above four motivation theories.

2.2.1       Talent Development

In twenty-first century business world, organization should consider about their employee talent development, each of the employee can be valuable manpower of organization to become strong competitive workforce (Maruska & Perry, 2013). Likewise domain-specific skills, personal talent skills and greater achievement can be perceived when each knowledges, chances to learn are visualized as important and attainable for talent development and overall life satisfaction (Paul & Seward, 2016). There is a dominant issue for whether internally talent development of employees or external recruitment of skill person is more effective and has already articulated in too many debates for that topic for many years (Cappelli, & Keller, 2014).

(Garavan, et al., 2012) have defined that the talent development emphasized on the formation of talent development strategies to support the organization talent development process and to align the development activities of employees. Continuous development plan like training and development are critical and essential to the organization and can bring the mutual benefits for the job satisfaction of employees and corporate success (Kunasegaran, et al., 2016). Although the authors of the above articles have suggested that talent development stays beneficial to both organizations and employees, it is still contradictory for that the talent development can bring job satisfaction of employees in terms of releasing their turnover intention. However, Choos & Bowley, 2007 made an argument that well-structured training plans carried out by professional and skillful trainers can bring the effective training outcomes together with higher job satisfaction.

Meanwhile, (Mapelu, 2013) support the above author findings that Employee development was significantly related to turnover intention and organizations need to be aware of employee retention inherently by following employee training programs aligned with corporate strategic goals. Although effective and efficient training design and plan can leverage the organizational performance, a bad training design and plan can bring empty performance but loss of time and money (Tsaur & Lin, 2004). Therefore, it is highlighted that training budget should be prepared by judgement of company financial performance to align with improvement of human resource development in order not to be overloading for organization (MNDEME, 2011).

A ready to use and fully developed talent management plan that is usable and accessible via the organization can direct HR specialists to provide real-time HR activities (Corsello, 2012). The Organization need to adapt individual experiences and corporate objectives in order to keep the employees’ retention to stay longer for their junction point of career objectives and organizational objectives (Kunasegaran, et al., 2016). Thus, it can be found that organizations have to prepare training programs for career development and corresponding human resource development policies for retention of existing employees and better workplace for new comers. It also reflect the findings by (Wan, 2007) in that Organizations need to observe the requirements and demands of professional and technical employees by ensuring that Human Capital Development policies are aligned with both corporate and individual employee’s goals to ensure for their satisfaction and reduction of turnover intention.

2.2.2       Promotion

Promotion in business environment is a habitual action for recognising and awarding employees’ endeavour and also important achievement of employee’s life (Malik, et al., 2012).  This can be perceived as the dramatic change of job description and job roles including increase in pay incentive, power or authority and incentive with relevant responsibility (Mondy & Noe, 2005). Also, it is realized that promotion for employees can ensure the satisfaction of employees and can be leverage of motivation for employees to work longer in the organization (Aminuddin & Yaacob, 2011). But these authors haven’t covered that the irrelevant management decisions that promote the wrong person are not effective for increasing the organization’s profitability and productivity.

Accordingly, (Leighton, 2006) articulated that today business leader should select the right talented people to promote for their companies strategic goals and misplace of right people to promote will lead to failure of succession planning. The Peter Principle also clarified that when employees are promoted to improper level of incompetence, their performance can be degraded as before due to the misplace of promotion (Lazear, 2000). Therefore, it can be suggested that many of human resource managers should need to observe closely for a long time before employee promotion in such a way they can perceive detail information for pertained talents of employees (Dickinson & Villeval, 2007). Ruderman and Ohlott point out that female employees are leveraged up to unimportant positions as compared to men’s promotion opportunities, and that female employees are given jobs and chances that might have limitations compared to the role of decision makers (Ruderman, et al., 1995).

According to the above arguments, an unfair promotion decision which may cause distrust of the integrity of the corporate to other staffs can be arisen, and thereafter there is a possibility of employment dissatisfaction with the corporate (Indahwati Gunawan GoBrian H., 2001). In addition, performance and evaluation for promotion decisions might also lead to discrimination and prejudice in gender, race, religion, colour, nationality and age: particularly as a common problem of gender differences. However, (Petrides, 2006) and (Schyns, 2006)  argued that promotion decisions should mainly involve taking into account different factors as criteria based on skills such as employee strength, motivation and experience, internal or external interpersonal skillsets and emotional intelligence (EQ) and the type of leadership skills in the job.

The promotion can be seen as the form of organizational justice, and the planning and promotion of decision-making will involve a different facets like the capability of the staff, the capacity of the skills and the degree of the hard work, the work experience and the length of the organization’s service depending on the vacancy (Furnham & Petrides, 2006). The author recommended that management should set out goals and evaluate its promotion decisions advance and every company should possess a fair and equal chance of opportunities for promotion system to give employees satisfaction and reduce their turnover intention (Go & Kleiner, 2001). Moreover, the organization management should transparently publish promotion systems in order to be acceptable by management and employees.

2.2.3       Communication

Communication is the most critical medium of interrelationship within the organizations where such organization communications occurs as distributing information among stakeholders by interacting downward from managerial level to operational level or upward from operational level to managerial level via different channels (Dwyer, 2009). Communication is composed of variety of techniques of information flow adapted from one person thoughts and behaviours to others which can improve the interaction among individuals and groups within the organization (Moghimi, 2005).

Organizational communication can normally be found as external communication in which the organization communicates with public or other organizations from outside and internal communication take place between different levels of employees and departments of organization (, 2010). Effective communication can bring enormous achievement in an organization and can support the corporate success and also effective internal communication can cultivate the strong working environments for employee satisfaction perceived by motivation suffering from knowledge sharing (Moyer, 2011). However, Moyer haven’t covered the evaluation criteria and determinants for such communication is effective or not.

For the above concerns, Marques argues that working and useful organizational communication is based on many criteria like timely, transparent, appropriateness, accountability, appropriateness, professionalism, reliability, simplicity, completeness, waste of time, community reputation, communication and mutual respect for both audience and communicator (Marques, 2010). Thus, KAMASAK and BULUTLAR strongly suggested that the organization should ensure to bear the efficient communication climate which would enlarge the level of job satisfaction and enhance the employee perception regarding with the image of the organization (KAMASAK & BULUTLAR, 2008). It is also supported by the articulation that employees in the organization usually desires that they are perceiving the right information from management and even the organization is challenging downsizing problem, such transparency of information and excellent communication can pertain the surviving employees (Optum, 2015).

Furthermore, the above authors’ findings and arguments haven’t reflected that some difficulties and problems regarding with communication which can be arisen from different viewpoints. But Alpenberg and Scarbrough strongly advocated that language barrier in both hearing or writing problem, difficulty in understanding unclear accents can troublesome for visualization for communication of important messages to pass among individuals or teams for business organizations (Alpenberg & Scarbrough, 2016). Besides, Taylor debated that In order to improve the internal communications and to overcome the some barriers of communication, the organization need to practice available communication ways and apply information-sharing tool like some smart chat application for teamwork collaboration rather than email (Taylor, 2013).

Therefore, it can be realized that if the intrinsic communication practice is not enough to achieve satisfaction through communication, the corporate might not attract employees’ job satisfaction due to the lack of effective organizational commitment, which is vital to the organization’s manager to be effective.

2.2.4       Remuneration Package

Remuneration packages are usually planned to pay towards the employees for their designated roles and right remuneration scheme will leverage their motivation on the corporate for their career life (AKHTAR, et al., 2016). Employee retention is challenging for any organization and it becomes the major issue for management as remuneration satisfaction is important as one of the dimensions of job satisfaction perception and impacting their turnover intention (Ryan & Sagas, 2009). Hayford, 2009 articulated that the organization can apply the suitable remuneration strategy justifying with organizational HR budget and even slightly value-added remuneration programs has effect on organizational performance and employee (Hayford, 2009).

Even though these authors haven’t covered that how the remuneration programs can be overloading for the organization by the unstable economic changes, Haile, 2002 makes the arguments about that the drastic changes of economic environments, tax policies changes by government and other environment changes can cause the difficulties for remuneration system of organization (Haile, 2002). On the contrary, satisfaction about salary is the most important factor of organizational rewards as the degree of satisfaction is achieved as an intensity of perceptual acceptance level between the actual compensation level recognized by staffs and the expected level of compensation (Shittu, 2008). So, the effective and appropriate remuneration plan can develop staffs’ productivity, capacity and working practice to expand effective motivator abilities.

Additionally, it is suggested that organizations need to well-design reward systems in order to make the implementation of strategies and policies to reward the employees fairly for reducing payment dissatisfaction and encouraging the productivity by consistently aligning to the values of the organization complying with the knowledges and perceptions of each employee (Chepkwony, 2014). However, the author haven’t claim how to evaluate that remuneration plan currently applying has fairness or not and it is recommended that the company should use equity theory to justify the current remuneration system. It is also suggested that equity theory can be underpinned to use for any compensation system due to the fairness among employees (Moragwa, 2013).

According to the Equity theory review in section 2.2, it have already been proved that the organization should balance both internal equity of pay which means the individual rate of pay need to be adjusted with the kind of work load performed and external equity of pay which considers the compensation system should be fair compared with other people in same type of organizations (Milkovich & Newman, 2005). Therefore, it is undoubtedly realized that the management should provide fair remuneration package to justify the gap between the expected and realistic conditions to upraise the employee job satisfaction intended for reduction of turnover intentions (Li, et al., 2014).

