You have been asked to provide health and safety assistance to a company who are experiencing a significant increase in orders, which has resulted in their workforce growing from 10 to 40. The company in question operate throughout the U.K. and manufacture glass and steel balustrades. Their current management of health and safety is poor and they are failing to meet minimum legal compliance in many areas. The directors are aware that these compliance issues could affect the company’s ability to win new contracts and they are therefore motivated to improve the current standards.Assignment Brief:
This assignment requires you to write a report to the directors of the company outlining a multi-year plan to develop health and safety management beyond minimum legal compliance to a person-focussed system that promotes a healthy and safe working environment. Within your report, you should focus on how you will measure and develop the safety culture, including the reasons for doing so.
Safety Risk management is a key requirement for the effective control of hazards and their associated risks. Our organisation needs to recognise that the systematic identification of hazards and the management of these related risks arising from our operations is vital to the health and safety of our employees and the success of our business.
1.3 Legal obligations
Employers and organisations are required by law to ensure that their health and safety arrangements are appropriate for their organisation and at the very least meet their legal responsibilities. Employers have to take reasonable steps to ensure the health, safety and welfare of their employees at work.
Failure to do so could result in a criminal prosecution in the Magistrates Court or a Crown Court. Failure to ensure safe working practices could also lead to an employee suing for personal injury or in some cases the employer being prosecuted for corporate manslaughter.
As well as this legal responsibility, the employer also has an implied responsibility to take reasonable steps as far as they are able to ensure the health and safety of their employees are not put at risk. So an employer might be found liable for his actions or failure to act even if these are not written in law.
A full evalution of current policies will be carried out
A safety culture is a broad, organization-wide approach to safety management. A safety culture is the end result of combined individual and group efforts toward values, attitudes, goals and proficiency of an organization’s health and safety program. In creating a safety culture, all levels of management are highly regarded on how they act toward workers and on a day-to-day basis. Upper management commitment to workplace safety helps workers take it more seriously and translates into a safer work environment for everyone. Responsibility for encouraging the safety culture may start with management, but it trickles down to each individual in the company. Everyone has a part in keeping themselves and others safe
It is difficult to change the attitdes and beliefs of a work force
Also, the benefits of being more ‘people centred’ will be promoted. These will include aspects from improvements in morale, output and quality to ease of recruitment and reduction in absenteeism as well as the benefits to the corporate image which in this day and age would feature highly on any risk register. Conversely, the costs of doing nothing will be addressed such as the damage to public image (both customers and employees) in the event of a fatality caused by poor management
Monitoring and reviewing is an integral part of maintaining health and safety standards in the workplace. While it may take time and effort, it can reap numerous benefits for your business, including reduced accidents and injuries, lower rates of absenteeism and improved morale among employees. If you want to learn more about how health and safety is monitored and reviewed, this simple guide should help.
The monitoring process
MonitoringTo add value to your business, health and safety monitoring must not only identify problems, but also provide you with an understanding of the underlying cause and what you can do to address it. While monitoring can be done in a variety of different ways depending on the type and size of the organisation, it should typically include the following elements:
An examination of whether sufficient reporting is being carried out. This should include preventive information, such as training progress, as well as specific incident-led information, such as investigations into accidents and the monitoring of ill-health absences.
Routine inspections and audits of risk controls, equipment and management procedures to ensure health and safety policy is being adhered to.
Keeping track of any changes, such as new procedures, equipment and processes that have been introduced in the workplace.
Making sure that any significant health and safety failures are reported as soon as possible.
Making sure that there are procedures in place to implement new health and safety laws.
Monitoring may also involve an evaluation of how managers and supervisors have contributed to health and safety performance, including an assessment of management reports.
In the absence of health surveillance, there would be no way to determine whether or not ill health had occurred.
If an occupationally induced condition is later confirmed by a diagnosis, the employer may have failed in its duty of care to protect its workforce and could face the risk of legal action through both the criminal and civil courts.
Key to motivation is effective communication. Information needs to be clear and given at the right time. Workers need to know that taking short cuts is unacceptable and that the consequences can be disastrous, but they also need to know that their managers will listen to what they have to say about their work and will not ignore any safety problems that they have identified. Employees will also respond well to praise, as well as advice that is delivered in a polite manner.
