Financial crisis swept over the world rapidly last three years. The globalisation and the developed of the derivatives have dramatically changed the whole financial market. The rate of global economic growth was continuing decrease. The economy, particularly financial services sectors suffered a critical strike, which a few investment bank, such as Lehman Brothers Holdings went bankrupt. As one of the largest financial institutions, International Monetary Fund must play more significant role in every areas of finance, especially for financial stability. The members of IMF should following three obligations regarding the abolition of exchange restrictions:
- Avoidance of restrictions upon current payment.
- Avoidance of discriminatory currency practices.
- Convertibility of foreign-held balances.
It means IMF has the obligation that protects or makes the whole financial stability. China got a high mark in the process of coping with the financial crisis. The banking in China had a favourable performance, which was a viewpoint by CBRC President Liu Kangming. He pointed that China government had taken a package of measures to stimulate the economy. In the crisis, China’s banking sector’s overall performance, large commercial banks continued to improve profitability, and risk control ability was improved. The role of monetary policy should more significant, meanwhile, the capital market cannot relayed on which being the main source of fund.
Between IMF and financial stability of China, it should exists inevitable connection which could impact on banking, credit and insurance. Through the relative research and data analysis, a quantity of experiences and lessons can be summarized and demonstrated, which will advantage other areas of the whole economy to exploit new ways or thinking. Besides, it may become reference to the future.
The background of the dissertation
Every nation like China is faced with financial management problems to which their business industry should be able to attend to in order to take the economy to move especially during the times of crisis that the global communities are facing. Thus, key financial decisions normally confront the nation leaders in issues and problems that concerns financial investments they usually provide answer to the problems in economy. But despite of this, China remains to be a fortunate, strong economy with a per capita GDP almost similar with the four dominant West European economies (Conway, 2005). Given the importance on low inflation, reforms, a housing market boom, and excellent bonds with other countries like Australia have been essential variables over the course of the economies years of expansion (Conway, 2005).
With regards to the current standing of global market and global finance, the current global recession is one of the problems experienced not only in the United States and the United Kingdom but also by the global economy and of course China since their business operation was affected. Today, businesses around the globe work in a more obscured, and more synchronized situation. The monetary policies and practices of China was also affected including their relationship to IMF. The premeditated undertaking, then, is to construct a distinguishing way ahead, using whatsoever core competencies and assets at its discarding, against the environment and control of the situation. Through these distinguishing potentials the organisation look for sustainable competitive plus.
With regards to economy of China, financial evaluation and implementation of new strategies can be a demanding exercise. With this, it is difficult to foresee what the future holds (e.g. the actual future outcome may be entirely unexpected), i.e. to foresee what the scenarios are, and to assign probabilities to them; and this is true of the general forecasts never mind the implied financial market returns. However, this is an important procedure because it enables China to make decisions that will be advantageous and beneficial (Lecavalier & Santor, 2007). In addition, organisations that are open to change and willing to counter the current financial crisis are generally more successful compare to those who resist it. On the other hand, leadership in accordance to power focuses on the techniques and expertise of efficient organisation, planning, direction, financial planning, credit assessment and control of the operations of a business is really vital.
1.2 Aim and objectives
The aim is to analyse the policies and measures of IMF which impact on China financial stability. With respect to the aim of the study, this paper also seeks to attain the following objectives:
To research the policies of IMF to China, besides that, those to developing countries should be necessary;
To research how China financial services sectors do, especially banking;
To analyse how much influence IMF has to these financial services sectors;
To analyse the data which IMF and China banking published
1.3 Data and methods
The research method depicted in this research is based on both quantitative and qualitative method. The qualitative method permits an iterative and flexible ways, while the quantitative research method lets dependent and independent variables requirement and also allows for longitudinal gauges of ensuing feat of the research subject. Throughout information assembling the preference and plan of methods are continuously tailored, based on current analysis. This allows examination of significant latest issues and questions as they arise, and let the researchers to slump fruitless parts of study from the original research map.
Actually, the methods used in this study offer many advantages due to the nature of this study. First of all, for many research questions and objectives, the benefits lie in the enormous saving in resources especially time and money (Saunders et al. 2003, p.200). Actually, this research considers secondary researches due to budget constraint and time limitation. Actually, secondary data provides incomparable benefit that primary data cannot offer. These have generated useful references and have provided a good starting point for formulate and generate ideas. For instance, data includes textbooks related China monetary practices, IMF, financial industry, and government white paper and financial websites. Those data has already been collected and provides an unobtrusive measure. All the sources are quite reliable. Secondly, secondary data may be the only viable choice for many aspects of this research due to the nature in itself. Many psychology data and aggregate data are not likely to be collected by the author; rather, secondary data from previous researches make this research with easy access. For example, many high quality national newspapers and journal articles being published are permanent and available in a form that may be checked relatively easily.
1.4 Dissertation structure
As for the dissertation structure, this paper was broken down into 3 key stages; research problem identification, collection and analysis of information, and Synthesis of information and generation of recommendations.
Stage 1: Research Problem Identification
In this stage, the researcher considers the exact focus of the problem to be researched. Actually, this engages examination of existing research, practices and theory from genuine literature. This procedure helps the researcher put together empirical findings and theoretical perspectives with the researcherâ€™s understanding about problem in the study. This will also help the researcher distinguish the problem feature and learn more about.
Stage 2: Collection and Analysis of Data
In the second stage, the researcher collected and analyse the data gathered for the purposes of recognizing significant contextual/cultural variables detailed to their setting predominantly in monetary setting. In addition, the evaluation of monetary practices in China and analysis of the policies imposed by IMF are done in this stage. These information enable this research and the researcher to achieve a specific understanding of the problem.