2.2.5       Employee Benefits

Employee benefits can be stated as optional, non-monetary compensation additional to their normal income and wages (Jones, 2005) and on the other hand, it can be identified as the components of remuneration rather than cash pay (Armstrong, 2010). Employer should offer different types of benefits like health insurance, safety and pension plans which needs to be competitive and such benefits offerings are associated with employee benefit satisfactions from the perception of HRM practice (Nishii & Wright, 2008). It is realized that although Nishii and Wright suggested the different types of employee benefits should be provided to leverage the employee benefits satisfaction, the authors haven’t categorize the different employee benefits categories and still miss the fact that which benefit category should be chosen for which condition.

However, Marsh and Kleiner augmented that employee benefits can be categorized for various types in which basic major benefits like social security, compensation for unemployment and non-monetary benefits like pension, health insurance and flexible time arrangement like rest or lunch time (Marsh & Kleiner, 2004). The cafeteria approach, one of the well-known principle of employee benefits is based on the belief that the employers should let their employees to choose their benefit plan individually but it is suggested that the company should limit the benefit budget for each employee (Armstrong & Harlis, 2007). It can be seen that, the cafeteria approach will have some limitations about employees’ benefits plan for company regarding with non-monetary benefits like training programs which is commonly beneficial for teams and groups of employees.

There are more extra and hidden benefits for employees like training programs for skills development of staffs and the obvious benefits like social security, retirement insurance, paid maternity/parental leave to leverage the satisfaction level of employee and deduce intention to leave. (Khuong* & Tien, 2013).  Substantially, employee benefits are an alternative to wages, which may increase employee satisfaction because the rate of tax for fringe benefits is low related to normal income (Baughman, et al., 2003). Different Employee Types like contract and permanent employees can have different perception of loyalty towards the company and loyal employees try to fulfil their competitive level of job performance (Drizin, 2003). Meanwhile, it can be asserted that contract employees have few loyalty and poor job performance due to the short job agreement on their designated roles which can cause very few opportunities on employee benefits allowance leading towards employee turnover intention (Anwar, et al., 2011).

The author also highlights that the employee benefits and wages difference cannot be certainly articulated based on gender differences in the global labour market trends (Ñopo, et al., 2012). It can be assumed that either male or female employees are perceiving the equal chances to get employee benefits plan which can have equal impact on their job satisfaction level and intention to leave from the organizations. Also, according to SHRM’s comprehensive 2016 Employee Benefits report findings, it can be concluded as there is no significant satisfaction perception on employee benefits based on their income or wages level (Miller, 2016). Thus, it is suggested that the organization ought to explore majority of the staff’s requirements and outstanding incentives, including vacation plans, corporate loans to provide cars, occupational welfare and education development, developing or leveraging learning opportunities and ultimately to the relevant fringe benefits system which is capable by the organization financial strength (Artz, 2010).

2.2.6       Organizational Commitment

Organizational commitment is referred to as the psychological contract for the employees and the organization with loyalty and reduce their turnover intentions (Griffin, et al., 2010). It is pointed out that the shortage of manpower can seriously cause the overloading for employee workload by high intensity of job to carry out and stimuli the turnover intention of employee by lower organizational commitment. (Qiao, et al., 2011). There is a common belief on that if an organization can effectively and efficiently enhances the job satisfaction of the employees, it can also develop the organization commitment of the employees (Chang, 2015).

Recent numerous researchers have discovered that there is a rigid interrelationship between organizational commitment and ethical construct where self-evaluation culture can improve the organizational commitment (Cullen, et al., 2003). It is articulated that even though employees has positive emotions and perceptions about organizations, it can also be un-satisfaction issues for them about their jobs (Çelik, 2008). But, other researchers (Daneshfard & Ekvaniyan, 2012; Eslami & Gharakhani, 2012) argued that there has significant positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfactions of employees which also reflect their turnover intentions.

There has different job intensities for the employees at different level and there will be perceived organizational commitment between when such employees can solve complex problems or issues which can be arisen for such employees by their different roles (WYK, et al., 2003). Organizational commitment of the employees can be evaluated in different way in which (OBWOYERE, 2016) articulated that it can be measured by the terms of two points of view: acceptance of corporate goals and values with employment loyalty. The subsequent effect of organizational commitment can be significantly evaluated by job satisfaction and their willingness to stay with the organization (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). It is not realized to say that there will be organizational commitment of the employees even they have moderate level of job satisfaction and employee retention

However, Fu & Deshpande, 2014 argues that job satisfaction has direct effect on turnover intention of the employees and also on the employee performance. Moreover, by the drastic change of the environment, the organization should find the alternate ways to build organizational commitment in order to drive the competitive advantages of the organizations (Muafi, 2017). But the organization need to consider the other satisfiers influencing the turnover intention of employees’ addition to organizational commitment because it can be time consuming to develop best organizational commitment perception (Tomé, 2016).

2.2.7       Leadership, Supervision and Management

Leadership can be seen as a wider aspect of the way leading at different eras and it can be identified as the way of overwhelming the followers to achieve the goals and objectives (Madlock, 2008). Meanwhile, supervision can be identified as the routine of procedures which offer the required resources, operating guideline and intrinsic skill management of professional to carry out the goals and objectives of the organization (Janosik, et al., 2003). Likewise, modernize principle about management, management 3.0 have identified the management as the dramatic of innovation, inspiration of leadership and can be equally seem as actionable leadership (Appelo, 2017).

It is highlighted by different authors that Leadership plays as an important indicator of efficiencies for corporates and different authors articulated that there has some correlation between leadership style, supervision nature and employee job satisfaction (Malik, 2011; Seo et al., 2004; Nissa, 2003; Mosadeghrad, 2003a; Vance and Larson, 2002; Chiok Foong Loke, 2001; Dunham-Taylor, 2000; Stordeur et al., 2000). But it has not covered that how these different leadership or supervision style impacted on job satisfactions of the employees. It has been found out that a “consideration” leadership style has positive effect on organizational commitment and job satisfaction and an “initiating structure” leadership style possesses positive effect on organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Lok & Crawford, 2004).

Moreover, Downey et al., 1975 have highlighted that higher level for employment satisfactory perception under directive leadership behaviour while tasks are highly structured and under supportive state. By the path-goal theory of leadership theory, various studies suggest that leader reward behaviours are reflected to job performance and satisfaction. (Palanski, et al., 2013) make the critical comparison that ethical leadership basically highlight the appropriate manner that has been proved to have positive interrelation with job satisfaction while autocratic leadership undertakes normatively inappropriate manner that has been proved to possess negative outcomes. Accordingly, it is recommended to leaders and top managerial roles of the organization who actually have willingness to undergo change management are suggested to allow the every job functions based on the perception of fairness in order to keep the job satisfaction level and to avoid the act of resistance to change (Riolli & Savicki, 2006).

It is also asserted that it can be significantly seen that managers or leaders who have fewer emotional intelligence level and weak leadership trait will have a few chances to perceive the employee satisfaction (Hsu, 2011).From the above reviews of literature, it is strongly recommended that managers or leaders need to select the best style of leadership varied to organizational culture of current company and employees’ organizational experience on issues regarding followers perceptive and maturity on underlying leadership styles.

2.2.8       Working Conditions

Working condition can be referred to the condition at workplace under which the job is carry out and some of the employees can be completely comfortable while some others can be tight by the external conditions that include environmental impacts like weather, noise and other harmful conditions (Bakotić & Babić, 2013). (Mokaya, et al., 2013) has articulated that there has a strong interrelated association between working condition and job satisfaction intensity. Also, it has strongly suggested that the organizations should improve the respective working condition as it has the positive implications on employee performance and can support the attainment of organizational objectives (Eluka & Nwonu, 2014).

Working Conditions are formed by the planning and organizing of some workable methods, policies and employment design which are the critical parts of the employee motivation to improve the productivity and organizational growth which in turn reflect their turnover intention (Wang, et al., 2013). Although, these authors have identified the importance of working condition which is influencing on job satisfaction perceptions of the employees, it has not still covered that how the workplace issues like job stress and lack of job security can defect the employee job satisfaction. However, Bo¨ckerman & Ilmakunnas, 2008 argued that the adverse working conditions are critical determinants of increasing the absences rate by sickness or other concerns and reducing employees’ commitment to work and satisfaction which leads to employee turnover intention.

On the contrary, it is suggested that the organization should improve the working conditions by improving safety at work, development and training of employees and applying appropriate ICT tools and techniques so that the employees’ motivation will be arisen (Bakotić & Babić, 2013). Embse, Desai and Desai (2004) suggest that ethical standards and policies, such as ethical norms, beliefs and codes, are another prominent aspect of working conditions. By the practical experiences, it is highly suggested that managers should be aware the employee’s feedback to organizational issues to support them to state their opinions and perceptions and it can strengthen (Hsiung & Yang, 2012). Garg & Rastogi (2006) also proposes different ways to effectively conceptualize the positions of each employee so that such designations are the most relevant for the purpose and vision by the organization and their interpersonal development to enhance planning, self-management skills of the employees in order to get their loyalty to the organization.