The consequences of poor health and safety procedures can be widespread affecting many areas of the business. The current management of Health and Safety within our organisation is failing to meet minimum legal compliance in many areas. Not only does failing to meet safety guidelines expose the company to direct costs such as potential legal action from injured employees but also the associated indirect costs such as reduced company competitiveness and reduced employee morale.
The need for Safety Management is a business necessity. Risk management is an essential objective in today’s business workplaces and an effective programme to integrate health and safety processes must form part of the core business functions. It must be able to learn, grow and adapt to changing work conditions, procedures, demands, standards, as well as codes and regulations.
Whilst Board members may not be involved in the day-to-day management of the company, the focus they place on key organisational issues has a direct influence on the tone and safety culture adopted. An effective safety governance framework will ensure that senior leaders have the knowledge and infrastructure in place to expand the safety performance of the business beyond mere compliance with safety legislation.
This report is aimed at the Board of Directors with the purpose of exploring the development of a multi-year health and Safety plan that goes beyond minimum legal compliance. Achieving exceptional safety performance requires more than attention to systems and procedures and more and more companies are pursuing culture change as the key to delivering and sustaining safety improvement.
This report will elaborate, discuss and present findings by analysing the existing protocols in place, the requirements under the relevant legislation and the core elements in developing a successful Health and Safety program. Furthermore, the. best practices of a good safety culture, and the benefits that the business will achieve if a robust Health and Safety programme is adopted. Recommendations will be made that can be used by the company to strengthen the safety culture and identify the tools and resources that are required to achieve these targets.
Risk management is a process used to ensure workplace health and safety. The process has the objective of eliminating or minimising the risk of harm which people may be exposed to within the workplace or from work activities.
There are many definitions for Hazard but the most common in reference to occupational safety and health is ‘A Hazard is a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons” (HSA, 2017).
When we refer to risk in relation to occupational health and safety the most commonly used definition is ‘risk is the likelihood that a person may be harmed or suffers adverse health effects if exposed to a hazard.’ (HSA, 2017).
Risk assessments are a fundamental requirement for businesses. Whilst there are no fixed rules the following general principles can be applied:
- Identify the hazards
- Decide who might be harmed and how
- Evaluate the risks and decide on control measures
- Record the findings and implement them
- Continual review of assessments and update if necessary (ROSPA)
The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA) sets out the general principles of the UK’s Health and Safety law and provides a legal framework to promote and encourage high standards in the workplace. It places a duty on all employers “to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work” of all their employees. (Health and Safety at Work Act 1974).
Under HSWA, employers have a duty to provide a safe place of work and protect the health and safety of their employees and others that may be affected by their work activities. It also places duties on employees to cooperate with their employer, so far as is necessary, to enable their employer to comply with his health and safety duties as set down under HSWA and under relevant legislation.
The regulations require employers to put in place arrangements to control health and safety risks. These extend the general duties contained in the HSWA and require employers to carry out assessments of all operations and processes that present a potential risk to the health and safety of employees. Furthermore:
- Employers are required to have arrangements in place to cover health and safety.
- Employers are required to appoint competent persons, to assist them in discharging their health and safety responsibilities.
- Employers are required to have procedures in place to deal with serious and imminent danger.
- Employers sharing a workplace must co-operate with each other and co-ordinate their health and safety activities. European Legislation
4.3 European Legislation
As well as National Legislation, there is European Legislation that must also be complied with. The European Union has produced a series of Directives in the field of Health and Safety. he Framework Directive – also called Directive 89/391/EEC – lays down the health and safety principles. Further EU laws give the detail on topics such as noise, pregnancy and the use of chemicals.
A review of all existing policies, procedures and practices will need to be conducted within the organisation. HSG65 (1997) which provides guidance on developing Health and Safety Management systems will be used as a reference using a six-step approach:
Effective Health and safety policies should be a genuine business commitment to action and provide clear direction for the organisation to follow. It is important the information is clear and concise and accessible to all.
