Human resource development
Human resource development is one of the most important factors affecting organisational productivity and profitability because well-trained and developed personnel will ensure long-term organisational success. Thus, effective development of human capital should help organisations to maintain a competitive advantage. However, fulfilling competitive success through manpower requires that organisations are willing to adapt traditional behaviours and group dynamics. The pressures of global economic development and competition, innovative technology, and the diversity of the workforce demand that organisations re-evaluate existing paradigms and approaches used to conduct training and development in building future leaders.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the selection of training approaches, appropriateness of training delivery options, and appropriateness of training methods for the delivery of development programs within the pizza hut. This study was designed to provide the needed relevant information with regard to the particular dimensions of pizza hut personnel development programs either for training professionals who conduct training or managers and related persons who may attend training sessions.
For this study, a survey-questionnaire will be utilised as the primary method to obtain the research data. The questionnaire will be consists of closed-ended questions to obtained valid and complete data. The sample will consist of 10 personnel at managerial positions in Pizza hut. The sample of managers will be chosen randomly, however, the research will attempt to get a wide range of individuals. The researcher has chosen deductive approach to carry out primary research in conjunction with secondary research from the literature review. With quantitative research, the deductive approach seems to be appropriate for the research survey and will allow the author to investigate effectiveness of training and development process to create future leaders.
The findings of this research study would be able to assist managers of all level in Pizza hut, with practical ideas. The results of this study revealed that pizza hut is carrying out effective training programmes somehow to create future leaders. Although the results of this study presume effective training programmes and development process are not the only conclusive factor in creating managers, it can be assumed that managers cannot presently take full advantage of training programmes in Pizza hut However, it is more important to investigate from which training design source or item the personnel most likely perceive significant to their development. Moreover, other definitive requisites should always be performed simultaneously.
The research on a company for my dissertation is Pizza hut a well well-known global fast food Brand. The reason for the dissertation is to find the problems faced by managers ‘towards their training and development. In this chapter the main reason of the research is clarified and justified. The aims and objectives of the study are discussed, and the chapter end up with a tiny sight into the history of pizza hut UK.
Background of study
Human resource development is one of the most important factors affecting organisational productivity and profitability because well-trained and developed personnel will ensure long-term organisational success. “Organisations of all sizes have recognised the value of training” (Banks, Bures, & Champion 1987, p19). Thus, effective development of human capital should help organisations to maintain a competitive advantage ( Pfeffer 1995). However, fulfilling competitive success through manpower requires that organisations are willing to adapt traditional behaviours and group dynamics. The pressures of global economic development and competition, innovative technology, and the diversity of the workforce demand that organisations reassess existing paradigms and approaches used to conduct training and development (Brown 1998).
Human Resource Management (HRM) may not understand the value associated with the training of personnel that includes operational issues such as the strategic plan, the roles and responsibilities, and the value attributed to each and every personnel. An organisation’s most valuable assets are their personnel. As such, they can improve an personnel’s self-value and supply their value to the organisation by providing knowledge, skills, and tools that will lead to a reduction in errors and thereby a reduction in costs. Costs associated with training are well worth the expenditures when the training leads to improved care and a reduction in errors.
Problem of statement
Underlying the problems faced by managers of pizza hut with the training and development process to enhance their career in the organisation and adverse events is a significant disconnect between comprehensive, integrated training and the expectations and fundamental skills needed by pizza hut managers. Lack of continuous integrated training leads to increased variation and increased outlays; therefore, quality is diminished and effectiveness lacks in the training and development of an employee within the organisation.
Training is often split, superficial, and only emphasised as a reaction to internal or external stimuli such as a survey, adverse event, or litigation. Such training is generally not incremental or reinforced, nor does it provide a structure in which healthcare workers can contribute to an organisation’s performance improvement and value adding by taking the initiative and promoting positive change. Both healthcare managers and personnel need to understand the long term, integrated commitment required to initiate lasting changes in the face of established organisational culture, complacency, and general resistance to change.
Facilities today are required to provide authorized orientation and training to new personnel. Once the new personnel orientation has taken place, the only other mandated training is for yearly orientation. The exceptions to this would be for skills competency and specialty training, which are generally focused on specific tasks and do not entail a comprehensive, intergraded approach that ensures sustained competency and improvement.