It seems highlighted to develop the average employment satisfactory perception through appreciation through the implementation of open rule and bidirectional communication between the upper and lower levels. It is undoubtedly realistic to cultivate the morale and performance behaviours of the staffs, to enhance the overall job satisfaction, to decrease their turnover intention (Ling & Toh, 2014).

2.2.9       Colleagues (Co-workers)

Co-worker’s support can be defined as their desire to support each other with cooperation, respect and appreciation and it is widely identified by enormous literatures on co-worker support which can have a direct impact on the positive perception of the employees’ job satisfaction (Kwok & Wai, 2005). It is suggested that co-worker friendship can deduce job tension, level up the communication, cooperation strength by reducing the feelings of less cooperation and uncertainty by sharing more information and understanding other feelings (Hamilton, 2007). The co-workers relationship is needed to be emphasized by the organization as it is positively related to the job satisfaction degrees of the employees (Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008). However, these authors haven’t covered the contradictory perceptions how the co-worker relationship can have adverse effects on employee job satisfaction.

Dar, 2010 articulated that having trust in co-workers can negatively related to productive working behaviour meanwhile Ng and Sorenson (2008) also support the negative dimensions relating to co-worker relationship as support from co-worker can cause the weaker ability or performance of the employees. Apart from this, it can’t be overwhelmed to the fact that the interpersonal relationship among co-workers is the major aspect for the employee job satisfaction to enhance and keep the belief and optimistic thinking of the team spirit, and to work with colleagues, interrelationship is reason for socialization and development teamwork spirit. Similarly, Mustapha (2013) emphasized the continued involvement of good colleagues’ interpersonal relationships, between administrators and their employees, as an important part of identifying and determining employee productivity.

Similarly Co-worker support can be categorized as two types of support, emotional support which can bear the perception of caring and empathy while instrumental support can bring the problem solving or communication of information among the employees (Semmer, et al., 2008). Denying colleague relationships may decrease employee’s job satisfaction or level up intention to leave because of the less cooperative character by staffs and lack of mutual respect (Dar, 2010). Moreover, the intercultural changes among the employees from different locations should practice the sharing ideas of diversity and knowledge to perceive better productivity and professional confidence. This can create the atmosphere of better relationships with colleagues to cooperate effectively (Chen, et al., 2010).

Moreover, it is asserted by that co-worker relationship is affective and in which individuals are intended to substitute to serve as surrogates for family and typically supporting the interpersonal needs of the employees (Paul & Melanie, 2012). It can also increases employee confidence awareness and employee morale to deduce intention to leave and make financial strength higher from the perspective of corporate workforce (Forret, 2008).

2.2.10  Nature of work

The nature of work is to recognize employees’ perceptions of their own working conditions themselves and how they recognize the royalty to work and the intention by that they work happily together along in corporate for long-term cooperation (Scott-Ladd, et al., 2006). WOLFE & KIM, 2013 articulated that both organizations and stakeholders need to adapt to external rapid changes by applying updated technologies and it is required to handle such nature of work as it is highlighted that these drastic changes can troublesome employee morale and lose their royalty by perceiving the overloaded behaviour of the organization. There is a prominent fact that skill labours like professional employees want to perceive somewhat meaningful and beneficial which will be acquired by modern workforce that is well educated and intelligent (Fook, et al., 2011).

Moreover, the IT workforce has major concerns of where IT professionals care their responsibility for their career and desire to migrate to companies which have the opportunities and competitive workforce for ever changing IT marketplace (Eby, 2012). Subsequently, it is supported by the argument that the larger impacts to the employees’ morale can seriously decrease the organizational products and service qualities as such employees have their own expectations about work-life balance (Valaei & Rezaei, 2016). Accordingly it is highlighted for creating a space to learn under sustainable learning conditions and expanding respective to the high competency market and needs, this is substantially argued to balance the capacity of every employee with the need for organizations to create an atmosphere of working environment active and confident, dynamically related to the organization’s best habits, it changes to effective degree of knowing and experiencing to best habits (Kalkhoff & Collins, 2012).

It is significantly differentiated that the nature of work can stimulate the overall job satisfaction of IT employees contributed by the relations with supervisors based on job intensity (Menon & Thingujam, 2012). Molleman pointed out that while the job nature based on multi-level teamwork, that can develop the efficiency and capacity building of organizations and employees through different teams in different knowledge sharing (Molleman, 2005).

2.2.11  CSR Participation Availability

Employee’s perception on CSR are likely to perceive positive effect on organizational commitment as CSR activities can motivate, enhance the employees’ self-image and ethical morale by leveraging the alignment of personal traits within the organization (Farooq, et al., 2014). Employees and stakeholders are intensively to possess positive perceptions by organizations while these employees have realized that CSR activities of the organization can positively develop their professional identity (Leea, et al., 2013). Chiang also articulated that CSR is a valuable and useful strategy for efficiently and effectively managing human resources by developing the organizational belief and employee’s satisfaction perception (Chiang, 2010). Therefore, it is strongly articulated that company’s CSR participation can be recognized by employees to influence the employee perceptions by working environments and this will affect job satisfaction perception and employee induction to level up significant competitive advantages in the marketplace (Nair & Sodhi, 2012).

Moreover, it has been increased in the loyalty for the organizations and job satisfaction level while the employees can see that their corporates can fulfill their expectation by CSR implementations at workplace (Piecyk & Björklund, 2015). Although these authors have prescribed mostly the effectiveness of CSR activities and policies to the employees, they haven’t covered how CSR can positively affect to the organizational measures such as reputation and competitiveness. The author argues that CSR can establish the good reputations for business and increase the attractiveness to employees and job applicants (Cheruiyot & Maru, 2012). The companies can leverage the stakeholders’ economical and legal expectations by fulfilling for undergoing their goals and satisfying the different requirements.

CSR implementations that fulfill the requirements of the employee as organizational commitment can level up the employment loyalty and job satisfaction as well (TUZCU, 2014). According to these factors, organizational CSR implementation can bring up the opportunities for each employee for their proud or satisfaction on the value they have done for the environment or society (Ilkhanizadeh & Karatepe, 2017). Employees can perceive the social responsibility value on their mind and the feelings for commitment on their effort with the consideration of not only the monetary but also the ethical values on their efforts (Tziner, et al., 2011). Employee both CSR-induced intrinsic and extrinsic attributions will positively correlate to employee job satisfaction. The researchers have made a proof that the management of employee CSR-induced intrinsic attributions factors significantly in that it is interrelated with an important resultant factor like job satisfaction (Vlachos, et al., 2013).

2.3        Summary

In summary, the research framework obtained for this paper work is shown in Figure 1. Therefore, the eleven aspects of the job satisfaction facets formulated above are recognized as independent variables, and the intention to leave appears as a dependent variable of the present study to comprehensively identify and explore the facets of work satisfactory perception that affect work motivation. By the aims of identifying the most prominent facets from all of them, the compulsory requirement is to continue an empirical research based on empirical data. Thus, in the next chapter, we discuss the research method applied to this empirical research, each hypothesis, research philosophy, research strategy, data collection technology, ethical problem, research limitation.

2.3.1       Hypothesis Development

H1: There has a correlation between every job satisfaction facets influencing on employees’ intention to leave.

Additionally, one more hypothesis will be taken out as below beyond the most prominent work satisfactory facet is drawn out.

H2: Between some of the demographic variables, there is a different job satisfaction perception of the most significant job satisfaction facet.

Chapter 3: Research Methods

3.1        Introduction

The work of this research paper have different purposes, along with the context of job satisfactory perception that impacts on the intention to leave of an employee. Chapter 2 “Review of literature” focuses on various important dimensions of job satisfaction included in this survey, which influence the intention to leave of DIR-ACE Technology. Therefore, this chapter will support the highlights of research method and methodology underpinning in this research. Subsequently, in Chapter 2 and 3, we associate research aims and objectives one and two, which specify the power of relationships between various job satisfactory perception levels and their turnover intention relating to DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd’s adapted from JSS framework. Likewise, this chapter will support research philosophy, research strategy, research methodology and data collection method including research design, and sample selection method applied to the empirical data collection of this paper. Moreover, the additional ethical issues and research limitations of the designated research approach will be discussed.

3.2        Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is associated with the idea of ​​how to approach, construct and build knowledge and conduct in aligning with the method of preparing to complete the research by understanding of researchers. It is considered and incorporated into the corresponding research to evaluate a result, relevant research methodologies and strategies that is able to be made flexible from researchers. As such, researchers have been proposed to apply either a methodological paradigm: both qualitative, quantitative and integrated. It is widely accepted that research ideas can be viewed as three substantial perceptions of epistemology, ontology, and axiology. Among them, epistemology is conceptualized as a concept of knowledge perspective, knowledge implications and how it is evaluated as being accepted. Therefore, ontology emphasizes the reality of nature and its behaviour. Conversely, axiology identify value and its important role. Under the theory of epistemology, three major philosophical paradigms of positivism, realism, interpretiveism were comprised.