Responsibilities will need to be defined to promote a positive health and safety culture that promotes collaboration between colleagues. By the use of controls cooperation can be gained in all levels of the company’s hierarchy which also secures commitment. Effective communication procedures to distribute information. Competent employees to ensure their tasks are undertaken safely and efficiently.
Planning is essential for the implementation and control of risks which can be achieved thorough the coordinated actions of all. This process needs to control the risk, react to changing demands and sustain a positive safety culture.
Measuring performance is imperative and this can be reviewed in many ways, including but not limited to:
- Site inspections – general inspection of the conditions of the workplace or site. Are there obvious hazards present?
- Is housekeeping effective in reducing the risk?
- Are the staff wearing the correct PPE? Is equipment being used correctly and is it in a safe condition and fit for purpose?
- Are work processes being carried out in a safe manner and are there any points where they could be changed?
- Have staff received the correct training and is extra training required?
- Is the training that has been carried out effective?
- What are the sickness rates, how much time is being lost and what type of sickness is occurring? Could the cause be related to work activity?
- Staff surveys – this can be a formal survey or informal conversations and regular health and Safety meetings with staff to discuss issues/concerns.
Feedback is required to measure the success of Health and Safety Management. Reviewing should be a continuous process that reflects the objectives identified during the planning stage. By understanding any failings, we can develop management objectives, policies and procedures to address issues within the process.
Regular audit of the system will need to be carried out to ensure compliance and improvement. Effective health and safety auditing not only provides the legal framework for compliance, it also lays the foundations for continuous safety improvement to enhance competitive advantage. The organization’s safety management systems will be reviewed and assessed in line with the chosen criteria. Whilst an audit is used to assess Health and Safety management systems, it is important to view an audit as a positive – it’s a chance to highlight company successes and an opportunity to praise staff for their excellent work.
“The safety culture of an organisation is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behaviour that determine the commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, an organisation’s health and safety management.” (HSE, 1993)
Cooper (2000) distinguished between three interrelated aspects of safety culture, specifically:
Behavioural aspects (i.e. ‘what people do’) to change behaviours, employers have to change the context that drives behaviours—the goals, resources, and constraints that shape how employees work
Situational aspects of the company (i.e. ‘what the organisation has’). Organisational polices, practices, procedures, work environment which can be measured with safety audits.
Psychological characteristics of employees (i.e. ‘how people feel’), corresponding to the values, attitudes, and perceptions of employees with regard to safety within an organisation.
“HSE recognises the importance that behavioural safety can play in helping avoid accidents and ill-health at work…. Up to 80% of accidents are often attributed to human error”. (Anderson M 2017)
Over the past few years, there has been a significant increase in the use of behavioural safety programmers. Behavioural safety techniques are based on a large body of psychological research into the factors that influence behaviour. This research has led to the development of a range of techniques to influence behaviour and there is strong research evidence that behaviour modification techniques are effective in promoting desired health and safety behaviours.
A 2002 research report for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) found that behaviour-modification techniques can promote critical OSH behaviours, if they are implemented effectively.
Behaviour-modification programmes have become popular because of growing evidence that a high proportion of injuries at work are primarily caused by unsafe activities/behaviour. As far back as the 1930s, HW Heinrich argued that 88% of injury accidents were primarily caused by unsafe activities and only 10% by unsafe conditions, based on his studies of workplace injury reports
Interventions aimed at changing behaviour will vary depending on the organisational setting, the target population and behaviours that need altering. The HSE report suggests that the three main elements outlined above lend themselves to a six-step intervention process.
- Establishing the desired result or output of the activity or the individuals under examination.
- Specifying the critical behaviours that influence performance in the area to be improved.
- Ensuring the individuals are capable of behaving in the desired way.
- Conducting an ABC analysis (antecedents, behaviours, consequences) of the current and desired behaviours, changing antecedents where necessary. (Appendix 1)
- Altering the consequences immediately following the desired behaviours.
- Evaluating the impact of altering the consequences on the behaviour and on the desired result.
The approach outlined above will be adopted within the organistion to identify area’s of concern and appropriate action that needs to be taken.