This pizza hut standard of training does not capture the ongoing identified needs of the workforce and can lead to untoward events. These events do not necessarily lead to consistent training, or monitoring and evaluation of sustained improvement in management training and development. Monitoring of incidences may occur, but the linkages to organised process related training and implementation are not clearly defined and coordinate throughout the organisations.
Purpose of Project
When training proposal is supported by an appropriate development process and well integrated into the structure of an organisation, variation is reduced, cost is decreased, and consequently, the value is added to organisation. With the integration of comprehensive training comes a reduction in wasteful resource allocation as a result of reduced error, rework, and litigation. Comprehensive training and development are fundamental to improving processes and creating an environment in which personnel are motivated to improve their performance; they provide a foundation to build upon. Personnel, at all levels, also gain professional insight and strength through continued training and development.
This project is geared in the direction of growth of understanding of how comprehensive training and development will ultimately lead to value adding. Since there is a need for training initiative and resource allocation, managers must embrace this concept in order for the training to be effective and engrained in organisation’s value creation. For those who sincerely wish to establish such positive change, awareness of the commitments in time, money, and human resources required for initiating and seeing through to completion lasting changes development will be stressed.
This project shall depict the importance and benefits of organisational training and development in such a manner that organisation will desire to impart this knowledge to healthcare managers and personnel. Training personnel at all levels how to understand and drive the changes required to securely grafting effective value adding to their organisation.
This is critical as the coalition of empowered personnel needed to develop, sell, guide, and drive the necessary changes, to be successful, must be recruited from throughout the workforce. “They will need to reduce complacency and increase urgency. They will need to create a change coalition, develop a guiding vision, sell that vision to others, etc. If they have sufficient autonomy, they can often do so regardless of what is happening in the rest of the organisation” (Kotter 1996, p 46).
Furthermore, it would be beneficial if leadership extended this philosophy of training to include suppliers and vendors so that the culture is all encompassing and reaches out to all those who interact with the organisation. Comprehensive training programs provide a foundation for pizza hut workers to support ingenuity, motivation and teamwork.
Research question and objectives
In this dissertation process, I will emphasis on the effective training and development carried out by pizza hut. This will give me information, which I will use in respect to my topic and help me in bringing out the critical review and conclusion in accordance to my knowledge.
Base on the aims above the following objectives are set:
- To understand the role of Training and development in the working environment of an organisation.
- To get positive outcome through my research by identifying needs and necessities using various methods as proposed in my methodology.
Background of pizza hut
Pizza hut is one the biggest food chain company in the world. This company has been running successfully for about 50 years and still mounting its name day by day. Pizza hut was established in USA and started its operation in a very small level. The first ever pizza hut was started in1958 in Wichita Kansas, USA by the collaboration of two brothers Frank and Dan. They opened a small restaurant and named it pizza hut. The growth was remarkable as 150 restaurants were opened in its first 10 years of operation in USA.
In 1968 its first international restaurant was opened in Canada. Sooner it became the biggest pizza restaurant chain across the world in total number of restaurants and in sales. In1971 Pizza hut was climbing up in terms of sales and number of restaurants globally which allowed it to grab a position in the New York Stock Exchange. At present pizza hut is running over 7,000 outlets worldwide.
In 1973 the first pizza hut was established in UK and proved to be a very good restaurant chain. Pizza hut is on the top when we compare all the fast food pizza outlets operating across the UK with more than 700 outlets.
Pizza hut is owned by Yum Brands a US based company. Yum brands also owns A&W All American Food, KFC, Long John Silver’s Pizza Hut & Taco Bell.
If the handbook of Pizza Hut is viewed, the vision of Pizza Hut UK market is clearly mentioned to be the most loved and trusted brand in UK. Its passion is “Great Pizza, Great people, and Great times”. Millions of customers are served everyday with millions of Pizzas. According to management the company wants to have the most loved and trusted out lets. Pizza Hut wants to be the most trusted and favourite brand not only among its customers’ but among its employees as well.
Structure of study
This study is organised as follows. The introduction is Chapter One. Chapter Two examines the current theoretical and empirical literature on training and development, in an attempt to understand the contributions which have been made to date, and to define potential gaps which could be filled by this dissertation.