3.2.1       Positivism Research

The positivism approach is based on observation, identification and drawn out of hypotheses and theories, establishing relevant research strategies for verifying those hypotheses, and collecting highly reliable data accordingly, thereby obtaining natural scientific for the concept of being believed as a viewpoint is established (Easterby-Smith, et al., 1991). Researchers of positivists have the recognition that there is only one truth that survives independence from the boundaries of human thought. This truth can be decided in advance and explained (Everest, 2014). Under this positivism philosophy method, researchers need to undertake by the concept of a substantial analyst’s role with a degenerated emotional interpretation of the collected data (Saunders, et al., 2009).

Positivism researchers examine the adaptation of the research knowledge can reflect the reality, and the predetermined reflection and its shadow may deviate from the interest and knowledge of research as subjectivism intervention. In addition, the positivist researchers say that by distinguishing the interrelationships between the consequences and effects of each variable, the knowledge we obtain from the study can collect the details of the appropriate implementation modality (Fisher, et al., 2010).

3.2.2       Realism Research

The realistic approach is practical and is thought to share a specific philosophical dimension of positivism. Realism is supposed to what the consistency and trustiness towards reality formation should not change by human beings and living things, regardless of own thought, emotion, natural science concept, but defines the meaning of social interpretation to understand reality, discovering social influences, structures, systems, procedures, processes, and maintaining human behaviour, dimensions, and their culture (Saunders, et al., 2009).

3.2.3       Interpretivism Research

An interpretive approach is proposed to explore conceptualization of emotions from the perceivable mind, such as people’s thinking and specific problems, problem concerns, incidents. Sanders, Lewis and Tornhill declared that interpretivist researchers ought to find the intended stimulus and its deep interpretation to see the reality of the states and to shape people’s behaviour.

3.2.4       Adopted Philosophy for this research

In this research, we apply a positivism philosophy and implement a qualitative data collection method rather than quantitative for acquiring a wide range of knowledge to make a hypothesis. The findings of this study may be specialized results that tested these hypotheses complicatedly using the collected data.

3.3        Research Methodologies and Tools

In this paper, the research is conducted on how the employee’s job satisfaction perception facets of DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd. impacts the turnover intentions of employees. The framework of research articulated in this paper is adapted from a model, Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) implemented by Spector (Spector, 2004) complied with well-known motivation theories: Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and two process theories of motivation: Adam’s Equity Theory, Expectancy theory.

This research paper is intended to investigate various factors of significant job satisfaction that currently affects the basic motivation for employees to continue working longer or resigning sooner or later. There are efficient ways to overwhelm the motivation and actively participating rate of respondents to be underpinned and bring the interested survey design to be distributed without expanding unanswered or response errors (Jonker & Kosse, 2013). Interrelationship can be found among data regarding job satisfactory perception and turnover intention of the employees which can be arranged from the viewpoint of consistency of gathered data.

The collected information is analysed via a descriptive approach to get the information by current progress in this condition. In this approach, there will be the results of how the dependent and independent variables are related to each other over the distribution of the questionnaire or survey. The quantitative approach is suitable for the proof of hypothesis tests on systematic diagnosis of data on specific problem areas to inference from the point of formulating a specific framework and quantifying and converting the collected data into information. It is often characterized as ordinary (Bryman, 1984).

By stating above, quantitative survey methods will be conducted to gather data from all IT employees except managerial positions such as team leads, project managers, department managers and senior positions at DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd in recognition of job satisfaction with the organization. Although the exit interview method is accessible to investigate the interrelationship of turnover intentions by employees of the enterprises, but now researcher is working as a freelance IT engineer and consultant, so that the organization has an internal data privacy disclaimer restriction to arrange interviews with management levels. Therefore, it is not relevant to gather data from serviced employees who have subordinates for the reason of why all team members interfere with the minority responses by ensuring subjective confused reactions and the influence of power on the remaining employees. Hence, this can improve the consistency of the data for its immediate manager or senior executive. Workplace satisfaction with senior positions and regular IT engineers’ remuneration and benefits with different level of employee perception may not be equal at each job satisfaction facet.

3.4        Research Approach

There are two leading research methods: induction and deduction where the deductive approach is clearly understandable because it is more likely to constrain the principles of positivist philosophy, whereas the induction is considered to be more relevant to interpretivist philosophy (Saunders, et al., 2007). Thus, the deductive approach is applied as it is a more scientific way to test these assumptions by hypothesis development as well as appropriately designed research strategies. Therefore, the relevant and suitable sample size is needed to summarize the research theory to test and prove by exploring the causal relationship between each specific identification variables.

Accordingly, induction is more appropriate to design, collect data and analyse those gathered data in order to support new implications as findings of this research method (Saunders, et al., 2007). It is related to qualitative data collection techniques while the deductive approach is associated with quantitative data collection. This approach involves conceptualizing the research objectives and the point of view related to the research area by forecasting the gathered data will build a useful findings.

3.5        Research Strategy

Research strategy plays as an important role in achieving research goals, it has been developed as a plan to address research issues. There are different research strategies, like case studies, surveys, practical experiments, and background theory and action research. It is suggested to choose the most relevant strategy when it is necessary to perceive the designed research objectives and to propose solutions to the research questions (Yin, 2003). In all of these research strategies, the survey strategy will be employed for this study. Survey strategies are well known and are commonly used in research and in-depth research on business and management. The survey strategy is very useful for measuring and identifying the information of respondents.

Ultimately, the survey strategy is accepted as a useful strategy for collecting quantitative data, and it also helps to identify variables and analyse relationships between them (Saunders, et al., 2007). By the results of the previous research projects, the questionnaire is the most commonly used technique in the survey strategy, and it can be used to collect and generate standardized data for efficient analysis and benchmarking (Saunders, et al., 2007). The questionnaire may be developed based on the appropriate sample size or population, which may be applied only to the designated selection area of interest to the researcher. Subsequently, it was very effective in significantly reducing overall research costs (Ticehurst & Veal, 1999). Therefore, this study applied a questionnaire survey methodology to collect sample data of IT staffs from DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd., and then apply the collected data to the hypothesis test.

3.6        Data Collection: Research Design and Sample Selection Methods

The independent variables undergoing in this paper are specific factors that affect employee job satisfaction: talent training, promotion, communication, remuneration, employee benefits, organizational commitment, leadership, supervision and management, working condition, colleague (co-workers) and CSR participation in availability. On the other hand, the dependent variable involved in this paper work is the employee’s turnover intention (see Figure 1 in the past chapter).

3.6.1       Sample Selection Method

The survey collected data is used in this research to collect the data from the questionnaire distributed at DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd by applying sample selection criteria for only IT professionals not including senior positions, business operation management, business partners and so on. In this way, a purposive sampling strategy is applied to select specific people and specific groups to match the specifications and characteristics of the research purpose, goals, and research areas (Ismail, et al., 2012). A sample of 135 professional respondents will be selected from the IT department of DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd., which is the main department to coordinate our organizational sustainability and grower business to significantly expand the organization’s profitability.

3.7        Data Collection Methods, Techniques and Procedures

Different methods are eligible to collect data by mail, phone, personal and group in-depth interviews and Internet / e-mail systems (Dillman, 2000a; Dillman, 2000b). Each technique has advantages and weaknesses, and these advantages and weaknesses certainly depend on the length of the survey to fill the length of time and the cost of implementation (Fowler, 1993). The direct closed survey distribution method is chosen to explore the employee satisfaction behaviour via the various categories of questionnaires as it is cost-effective among different methods (Neuman, 2003).  Researcher of this study is also one of the employees with more than two years of experience in the current department, so this paper work can improve the responsiveness and reliability perception of respondents or sample populations through investigations.

In this way, the researchers argue that the major weakness of employee morale, and job dissatisfaction is a major factor in the high turnover of the employees, reflecting the productivity for organization and the recruitment of new employees, the promotion opportunities of remaining employees, the gap between knowledge. Since the researcher worked within the organization for over three years, he established a relationship with more than half of the departments. He has good interrelationships among all teams within the department. Consequently, the authority to distribute survey questionnaires and collect data is planned through appreciation with individual teams, not only by conversations with their respective department head but also by the support of HR department approval. Thus, direct survey distribution technique is applied in this research with mail delivery technique to widely reach the respondents at IT department.

Therefore, the sealed envelope labelled with the expiry date are distributed to all employees to fill in any convenient time. Since each participant will donate 500 kyats as reward to a particular charitable organization, such as the Myanmar Red Cross, by answering survey of the researcher. As mentioned above, the information collected will be analysed by descriptive method on the IT-department of DIR-ACE Technology Limited. Moreover, the distributed questionnaires are arranged in multiple sections in order to be able to be filled by the respondents at their convenient time.

3.8        Ethical Issues

In terms of ethical issues, there are three major ethical issues which ought to be taken in to account for current study. Firstly, before the researcher begins to distribute any questionnaires, the researcher will make all participants fill the individual consent form to understand the topic areas and other relevant information of the study. Secondly, the study should also keep inform detailed goals, procedures, and functional procedures for the respondents who were selected prior to the distribution of the survey.

Third, privacy and confidentiality are primarily intended to convince the respondents of the beliefs and to deal with the most relevant and reliable data from the respondents (Saunders, et al., 2009). By the rights of the respondents in this study, they had the authority to request a summary of the findings of the current research. It is provided by the document. ‘Information Sheet to Respondents’ (Refer to Appendix 2 at the end of all chapters) to inform the aims and objectives of the research and to increase the reliability and validity of the research.