“Health and safety is integral to success. Board members who do not show leadership in this area are failing in their duty as directors and their moral duty, and are damaging their organisation.” (HSE, 2013)
Effective health and safety performance comes from the top – members of the board have both collective and individual responsibility for health and safety. It is imperative that health and safety management decisions form an integral part of the business and there is both visibility and active commitment from the board
Management should lead by example. If there is visible support adoption and positive buy in will be made easier to evolve and adapt. Making health and safety objectives a key part of boardroom discussions will serve to ….
This involves a two-way process of collaboration, whereby both management and employees work together to strive for continual improvement of the organisations success in Health and Safety management.
Worker involvement in health and safety should be viewed as a continuing process and never to be considered ‘complete’. Organisational safety should continually seek to evolve and adapt to environmental as well as technological factors.
“Communication is not simply the transmission of messages; rather, it is the mutual exchange of understanding and shared meaning leading to co-operation and better practices.” (IOSH 2017)
Objectives need to be communicated in a clear and consistent manner. Using language that is understandable will increase a more receptive response. Using statistical data and workplace scenarios will assist in reinforcing the key message. Clear and constructive safety communication can improve knowledge and understanding that prevents at-risk behaviours and enhance safe work practices
Feedback is required from all levels to gain an understanding of the effectiveness of the current health and safety procedures. Employee surveys should be carried out to gage opinions and solutions to health and safety issues. This will encourage a culture of openness and visibility. Furthermore, a system of feedback to provide employees with actions that have been taken will enforce the viewpoint that suggestions have been taken seriously. Processes for encouraging engagement should be adopted throughout the business to ensure they are accessible to all. By way of example, email communication may not be appropriate for a worker who is on the factory floor. In this instance, a suggestion box or dedicated health and safety meetings providing a forum to voice any concerns.
A reward system should be considered for employees when good practices are observed. Again, this will highlight the company’s commitment to continual improvement.
Consultation with employees on health and safety is vital to ensure health and safety is managed effectively. It requires employers to bring to their attention any issues or concerns that relate to the health, safety, and welfare of all employees.
Consultation helps promote a positive health and safety culture, and ensures that everyone is given an opportunity to influence health and safety policies and procedures. Without co-operation between employers and employees, the chances of managing health and safety effectively are reduced.
Everyone can be affected if such communication fails, and the chances of things going wrong are increased. There are many examples where failure to consult and communicate has led to serious accidents.
Training is critical to ensure employees work safely and are aware of any hazards and risks they may face at work, and how to deal with them. It is not enough to say that Workplace Health & Safety in the workplace is a key priority without having sufficient training of employees.
Some staff might have particular safety-related training needs; for example, those working or taking specific roles or changing jobs. Deciding what training employees need should form part of the considerations for training requirements
Competence is about being able to do something effectively and efficiently. It has three main building blocks – knowledge, skills and experience.
The Health and Safety Executive defines health and safety training as covering all training and developmental activities that aim to provide workers, safety representatives and managers with:
- A greater awareness of health and safety issues
- Skills in risk assessment and risk management
- Skills relating to the hazards of particular tasks and occupations
- A range of other skills, including those relating to job specification and design, contract management, ergonomics and occupational health
Ensuring safe and healthy working has to be a key priority for everyone at work and this requires real competence, not just commitment and good intentions.
An organisation may have policies and procedures in place, but health and safety performance will not be acceptable if people are engaging in unsafe behaviour.
When employees are motivated, a positive attitude towards safe behaviour is fostered. Whereas starting off with an unsafe attitude will have a negative effect, beginning with a safe attitude means that a worker will stop and think before they begin their task and will assess what needs to be done. The task will then be carried out safely, resulting in a positive effect on the worker and their colleagues.
Joint health and safety committees and health and safety representatives assist the organization by bringing together employers and workers to identify and resolve health and safety issues in the workplace. Health and Safety Representatives have a key role to play in workplace health and safety. The function of the Health and Safety Representative is set out in the Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 and make representations to, the employer on safety, health and welfare matters relating to the employees in the place of work
Section 6 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) states that health surveillance should be introduced when a risk assessment has indicated that there is a requirement or that it meets the criteria as listed in the Health and Safety Executive’s (HSE) approved code of practice associated with the risk.