In reviewing the relevant literature, not only is it important to clarify some of the terms which will be used in the study, it is also important to recognise that an understanding of these terms will evolve as the study progresses. In HRD, one of the most commonly recognised approaches to improving performance is training. Training includes instructional experiences which are designed to develop skills and knowledge, to achieve organisational objectives, to assist organisational change, and ultimately, to be applied in the workplace for the sake of organisational improvement (Bramley 1996).
Chapter Three describes the research design and methodology employed in the study. To truly understand the impact of a training program on an individual’s productivity, morale, behaviour, and understanding within his or her organisation, training must be evaluated long after the session is completed. Through questionnaires, informal conversations and interviews, a greater understanding of the challenges and opportunities faced by the trainees once they complete the training can be reached. Because of limited resources and/or a lack of commitment to examining the ongoing impact of training, this continuous measurement and follow up is not often practiced.
The researcher’s role in this study was that of a participant observer. Participants were aware of the researcher’s presence and purpose for her involvement. Because the researcher was the instrument in the collection and analysis of the data, he maintained a closeness to the topic, and continually assessed and documented his values, assumptions, and conceptual framework. Detailed field notes and research notes were kept throughout the project, to keep track of emerging thoughts, patterns, and ideas, and to keep the conceptual framework of the project in focus. The researcher remained open to the evolving nature of the study, and understood that it was often necessary to collect additional types of data as the study progressed.
In an attempt to produce the most credible, coherent, and potentially generalisable study, the data were collected by using a variety of methodological strategies, to cast a wide net to ensure that the highest quality data were collected. The use of multiple methods, often referred to as triangulation, includes such practices as interviewing, observing, and collecting relevant artefacts or documents, all of which were utilised in this study. Richness of the data, length of time spent in the setting, relationships developed, and the representation of the perspectives of the participants, all contribute to the coherence and comprehensiveness of a study (Erickson 1986).
Qualitative data analysis is the process of constructing meaning out of the data and constructing an account. Analysis is the point at which the researcher interacts with the data to construct, reduce, interpret, understand and eventually communicate them and make a connection between assertions and data. Assertions come from data as a whole, keeping in mind the concept of bounded rationality, which says that we cannot collect everything, but we must do as much as possible to insure a coherent and comprehensive study (Simon 1946).
To answer the research question for this dissertation, a thorough, constant analysis of the data was conducted, in an attempt to recognise observable themes and patterns, which arose with regard to training transfer. General assertions were made based on those themes and patterns, which emerged throughout the data as a whole. Once these connections were made within the data, the findings are represented to the reader.
The training and development will continue to evolve responsibly through a better understanding of the context in which they take place, and the individuals involved. This focus will become clearer through quality research and inquiry, which seeks to understand the contextual elements of Human Resource Development practices within organisations.
Chapter Four presents the research findings. Chapter Five focuses on the implications, limitations, significance, recommendations, and conclusions of the study, based on the findings. While the intentions of this project are to contribute empirical and theoretical knowledge to the field of Human Resource Development, it is important to consider the limitations inherent in its design. Openness of the participants, the length of time that must be spent to truly understand the perspectives of the participants, and the exploration of only one technique of one training organisation are limitations which must be taken into consideration in doing this study. It can be argued, however, that the very limitations of qualitative research are, in fact, its strengths.
In this chapter, researches related to the impact of training on organisational performance and success. The first part provides a definition of training and development. The second part discusses the training process. Training needs assessment is discussed in detail in the third part. Training evaluation is discussed in the fourth portion. Finally, background information regarding pizza hut utilised in this research is presented.
Training and development
Human Resource Development (HRD) can be universally recognised as a very effective approach to improve performance within training. Training consists of a variety of experiences that intend to enhance and develop skills and knowledge in order to accomplish organisational objectives, to improve and change organisational aspects within the work place (Bramley 1996; Broad & Newstorm 1992).
According to Manpower Services Commission (1981) training is a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge, skills, or behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose in work situation is to develop the abilities of the individuals and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organisation.
In the same way development is a type of progression in which persons may find it more effective when learning through experiences. It is a procedure that helps people make use of the skills and knowledge that their past teachings and training has given them, this helps not only in present jobs but also anything that may come up in the future. It personifies theories and ideas connected with psychological growth, greater immaturity and increased confidence.
According to Ivancevich (2004), training and development are processes that provide (or at least try to) a personnel with information and skills they need in order to understand the organisation and its goals. They are designed to help a person continue to make positive contributions in the form of good performance. Training helps personnel do their current work better while development prepares them for the future. Training is an important process to every personnel. It is a systematic process in which an individual is aided to alter his behaviour in a direction that will achieve the organisation’s goals.