3.9        Research Limitations

Some of the research limitations can be identified in this paper work. Firstly, time and budget constraints may be the main limitation of this study. Secondly, by the use of the purposive sampling strategy, the researchers can effectively collect data from DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd by focusing IT professionals to collect the data. However, this may be challenging, and it is not sufficient to represent the entire population of all employees in each organization, job satisfaction, awareness, and consequent replacement of all possible job satisfaction facets, due to the limited sample size prescribed in this study.

Thirdly, the potential possible data bias may arise since each respondent can only answer the survey questions based on their personal experience and their work environment but they may hide their actual perception to the research problem due to their promotional opportunities. The fourth limitation of this study may be limitation of numbers of independent variables that affect the intention to leave of employees.

3.10   Summary

This chapter mainly discusses the research methodology applied in the current study. This study applies positivist research philosophy and quantitative research rather than qualitative research as deductive research approach will be applied accordingly. Accordingly, the survey strategy is used to collect the primary data for IT professionals at DIR-ACE Technologies and purposive sampling strategies are used for sample selection, data collection, and direct closed survey distribution techniques to distribute surveys in current research. Finally, the study critically advocates the recognition of potential ethical issues of data privacy, the identity and confidentiality of respondents, as well as in-depth study of the scope and limitations of the study and the upcoming data bias.

Chapter 4: Survey Findings, Data Analysis and Discussion

4.1        Introduction

This chapter presents the findings and explanations with each categorized sections. Initially, it provides the efficiencies and reliability of the current study to validate all the data collected from the questionnaire. Subsequently, it discusses the demographic analysis of 89 respondents in the study by descriptive statistical method. Thus, it can show the findings of the eleven factors of job satisfaction with hypothesis test to validate perceived employee turnover intentions.

The aims and findings of the test are to meet the third objectives of this research which is to explore the most significant and fairly interrelated factors affecting the employee’s turnover intention whether positive or negative in order to successfully hire and retain skilled IT professionals with the help of this research findings. Therefore, the next part is carried out with some demographic factors to explore the strongest relationship between each job satisfaction factor for the employees impacting on their turnover intentions which have serious defects in the work outcomes of the employees.

Microsoft Excel 2013 is used to simplify and merge the initial raw data collected, and SPSS 22.0 is also applied in the current study to analyse the data and calculate to provide meaningful information and results.

4.2        Validity and Reliability Testing

Reliability and validity testing is needed to carry out to determine whether the survey questions applied in this study are eligible to reach the expected research objectives. It is articulated that validity is a very important factor needed to be taken into account when evaluating a definite concept (Heo, et al., 2015). Similarly, Bonett and Wright also mentioned that project consistency measurement is the main criterion for the reliability of research results (Bonett & Wright, 2015). Thus, Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is the most commonly used tool for testing consistency and reliability by running SPSS reliability testing in this study.

Thus, George & Mallery (2003) mentions that Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is a value between 0 and 1. If Cronbach’s alpha is greater than 0.9, it has excellent reliability. If Cronbach’s alpha is between 0.8 and 0.9, it is good for reliability. Similarly, if Cronbach’s alpha is between 0.7 and 0.8, it is considered to be an acceptable reliability. However, if Cronbach’s alpha is between 0.6 and 0.7, it is reliable. Thus, if Cronbach’s alpha is between 0.5 and 0.6, there is a weak reliability. In the worst case, if Cronbach’s alpha is less than 0.5, it is not acceptable in reliability (George & Mallery, 2003). The reliability test results of this study are shown in Table 1 below. It can be seen that all the coefficient alpha scores of all factors and variables are greater than 0.7, which implies and indicates that the questionnaire developed for this study is reliable and acceptable at each factor by the internal consistency.

As mentioned above, this study applies the Spector JSS framework in 2004 complied with content theories of motivation: Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and two process theories of motivation: Adam’s Equity Theory, Expectancy theory.  Secondly, the proposed design of the four aspects of questionnaire of Spector’s JSS framework for one factor is simplified to constitute only three aspects of questionnaire in order to reduce the time consumption of the respondents and to improve their response consistency to the study accordingly.

Table 1 Reliability Check

Reliability Test and Statistics
Factors Items N Cronbach’s Alpha
Employees’ Satisfaction
Perceived on Talent Development
3 89 .790
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Promotion 3 89 .773
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Communication 3 89 .808
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Remuneration Package 3 89 .781
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Employee Benefits 3 89 .774
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Organizational Commitment 3 89 .808
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Leadership, Supervision and Management 3 89 .810
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Working Conditions 3 89 .777
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Coworkers 3 89 .785
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on Nature of Work 3 89 .770
Employees’ Satisfaction Perceived on CSR Participation Availability 3 89 .762
Employees’ Turnover Intention 1 89 .916
Total Number 34 89

Source: Developed for own research

4.3        Descriptive analysis of statistics on Demographic Variables

In this section, descriptive statistical methods is used to analyse the raw data collected on the basis of demographic profiles and identities. According to the descriptive statistics this study, the frequency and the percentage of summary statistics are clearly verified. These data include the number of work years in the organization, the level of education of employees, the type of staff, gender, age, marital status and their annual income rate.

4.3.1    Analysis of Worked Years


Table 2 Worked Years of the Employees

Number of Years worked in this organization.
Worked Years Frequency
(No of Respondents)
Less than one year 5 5.6
1 to 3 years 26 29.2
3 to 6 years 47 52.8
6 to 10 years 8 9.0
more than 10 years 3 3.4
Total 89 100.0
Source: Job Satisfaction Survey

Figure 5 Worked Years of the Employees

Respondents based on variable: Worked Years (Descriptive Analysis)

According to Table 2 and Figure 4, the 5 or 5.6% of the respondents have working experience of 1 year or less, 26 or 29.2% of the respondents have 1 to 3 years of working experience, 47 or 52.8% of respondents have 3 to 6 years of working experience respectively. Among the employees, there are only 8 or 9.0% of respondents having working experience of 6 to 10 years and very few number of respondents, 3 or 3.4% of all respondents have the working experience for more than 10 years according to this employee survey and Table 10 indicates its summary statistics.

It can be seen that most of the employees of the company are employees having work experience between 3 and 6 years, and minority groups only have working experience more than 10 years. It can be significantly found out that there are very few number of employees with a larger number of working years and it is highlighting that the turnover of employees is relatively high and that the company need to keep its core employees longer. Other statistics are shown at Appendix 5.

4.3.2          Analysis of Education

Table 3 Education of the Employees

Education Level
Education Frequency
(No of Respondents)
Diploma 5 5.6
Bachelor’s Degree 80 89.9
Master Degree 4 4.5
Total 89 100.0

Figure 6 Education of the Employees

Respondents based on variable: Education (Descriptive Analysis)

According to Table 3 and Figure 5, among the total sample size of 89, there are 5 or 5.6% of respondents holding the diploma. Subsequently, 80 or 89.9% of the respondents are bachelor degree holders, as well as only 4 or 4.5 of the respondents are master’s degree holders. Table 11 shows its summary statistics and it can be seen that the majority of the company’s employees are bachelor degrees holders, the minority are master degree holders. There is no doctoral degree in the company and this shows that most of the educated employees in the organization are bachelor degree holders who are key persons and needed to retain them or recruit them in this competitive market to maintain this professional employees. Additional statistics are shown at Appendix 5.

4.3.3       Analysis of Types of Employees

Table 4 Employee Types of the Employees

Types of Employee
Employees’ Types Frequency Percent
Agency Contract 19 21.3
Direct Contract 50 56.2
Permanent 20 22.5
Total 89 100.0
Source: Job Satisfaction Survey


Figure 7 Employee Types of the Employees

Respondents based on variable: Employee Types (Descriptive Analysis)

According to Table 4 and Figure 6, there are only 19 or 21.3% of the respondents employed with agency contract meanwhile 50 or 56.2% of the respondents are working as direct contract employees in the organization. There are only 20 or 22.5% of permanent employees working in this organization according to this survey results. Table 12 shows its summary statistics and it can be seen that direct contracts and agency contracts are mostly among respondents and the minority is a permanent type of employee. This highlights that the opportunity to get permanent jobs migrated from contract employees is claimed to be extremely low and this may encourage employees’ willingness to leave for career development.

4.3.4       Analysis of Gender

Table 5 Gender of the Employees

Gender Frequency Percent
Male 50 56.2
Female 39 43.8
Total 89 100.0
Source: Job Satisfaction Survey


Figure 8 Gender of the Employees

Respondents based on variable: Gender (Descriptive Analysis)

According to Table 5 and Figure 7, it can be seen that there are 50 or 56 % of male respondents and 39 or 43.8% of female respondents contributing to this survey among the total sample size of 89. Table 13 shows the summary statistics and the data suggests that male employees are paying more attention to technology rather than female employees.