Stage 3: Synthesis of Data and Generation of Recommendations
In this third stage, the researcher synthesised findings from the previous stages and pertinent previous study. The main centre of this stage is to review these data to amend current hypotheses and account for different factors, in addition to generating recommendations based on new understandings and results. During this stage, culture-specific and research-based recommendations for action are produced. For this study, the researcher focused on the monetary practices of China and IMF policies imposed to borrowing countries.
Chapter 2. Literature Review
As a response for the global financial crises, the national and international institutions are pushed to create a sound strategy wherein all their knowledge be incorporated thus monitoring and predicting the flow of the financial elements. With the use of wide array of instruments, the assessment on the financial system is found to be based on the analytical practice. The financial stability is difficult to pulse whenever there is an existing financial crisis, and itâ€™s getting worse when the crises created a direct impact in the country.
2.2 Related Study of International Monetary Fund
According to the history of the international monetary system, 1990s is the most considered time where there is an existence of the hyperinflations and been passed through the different picture of crises in Mexico and Asia. Even the Russia experienced the international financial infection. In each effected episodes of the countriesâ€™ financial aspect, the impact participated in the savings and investment, employment, and the purchasing power. Many economists pulled their profession in building the specific solution against the crises and their effects as well. This is the birth of the International Monetary Policy or IMF as the first approach in the crises that plagued the international economy (Conway, 2005). Still, some analysts argued that the approach in the IMF is archaic decision most especially in an era of an international mobility. The present crises shows the different faces of doubts, and it would make the private financial markets suffer from the imperfect information and problems of collective action (Henning, 2009).
The assessment of the various financial analysts, business interpreters, and economists, they believe that the effectiveness of the IMF in the new century is on the reform f the IMFâ€™s functions, role and governance structure. The idea is around the consideration of six elements namely, (1) quota, voice, and representation, (2) internal governance, (3) surveillance, (4) lending instruments, (5) finances, and (6) the role of the IMF in the low-income countries (Lecavalier & Santor, 2007).
2.3 The Function of IMF and the Role IMF Plays
The IMF was identified as the provider of the valuable forecasts, served as the advisor of appropriate policy, and acted as the coordinated management through the financing packages whenever there is an implication of crises and assists the countryâ€™s adjustment and economic strategies. Through these various characteristics, it is common for the approach to be under the criticisms and be a candidate to tests its ability for a rapid response to the financial crises (Conway, 2005). The appropriate response and the rapid action is the most inevitable requirement in every country to pass through the financial tempest. Obviously, emerging markets face sudden freeze in their capital inflows even if their governments have been pursuing appropriate policies. Based on the basic purpose of the IMF in todayâ€™s world economy, the IMF enables the members to maintain and extend the international economic openness and other strategic adjustments.
The role of the IMF extends well beyond providing official finance such as monitoring the international monetary system, fostering the negotiations among the members over the macroeconomic policy in coordination and payments adjustment and pursuing the economic policies. The roles that IMF plays are important, most especially in reducing the impact of the financial crises. But the ability to mobilize the financial resources is the central of the IMFâ€™s functions (Henning, 2009).
2.4 IMF Financial Soundness Indicators: Core and Encouraged
The need for better data and tools to monitor the various financial risks and vulnerabilities in the national systems is pursued and gave to the new area of work called Financial Soundness Indicators or FSI. The IMF has been collecting the various monetary statistics from the participating countries. All of the information gathered admittedly not being focused on the compilation of the soundness and risk information. Translating the needed data based on the information needs careful investigation and be under the assessment to provide the aggregate soundness and risk. In the beginning, the experts and officials of countries collaborated in organizing the call for a process. All the participants agreed that there is indeed, a need for sound information and a number of important indicators and that should be compiled. From the conducted survey of the IMF during the middle of 2000, there was a strong response from over 100 participating countries that allows the IMF to set a core standard regarding the financial soundness indicators. In addition, there is an alignment for the countries on what kind or type of information that the country should compile which can be also depends on the national circumstances. After the several rounds of extensive consultations along with the experts, finally, the IMF completed the guide for the indicators they needed.
The Compilation Guide: Financial Soundness Indicators or â€œthe Guideâ€? was published by the IMF that details the concepts and definition, and sources and techniques to serve as the guidance of the participating countries. The Guide was produced to help the countries in compiling and disseminating the information wherein it allows the country to establish the method of comparing the indictors that could provide the valuable information. In the end of the process, the country can have the current soundness of the aggregate financial system (San Jose, Krueger, & Khay, 2008). The use of Guide is considered as highly innovative method through the combination of the elements of macroeconomic frameworks, including the monetary statistics, bank supervisory framework, and international financing accounting standards. The use of the provided definitions measures the soundness or risk such as the capital adequacy, exposure to market risk, market fair value in accounting, balance sheet positions of the banks, and many others.
The financial reliability gauges/indicators offered two sets known as the core and encouraged sets:
The core of the financial soundness indicators is related to the five basic areas relevant to the point of view of banking business shortened in the method called CAMELS as part of the institutionsâ€™ assessment of capital adequacy, asset quality, management soundness, earnings, liquidity, and the sensitivity to market risk. The main goal of the FSI is again, for the international comparability that guarantees the all countries that they will use the same applied method. However, the international comparability is limited to some differences at national level, most especially in accounting standards and the data needed in calculating the FSI (GerÅ¡l & HeÅ™mÃ¡ne, 2006).
2.5 The Conclusion
The most important part of assessing the stability of the financial system is the use of the appropriate number of quantitative indicators and the combination of the approaches. The involvement of the financial soundness indicators is one of the best developments in the International Monetary Fund. The compilation of the financial stability indicators and its related information facilitates the assessment through the single method wherein the countries can possibly compare their data among the others.