Ivancevich (2004) describes the goals of training as training validity, transfer validity, intra-organisational validity, and inter-organisational validity. Training validity determines if the trainees learn skills or acquire knowledge or abilities during training while transfer validity determines if these learned skills or acquired knowledge or abilities result to improvement on job performance. Intra-organisational validity determines if the job performance of a new group of trainees in the same organisation that developed the program comparable to that of the original training group’s job performance. Finally, intra-organisational validity determines if the validated training program in one organisation can be applied with successful results in another organisation.
Noe (2003) defines training as “planned effort by a company to facilitate personnel’ learning of job-related competencies” including knowledge, skills, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance. Training helps personnel master knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviours emphasised in training programs and to apply them in their day-to-day activities (Noe 2003).
As argued by Noe (2003), training is a process which not only needs basic skills, which would be skills that are sufficient enough to perform ones job, but also needs skills at an advanced levels which enables a person to use high technological information and share it with other personnel. This would be perfect in order to gain competitive advantage. A good understanding of the customer and the system is also a key aspect within training. Al of these put together collectively defines intellectual capital.
A training initiative which requires generating intellectual capital is a training which goes by the name of high -leverage training. According to Carnevale (1990), high-leverage training, which is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, uses an instructional design process to ensure the effectiveness of training programs, and compares or benchmarks the company’s training programs against other company’s training programs( Noe2003).
According to Richard M. Hodgetts and Fred Luthans (1976), training is a procedure of changing behaviour and attitudes in a way that increases the success of reaching ones targets. According to both theorists culture, customs and work habits of the local people should also be taught in training process. And if all the above mentioned factors along with other factors are considered properly it would boost towards the success of any establishment.
According to Hall (2004). Formal training programs are not seen to be enough in accordance to today’s fast moving world. A few other things the author believes is that in order to uphold certain standards that are commercial and cost effective, the people should be execution experts. A lot of senior executives believe that budget will stay tight, even after a full economic recovery, and that headcount, time. IT support, and other resources will continue to be in short supply.
The opportunity – and demand – for enterprise-wide initiatives to bring about wholesale change will only increase. If you are a leader of learning, your future and the future of your organisation depends on your ability to make significant initiatives happen despite the challenges of day-to-day work. To acquire this you need to become an execution expert. Today’s best-in-class learning professionals operate differently than those who came before them. Their thoughts are focused on 3 areas: business strategy, resources, and execution. (Hall 2004, p65-6).
Two different training methods are identified by the authors (Ferris et al, 2006), the first set of training is described as the routine training which is given to all level of working staff. The other set of training however, is a type of training in which political skills is the main and important component of training and development process and is aimed mainly for senior executives. As the work force moves up the chain of command to higher jobs at wider scales, technical capability is less important and political skill takes its place.
When the centre for Creative Leadership studied why once-promising executives failed on the job, lack of social effectiveness emerged as a leading cause. The political skill which is mentioned quite a bit, is a type of skill that distinguishes successful and efficient managers from those managers who are inefficient. It is also an ability which merges together social intelligence which facilitates and adjusts to situations where differentiation and changes are of demand. In return this helps in developing and advancing the working conditions.
Training and development at individual level
To identify each person’s own knowledge, skills and abilities in order to assess each individual and progress them at the pace According themselves. Psychology theorists’ e.g. Likert (1961), Mayo (1933) cited by Younglin (2001) entails that employee satisfaction and well being are related to performance, but in those theories they did not explicitly hypothesize about the appropriate level of analysis, for example individuals, groups or organizations.
Assessments and one to one meetings allow employees to reflect on their own learning needs in relation to their work aims. It also provides well controlled learning experiences linked to professional and administrative needs, goals and job requirements.
Individual levelled training and development is the base and the stepping stone of any needs assessment. All managers have different emphasis on specific needs collaborating with their job description, level of education and intelligence experience and personal choice. Focusing on employees individual needs appraisals makes it easier to compile personal development plans that suit each employee according to their own level of competency.
Training and development at organisational level
It is vital for organisations to focus on people’s capability to foresee, adapt and respond to sudden changes in the environment. Training and development will have to join together it with corporate goals. It must be accurate with what the business leaders are trying to achieve.