4.3.5    Analysis of Age

Table 6 Age of the Employees

Age Frequency Percent
Under 18 1 1.1
18-27 8 9.0
28-37 68 76.4
38-47 11 12.4
48-57 1 1.1
Total 89 100.0
Source: Job Satisfaction Survey

Figure 9 Age of the Employees

Respondents based on variable: Age (Descriptive Analysis)

According to Table 6 and Figure 8, there are 68 or 76.4% of the total respondents having the age between 28 to 37 years and only one 1 or 1.1% of the respondents having the age between 48 to 57 years by the survey results. Table 14 shows their summary statistics.

4.3.6       Analysis of Marital Status

Table 7 Marital Status of the Employees

Marital Status
Marital Status Frequency Percent
Married 50 56.2
Single 33 37.1
Divorced 5 5.6
Widow/ Widower 1 1.1
Total 89 100.0
Source: Job Satisfaction Survey


Figure 10 Marital Status of the Employees

Respondents based on variable: Marital Status (Descriptive Analysis)

According to Table 7 and Figure 9, in the total response sample size 89, it can be found out that 50 or 56.2% of the respondents are married meanwhile only 33 or 37.1% of the respondents are single, There has the least contribution, with 1 or 1.1% of the respondents with widow status in this employee survey, and Table 15 shows the summary statistics in Appendix 5.

4.3.7    Analysis of Annual Income

Table 8 Annual Income of the Employees

Annual Income Before Tax
Annual Income Frequency Percent
Under 2,000,000 Ks 8 9.0
2,000,000Ks – 4,999,999 Ks 75 84.3
5,000,000 Ks – 6,999,999 Ks 6 6.7
Total 89 100.0
Source: Job Satisfaction Survey


Figure 11 Annual Income of the Employees


Respondents based on variable: Annual Income (Descriptive Analysis)

Table 8 and Figure 10 supposed that it has been found that 75 or 84.3% or majority of the respondents working in this company have the income rate between 2,000,000 Ks and 4,999,999 Ks on the other hand,  6 or 6.7% or the least number of respondents out of total sample size have the income rate between 5,000,000 to 6,999,999. There is only 8 or 9% of the respondents who get the minimum annual income under 2,000,000 Ks. However, no respondents are found who earns 7,000,000 Ks and above based on the findings of the annual income rate contributing in survey data. Table 16 is shown in Appendix 5 for summary statistics.

4.3.8    Analysis of Employees’ Education Group by Gender

Table 9 Analysis of Employee Education Level group by Gender

Gender * Education Level Cross Tabulation
Education Level Total
Diploma Bachelor’s Degree Master Degree
Gender Male 4 43 3 50
Female 1 37 1 39
Total 5 80 4 89

Source: Job Satisfaction Survey

Figure 12 Education Level group by Gender

Respondents based on variable: Education Level Group by Gender (Descriptive Analysis)

By the results of the collected data at Table 9 and Figure 11, it is supposed that male employees are holding the degrees rather than female employees by comparing the numbers of male degrees holders with female degree holders. There are 4 male diploma holders, 3 male master degree holders and 43 male bachelor degree holders respectively. From the result of descriptive analysis, there is only one female employee diploma holder and only one female master degree holder. Accordingly, 37 female employees possess bachelor degree, it is highlighted that DIR-ACE Technology need to consider to balance the proportion of male and female by the education background.

4.4        Analysis of Correlations between Job Satisfaction and Employees’ Turnover Intention


Figure 13 Interrelations between Employees’ Turnover Intention and Job Satisfaction

According to Figure 18 in Appendix 5 and Figure 12, the relationship between employee turnover intention and perceived job satisfaction based on eleven facets is analysed as follows:

P-value (except communication and organizational commitment from all facets of job satisfaction) = 0.000, communication has value of 0.002, meanwhile the organizational commitment has the value of 0.001, less than 0.05. Thus, all perceived job satisfaction data indicate that each null hypothesis is rejected and there is the correlation between employee’s turnover intention and this eleven aspects of job satisfaction (talent development, promotion, communication, compensation, employee benefits, organizational commitment, leadership, supervision and management, Working conditions, colleague, nature of work and CSR participation).

The correlation coefficient (r) between employee turnover intention and employee benefit is -0.717. Accordingly, the second largest correlation coefficient (r) between the employee’s turnover intention and the nature of the work is -0.684. The coefficient between the turnover intention and the CSR participation availability, -0.652 which is the third largest. On the contrary, the interrelation between organizational communication and the turnover intention is the smallest coefficient value at -0.319.

As a result, employee benefit has a strongest negative linear relationship between employee turnover intentions. The second strongest relationship between turnover intention and work nature is observed as negative linear relationship. The third strongest negative linear relationship exists between turnover intention and CSR participation availability. On the contrary, the relationship between communication and turnover intention has the least negative linear relationship, and it may be the issues for future researchers.

Figure 14 Correlations Summary between Employees’ Turnover Intention and Job Satisfaction derived from Employee Benefits














Figure 15 Scattergram- Employees’ Turnover Intention Vs Employee Benefits

According to Figures 13 and 14, the coefficient of determination r2 is 51.4%. Therefore, every 51.4% change in employee turnover intention rate can be varied to change in employee job satisfaction, in which job satisfaction perceived by employee benefits is the strongest factor affecting the organization’s turnover intention. Thus, it is highlighting that it is needed for employees to get higher benefits, due to the inverse relationship and negative correlation value with the employee’s turnover intention.

4.5        Analysis of Association between the strongest job satisfaction factor ‘Employee benefits’ and some demographic variables

This section will examine the different job satisfaction perception perceived by employee benefits based on some demographic factors affecting employee turnover intention and thus can cover the indirect impact of some demographic factors to employee turnover intention regarding with the strongest factor of employee job satisfaction.

4.5.1       Perception of Employee Benefits based on Types of Employees

Three sets of samples were small (n1 = 19, n2 = 50, n3 = 20; n1 and n3 <30) for types of employees. Therefore, CLT cannot be applied, and all three sets of data cannot be assumed to be normal. Thus, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test is suitable for execution.

The followings are null and alternative hypotheses:

H0: There is no different sense of satisfaction for employee benefits between employee type groups.

H1: At least one employee type group has a different sense of satisfaction for employee benefits.






Figure 16 Kruskal-Wallis Test

5% (0.05) significant level will be used.

From Figure 15,

p-value = Asymp. Sig. = 0.012, less than 0.05. Thus the alternative hypothesis is accepted at the 5% significance level while the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, the data indicate that at least one employee type group has different satisfaction with employee benefits. This results also reflect the findings of demographic analysis in that there are higher contract positions regarding with the technician roles in our organization, DIR-ACE Technology as these professional roles has different job nature rather than other typical job roles. Most of the technical employees in our organizations are working on different technologies for different ICT projects and most of them may be required on short-term basis based on the project timeline.

As can be seen, there will be different job satisfaction perception by employee benefits among permanent and contract employment types as contract employees can get limited employee benefits plan compared to permanent employees

4.5.2       Perception of Employee Benefits based on Gender group

(N1 = 50 and n2 = 39, both are greater than or equal to 30), so the central limit theorem CLT can be applied, the two sets of data is assumed to be a normal distribution, the parameters of two independent samples T test is selected to be executed.

The followings are null and alternative hypotheses:

H0: There is no different sense of satisfaction for employee benefits between female and male.

H1: There has a different sense of satisfaction for employee benefits between female and male.

The hypothesis is conceptualized two tailed at 5% (0.05) significant level

Figure 17 Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test

Applying a 5% significance level:

H0: Equal variances of the two group are assumed

H1: Not equal variances of the two group are assumed

p-value = sig value = 0.749 > 0.05.

Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted and the equal variances are assumed.

According to Figure 16, p-value is as follows:

p-value = Sig. (2 tailed) = 0.387 which is greater than 0.05.

Therefore, null hypothesis is accepted. In summary, the data show that there is no different perception between women and men on reward in the organization.

4.5.3 Perception of Employee Benefits based on Annual Income

Three sets of samples were small (n1 = 8, n2 = 75, n3 = 6; n1 and n3 <30). Therefore, CLT cannot be applied, and assumed to be normal. Thus, the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test is suitable for execution.

The following are invalid and alternative hypotheses:

H0: There is no different sense of satisfaction for employee benefits between annual income groups.

H1: At least one of the annual income groups has a different sense of satisfaction for employee benefits.

Figure 18 Kruskal-Wallis Test

At, 5% (0.05) significant level.

As per Figure 17:

P value = Asymp. Sig. = 0.380 > 0.05. Thus, the null hypothesis is accepted, so the data show that there is no different sense of satisfaction with the employee benefits between the annual income groups. So, it can be articulated the fact that each annual income group accept the importance of wages and no different satisfaction perception about benefits packages regarding with their positions even they can get different amount of income level for each role.

It is highlighting that pay satisfaction can be associated to the commitment of each responsibility and DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd is paying technological professionals the right amount for the job being done which is a good sense of equity in the company with employees being satisfied with the wage structure and might be worthy of future research.

4.6        Summary

This chapter reports the findings of the study. Firstly, it describes a descriptive analysis of all demographic factors in frequency and percentage measurements. Secondly, it analyses the most and least significant facets of job satisfaction to the employee’s turnover intention. The results show that the employee’s benefit, the nature of work and the participation availability of corporate social responsibility are the most significant factors, and communication is the least significant factor of job satisfaction affecting on turnover intention of the employees.

In addition, communication is the least significant factor correlated the turnover intention of IT professionals of DIR-ACE technology. In addition, the last section examines a demographic factor, employee types indirectly affecting the job satisfaction of these employees. Therefore, the next chapter will re-examine the main purposes of this study, whether the findings to meet the objectives of the research and can be applied to give the future research with the implication direction.

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Directions of the Future Research

5.1        Introduction

The major research question employed in this study is about how the intensity of the job satisfaction facets perceived by the technical employees of the IT department on the employee’s turnover intention is affected. The theoretical framework of the relevant research data covers these expected research objectives, theoretical issues, and suggests the management of DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd. to strengthen and apply the organization’s best practices of HRM policies. This paper work is extensively designed to explore the interrelationships among the various employee job satisfaction facets as an essential component in order to build and develop the best relevant HR programs, practices and policies that will in turn affect the turnover intentions of these employees to perceive the loyalty for the future of the organization. It also provides a better understanding of the skills, knowledge required for management to enable them to fulfil the requirements and desires of their employees.

Thus, a survey of twelve sections was designed, where eleven aspects are related to job satisfaction, one section is regarding with turnover intention and one demographic section, respectively. In addition, various hypotheses are made to measure job satisfaction and the different factors and aspects of these factors, which are the major aspects employee job satisfaction of DIR-ACE technical professionals by the level of turnover intention. The purposive sampling strategy was adopted by choosing technical experts from the IT department of the DIR-ACE Technology and the questionnaires were distributed from the company’s human resources department. Subsequently, samples were obtained to collect the respondents’ responses questionnaires through the manually distributed through printed paper as described above. A total of 89 respondents are contributed to the current study from 135 sample sizes, and the 65.9% response rate was sufficiently acceptable for the study according to the Cronbach-alpha test in Chapter 3.

5.2        Summary and Discussion of the Research Result

Based on the findings of this research, it can be concluded that there are significant correlations between each job satisfaction factor and turnover intentions of the employees. It is interestingly found out more at some demographic facets like that there are very few numbers of longer worked years employees and large number of contract employees which are highlighting that current organization, DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd have big issues at employee retention. Subsequently, first hypothesis developed from the literature review section is supported by the findings that all of the eleven job satisfaction facets are interrelated with the turnover intentions of the employees. It can be found out that employee benefits is the most significant job satisfaction facet interrelated with turnover intentions of the employees which is consistent to answer the second research question of this study.

Accordingly, nature of work is the second most interrelated job satisfaction facet and CSR participation availability is the third most significant correlated job satisfaction facet on turnover intention respectively. As prescribed in previous literatures section, it is asserted the articulation by (Nishii & Wright, 2008) that different types of benefits like health insurance, safety and pension plans are strongly associated with employee satisfaction perception. As Vroom articulated in his model of expectancy theory, the valence to form the great motivation forces which is the value for rewarding the benefits for employees according to their task-related outcomes also reflects the finding of this research in that employee benefits is the most significant job satisfaction factor (Chen, et al., 2016). Thus, these research outcomes reflect how different job satisfaction facets will affect employees’ turnover intention.

Subsequently, it is significantly found out that contract employees have different job satisfaction perception by employee benefits rather than the permanent employees and the organization should change the HR strategies in order to plan for more permanent designation positions rather than contract designation when the organization has future strategic plan about innovative ICT products or services. It is also reflected by the previous literature findings that contract type workers have been discovered to be have different perception about the employees’ benefit as they are not as same opportunities to get similar promotion and other employees’ benefits for career advancement (Conway & Briner, 2002). Permanent employees can have better royalty on the current organization with better perception about employee benefit plan.

Moreover, the different satisfaction perceptions between contract and permanent employee types on employee benefits can be taken account on the Vroom Expectancy motivation forces formulation factor of valence. This would articulated that Vroom haven’t covered this area to evaluate the solution for motivation of employees (Renko & Kroeck, 2012). However, when Adams’ Equity Theory is taken into consideration, the issues that well-unpaid can feel dissatisfaction and overpaid people can perceive guilt (Shore & Strauss, 2012), can be justified with another findings of this research that the perception of the employee satisfaction can be overwhelmed by the intrinsic rewards like CSR participation availability the third most strongest job satisfaction facet on turnover intention of the employees at DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd.

On the other hand, it is significantly found out in findings that there are few numbers of the employees with high royalty and most of the employees are contract employees rather than permanent employment type which reflect the turnover issues are highly raising. As discussed in the findings of the demographic factor regarding the employment types, the large number of contract type employees are required by the job nature of IT projects as short-term requiring the employees with different skill-sets by the organization DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd. This also reflects that the second most prominent job satisfaction factor, the nature of work affecting turnover intentions of the employees supported by the argument by previous literatures in that the job satisfaction of the employees can be varied upon the nature of work impacted on their turnover intention (Schudrich, et al., 2012).

Moreover, it has been discovered in findings that there is no different satisfaction perception on employee benefits based on gender and different income level which is supporting the second hypothesis drawn out at literature review section and reflect the articulation by the literature that either male or female employees with different income levels have equal perception on employee benefit satisfaction (Ñopo, et al., 2012).In summary, the data form findings highlights that salaries may not be a prominent reason for the employees’ intention to leave, but value-added benefits like employee benefits, job nature, and corporate social responsibility participation are significant related to staffs of DIR-ACE technology to find a new and better job, leaving the organization, rather than working for a long time.

5.3        Implications of this research

This section discusses the type of implication through theoretical and practical terms and this paper work mainly covers two missing requirements in the job satisfaction literature. The first gap is to identify the correlation between the different employee job satisfaction perception and their turnover intention, depending on the in the recent literatures. Thus, the second gap is to simplify the confusion and unclear results by examining inadequate sources to identify various job satisfactory facets and their subsequent impact on employee turnover intention.

From the findings of this research, it is highlighted that the largest job satisfaction facet impacted on turnover intention to IT employees, ‘Employee Benefits’, can leverage the employee job satisfaction significantly as it has also clearly supplemented by the literature reviewed of the article named, “Productivity and wage effects of “family-friendly” fringe benefits” at the chapter-2 (Baughman, et al., 2003). Accordingly, the nature of work is secondly the most significant factor of job satisfaction by the findings of data analysis of technical employees in the IT department of current organization which reflect the fact by Molleman in the literature review sections that the strategies and objectives diversities between organizational corporate level and individual teams by their respective prominent nature of work which can lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction affected turnover intentions (Molleman, 2005).

Eventually, the CSR participation availability play as the third most significant factor of job satisfaction affected turnover intention of technical employees in this research differently to other types of employees which reflect the argument by (Tziner, et al., 2011) that CSR can be regarded as precondition to be sure that unless a company consider the high level of responsibility to internal staffs, this can lead to dissatisfaction by means of social and natural environment doing unlikely in such way especially in Technological world. Thus, most of the organizations in IT industry should be aware that CSR participation availability can be the valuable ethical consideration for IT professionals and that can be significant issues for further researchers in this topic area. From the point of view regarding Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, it can be articulated that the Employee Benefits and CSR participation availability are the most significant job satisfiers and Nature of Work is the most significant hygiene factors for IT organizations from findings of this research. In addition, this study can support managers and human resources departments to maintain the organization’s major and key areas of professionalism towards a more stable and effective professional workplace in each organization.

5.4        Conclusion and Recommendations of Future Research

This study attempts to find out the correlation between job satisfaction and employee turnover intentions of DIR-ACE Technology Limited. As a result, the development rate of employees’ turnover intention can reduce the productivity, maintenance and motivation of cost levers through recruiting activities, training and development costs. Therefore, the organization needs to be aware that the stimulus is what is the main factor in the employee becoming happy and satisfied with their tasks and can make them suppress their departure from their work as a major side effect in job dissatisfaction so that the organization can create a favourable atmosphere, A happy balance of work and life, a democratic work culture, rather than a bureaucratic culture, and a strong leverage for employees to adapt their work towards high loyalty.

Although, the limitation of this research is highlighted that the future and upcoming research should consider the following implications.

  1. To gather data from the wider population and the different roles of the employees to obtain more complex and credible results in order to infer the prejudices collected from organizations.
  2. To further explore the relationship between more comprehensive job satisfaction factors and replacement intentions, rather than the eleven job satisfaction aspects highlighted in this study to identify and identify the results of broader research rather than current research.
  3. To Study the turnover of other IT professionals and their job satisfaction in another organization to build a rigorous research framework to identify and demonstrate significant findings and results, the current research is considered consistent.
  4. As mentioned above, at DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd., communication is the least important aspect of job satisfaction, rather than other aspects of employee benefits. Therefore, it is suggested that the next researcher be related to the study of other IT organization professionals’ turnover intention and their job satisfaction factors in other organizations.
  5. In addition, it is also highly valuable for those who are designated to stay in the same organization, DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd., who should explore why most of these employees are satisfied with their current benefits.
  1. In addition, a demographic factor, types of employees working in current organization that affects the most significant job satisfaction of employee benefits and their effects, it is suggested to points out that more research is needed to employ for the exact aspect of which categories and their subsequent effects are high or low positive or negative.
  2. It is recommended that future researchers further understand that employees need to work in the same organization for a longer period of time, with intense motivation and attitudes to become an effective resource department for the organization to achieve competitive productivity.