In order for training to seem more appropriate, its programme will revolve around business related matters for the future. In practice, its achievements will shoulder on developing apparent training objectives from the tactical issues of the business.
Effective managers are created in an environment where there is continuity in the learning manner. A high level of experience, expertise and mind power of the internal as well as external trainers is essential, along with their commitment and capability to maintain a healthy relationship committed to management maturity. The method of learning can often engage unlearning certain behaviours and attitudes. certainly, in relation to organisations (Hamel & Prahalad 1994, cited in Cole, 2000, p268) found that ‘creating a ” learning organisation” is only half the solution. Just as important is creating an ” unlearning organisation”…to create the future, a company must unlearn at least some of its past.’
According to Cole (2000) training and development of workforce is a concern that is faced by more or less all the establishment. The quantity and excellence of training carried out varies a lot from organisation to organisation. Therefore most of the establishments are adapting systematic approach to the training and development of their employees. Organisations use systematic training cycle to perform a logical sequence of activities commencing within the organisations starting with the training policy, assessment of training needs, carrying out training and evaluations.
Cole (2000, p.278) summarises that this training cycle is quite beneficial within an organisation. The systematic approach to training and development arises from the amount of internal and external stress for alteration in the organisation. Firstly in a systematic approach is to develop a policy statement to act as a channel to the organisation’s intentions regarding the weight and track to be given by to training and development. Secondly initialise a set of roles for those in charge for implementing the policy and thirdly to set up a appropriate structure of training posts and procedures, and to allocate adequate funds to the training establishment. As all the steps are followed with completeness then one can focus on the analysis of training needs, evaluation and review of training carried out.
Establishments mostly deal with a wide range of policies dealing with human resources. Policies are set by the establishments to develop their employees and to monitor their performance by certain training and development programs and courses, conducted internally or externally.
According to Cole (2000), training focuses on learning needs and are mainly associated to existing responsibilities and duties which are narrowly linked to short, medium and long term business plans and are seen as an key element of an establishment to prove to its consumers, training and development are the key to success of any organisational goals which indicates the overall plan of an organisation, execution of training and development programs provides a direct link to the organisational goals for those who are accountable for the best possible results. Most of the organisations have a extended tradition of raising their own managers and professionals and providing them with in-house courses according to organisational needs. Some of the organisations rely on external management trainings and courses.
Needs assessment is the process of determining if training is necessary (Noe 2003) and identifying the organisation’s training needs (Ivancevich 2004) and answering the question of whether training addresses the organisation’s needs, objectives and problems (Arthur et al. 2003). According to Noe (2003), if the needs assessment phase, the first phase in the instructional design process, is poorly conducted, training will not meet the desired outcome or financial benefit for the company, regardless of the training method and the learning environment.
According to Boydell (1985) there are three levels of training needs which are to be studied before putting the programs in to practice. This three-step process consists of organisational analysis, person analysis and task analysis.
There are a few factors linked with organisational analysis, such as when given the company resources is the relevant training appropriate, where is training needed in the organisation, which goals can be accomplished through personnel training, and if to determine as to wether or not training can be used to improve a company’s success ( Noe 2003, Arthur et al. 2003, Ivancevich 2004). When assessed at an organisational level we must see the general weaknesses the organisation has perceived in its priorities and what would be the prescribed remedy that would be required in alteration of the organisational culture. According to Noe (2003), there are three factors to be considered before choosing training as a solution, these three factors being, the company’s strategic direction, managers’ and peers’ support for training activities and the training resources available.(Noe 2003)
Training to some level should help a company achieve its business strategy. If one was to define a business strategy, it is said that this is an approach which refers to a plan that join’s together the company’s goal, policies and actions (Meister 2000). Noe (2003) also mentions that “the strategic role of training influences the frequency and type of training, and how the training function is organised in the company.” (p 42) it is more likely the regularity of training will be higher in companies where training is expected to be a factor in the achievement of the company’s business strategies and goals as a post to those companies where in training is done randomly or unplanned. Also it is said that the higher the strategic role of planning, it is more likely that the company will organise the training purpose using a virtual training organisation or corporate university models. (Noe 2003)
The managers’ and peers’ support for training activities is a critical factor in considering a training programme. To be successful, managers and peers should have a positive attitude in participating a training activity. Furthermore, managers and peers should be willing to provide trainees with infor