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Appendix 1: Information Sheet to Respondents

Master of Business Administration

Dear Sir/Madam,

A survey on analysing and interpreting of job satisfaction factors impacting on turnover intention

This is a simple questionnaire survey that could take about 15 minutes to complete. Confidentiality is assured and it is not risky to take part in this study as you are not needed to disclose your identity and participation of your choice is fully voluntary. By completing and returning this survey, you are recognising your consent for participation in this study. It is vital to perceive your honest feedback whether positively or negatively, to support us identify areas that require improvement and development.

In recognizing of your participation, every 500 kyats for each participant will be donated to particular charity organization like Myanmar Red Cross Society with fully sponsorship by the researcher. Please return your completed survey results to the researcher in the enclosed envelope just before expiry date expressed at the end of the survey. Please highlight your interest to perceive the study result by sending to the following email address and I can share you back a copy of my final report. Please detach and keep this sheet for future reference.

Appendix 2: Research Organization Informed Consent Form


Researcher’s Statement:

I’m conducting research on the impact of job satisfaction on employee turnover intention in IT department of our organization, DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd. I am a Master of Business Administration part-time candidate at Northampton University from United Kingdom. I am currently working in IT department of DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd as an Analyst Programmer and I have found that it is quite challenging to retain many IT professionals to stay and work in the company for longer terms.

Hence, this study will focus on investigating the various factors of job satisfaction and its effect on IT employees turned intention. Accordingly, the major causes of job satisfaction, with remuneration package, raising, caring nature, fringe benefits, contingent, services, fashion, and etc., have been identified as critical effect on employees change intention in this study. As a result, this research can help organizations to address issues concerning job satisfaction effect on IT employees’ intention changed.

How would I very much appreciate your cooperation in this study to allow me to conduct the survey in our company our IT colleagues? Required your agreement by signing this to allow our organization to participate in this study. It is guaranteed that the signed consent form will remain safe storage before it will be destroyed after five years. In addition, please kindly help to give me a consolidated list of all their IT staffs email addresses and numbers while returning the consent form back to me so that I could communicate with them to organize effectively delivering envelopes research thank them for their participation and the subsequent process for returning completed surveys.

However, it is completely voluntary for all participants to contribute in this study and they can withdraw from this study or discontinue participation at any time. As stated above, although the questionnaire survey will be delivered personally, anonymity and confidentiality are assured and it is not risky to participate in this study since they are not required to disclose their identity and also, participation of their choice is fully voluntary. This is a simple questionnaire survey that should take around 15 minutes to complete and they may fill it up at any convenient times within enough duration.


Appendix 3: Research Questionnaire

Researchers Ref: ………               Official                 


Job Satisfaction Survey – Survey into job satisfaction factors affecting turnover intention

 Section A: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Talent Development

  1. My organization runs on-the-job training programs for employees.            1…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. I perceive my promotion and grade as fair.                                                  2…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree


  1. I won’t leave my current organization for other organizations because I can get promotional and learning opportunities in current one.

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree  

Section B: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Promotion

  1. The chance is high to get promoted in my job.                      4…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The chance of promotion is fair to everyone in my organization.                                               5…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. I am satisfied with my promotion and my promotional opportunities                                        6…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section C: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Communication

  1. The organizational communication is effective, good and transparent.           7…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The objectives, visions and missions of the organization are clearly understood.                  8…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The tasks and responsibilities assigned to me are well explained.           9…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section D: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Remuneration Package

  1. I feel I am being paid fairly for my contribution to the organization.          10…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. I perceive I am appreciated by the organization based on the amount they are paying.                    11…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. I am satisfied with the occasional salary increment opportunities.          12…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section E: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Employee benefits

  1. I feel satisfied with the benefits that I am getting in the organization.                 13…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The organizational benefits are competitive compared to other competitors.                14…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The benefits are fair to individual employees in the organization.                 15…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section F: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Organizational Commitment

  1. My organization undertakes performance appraisal exercise.                   16…….

  Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. I get feedback on my performance standards.                                                        17…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. My organization has a system of promotion that is followed for promoting                              18…….


 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree


Section G: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Leadership, Supervision and


  1. The leadership provided by the DIR-ACE technology Management board has                         19…….

readiness to follow.

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The kind of job that your immediate supervisor/manager is doing in treating employees         20…….

with respect and dignity.

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The feeling about the job you done by your immediate supervisor/manager can well              21…….

satisfy you to stay along with your role.

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section H: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Working Conditions

  1. DIR-ACE Technology Co., Ltd Rules, regulations and procedures are the key factors to         22…….

make daily operations effective and easy.

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. My efforts are contributed on a variety of our organization’s administrative steps effectively23…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. My working hours are occupied with systematic operation procedures with less loads of        24…….

paperwork that make me efficient job performance.

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section I: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Colleagues (Co-workers)

  1. The colleagues I am working with are helpful and good to me   .                 25…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. The competencies of my co-workers make me satisfied with my job.                             26…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1.  The friendships between my co-workers and me are close like true friends.         27…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section J: Employees’ Satisfaction based on Nature of work

  1. I enjoy doing the tasks assigned at work.                           28…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. I am proud of working at my current job.                                                 29…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. My job makes me enhance the sense of self-identity.                   30…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section K: Employees’ Satisfaction based on CSR Participation Availability

  1. Management is fair and open in relations with employees and takes care of the employees’   31…….


 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. My employer emphasizes and is honest regarding with the customers          32…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

  1. My organization is not always thoroughly chasing the ‘bottom line’ of profits only and is      33…….

acquiring to explore wider social obligations to the community.

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

Section L: Employees’ Turnover Intention

  1. I often think about tendering my resignation from my current job.                 34…….

 Mostly Disagree  Fairly Disagree  Slightly Disagree

 Slightly Agree  Fairly Agree  Mostly Agree

The following Section M will be conducted for some demographic questions about yourself to help us interpret the result. 

This information will remain completely confidential.

Section M: Demographic Questions

  1. How long have you been working in this organization?                    35…….

 Less than 1 year  1 to 3 years  3 to 6 years  6 to 10 years  more than 10 years

  1. What is your education level?                      36…….

 Diploma  Bachelor’s Degree  Master Degree  Doctor Degree

  1. What is your employee type in the organization?              37…….

 Agency Contract   Direct Contract   Permanent

  1. What is your gender?                38…….

 Male   Female

  1. What is your age?                39…….

 Under 18  18 – 27  28 – 37  38 – 47  48 – 57  58 – 67  68 or older

  1. What is your marital status?               40…….

 Married  Single  Divorced  Widow/ Widower

  1. What is your annual income before tax?             41…….

 Under 2,000,000 Ks  2,000,000Ks – 4,999,999 Ks  5,000,000 Ks – 6,999,999 Ks

 7,000,000Ks – 8,999,999 Ks  9,000,000 Ks or more

Thank You For Completing the questionnaire. 

Kindly please return this questionnaire to the researcher in the enclosed envelope

By 10 December 2016.

Your anonymity is assured and the responses provided will be used purely for academic research.

Appendix 4: Reference Figures

Table 10 Summary Statistics of Worked Years

Number of Years worked in this organization.  
N Valid 89
Missing 0
Mean 2.75
Std. Deviation .830
Variance .688
Skewness .250
Std. Error of Skewness .255
Minimum 1
Maximum 5
Percentiles 25 2.00
50 3.00
75 3.00

Table 11 Summary Statistics of Education

Education Level  
N Valid 89
Missing 0
Mean 1.99
Std. Deviation .320
Variance .102
Skewness -.248
Std. Error of Skewness .255
Minimum 1
Maximum 3
Percentiles 25 2.00
50 2.00
75 2.00

Table 12 Summary Statistics of Employee Types

Types of Employee  
N Valid 89
Missing 0
Mean 2.01
Std. Deviation .666
Variance .443
Skewness -.012
Std. Error of Skewness .255
Minimum 1
Maximum 3
Percentiles 25 2.00
50 2.00
75 2.00


Table 13 Summary Statistics of Gender

N Valid 89
Missing 0
Mean 1.44
Std. Deviation .499
Variance .249
Skewness .253
Std. Error of Skewness .255
Minimum 1
Maximum 2
Percentiles 25 1.00
50 1.00
75 2.00

Table 14 Summary Statistics of Age

N Valid 89
Missing 0
Mean 3.03
Std. Deviation .553
Variance .306
Skewness .019
Std. Error of Skewness .255
Minimum 1
Maximum 5
Percentiles 25 3.00
50 3.00
75 3.00


Table 15 Summary Statistics of Marital Status

Marital Status  
N Valid 89
Missing 0
Mean 1.52
Std. Deviation .659
Variance .434
Skewness 1.155
Std. Error of Skewness .255
Minimum 1
Maximum 4
Percentiles 25 1.00
50 1.00
75 2.00

Table 16 Summary Statistics of Annual Income

Annual Income Before Tax  
N Valid 89
Missing 0
Mean 1.98
Std. Deviation .398
Variance .159
Skewness -.195
Std. Error of Skewness .255
Minimum 1
Maximum 3
Percentiles 25 2.00
50 2.00
75 2.00

Figure 19 Correlation Summary

Figure 20 Summary Statistics of Type of Employee

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