The HSE defines health surveillance as: “A system of ongoing health checks. These health checks may be required by law for employees who are exposed to noise or vibration, ionising radiation, solvents, fumes, dusts, biological agents and other substances hazardous to health, or work in compressed air.” (Appendix 2)
The management of health and safety risks is an essential part of the role of directors. Good health and safety at work is not only important in human terms, but it is also one of the most effective ways to ensure that the enterprises are successful and sustainable.
Prevention is the most effective approach to militate against these risks. It allows a company to limit uncertainties. In evaluating the risk and taking appropriate prevention measures, companies can improve their productivity and therefore also their profitability.
As well as the ethical and financial incentives one would also remind the board of their legal obligations with reference to the Health and Safety at Work Act (HSWA), Corporate Manslaughters and Homicide Act as well as how the culture will integrate with Leading Health and Safety at Work.
An organisation that takes its responsibilities towards Health and Safety seriously, and ensures compliance with legislation, can reap the rewards of enhanced reputation. Bene
fits can also include:
- Reduced costs and reduced risks
- Lower employee absenteeism
- Fewer accidents and reduced threat of legal action
- Ensuring better business continuity, thereby increasing productivity
- Improved standing and a better reputation among
- Lower insurance premiums
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has published estimates of the costs to Britain of workplace accidents and work-related ill health. In 2015/16, injuries and new cases of ill health in workers resulting from current working conditions will cost
The economy an estimated £14.9 billion. (Appendix 3)
- 1.3 million working people suffering from a work-related illness
- 2,542 mesothelioma deaths due to past asbestos exposures (2015)
- 137 workers killed at work
- 609,000 injuries occurred at work according to the Labour Force Survey
- 70,116 injuries to employees reported under RIDDOR
- 31.2 million working days lost due to work-related illness and workplace injury
The requirement for well managed and comprehensive health and safety management within the workplace has never been greater with many companies unaware of their obligations and how extensive their reviews of workplace risks needs to be. Improved understanding and management of health and safety risks likely to affect the organisation will lead to better performance and competitive advantage, especially when hazards and threats are identified and the risks assess and controlled in the same way as opportunities and rewards.
Management need to empower employees at every level within an organisation by thoroughly investing both time and resources to effectively embed a Health and Safety programme that not only works but continues to adapt, change and form an integral part of the organisation’s core business functions.
Investing in training is vital either to improve the communication skills and encourage the sharing of best practice, or behavioural safety training to help workers at all levels understand the importance of working safely.
In implementing a robust health and safety management system the following are key elements that need to be considered.
- Linking health and safety to the organisations corporate objectives
- Clearly defined responsibilities and accountabilities for all staff`
- Effective communication and consultation on health and safety
- development of health and safety competency across the organisation that supports the management system
- Allocation of sufficient resources for the management of health and safety;
- A meaningful set of health and safety performance measures;
- The ability to review the working of the health and safety management system providing the ability to learn from both positive and negative outcomes.
By developing and sustaining a healthy organisational culture we will create the conditions for a happy and safe work environment.
To implement a multiyear Health and Safety programme whereby we will establish and maintain an effective health and safety management system that will incorporate our vison of promoting a positive and healthy working environment. A set of management arrangements are necessary to organise, plan, control and monitor the design and implementation of the risk control systems. This will be achieved by focusing on specific target areas:
Develop and promote a corporate health and safety vision to enable the principals are firmly embedded in our culture. This will be achieved by increasing awareness and improving performance in work areas by organising campaigns and drop in health and safety sessions
The current Health and Safety training will be fully analysed to identify gaps and specific training requirements and a full health and safety training strategy will be implemented. This will form part of the Appraisal process and “performance management system” process.
Establish a Health and Safety Working Group which has champions to look at current health and safety topics that we could tackle through consultation.
Our workforce will need to change. We need to ensure that people with the right skills are in the right jobs. We also need to support the health and well-being of the existing workforce and prepare them to meet future service needs.
All staff need to be appropriately trained and have access to learning and development. As assessment of the existing training programmes in place will need to be reviewed and the frequency of retraining. The introduction of new training to incorporate a positive safety culture will also be explored.
Managers are a key part of the workforce and have a key role to play in driving service and culture change. They also need to be valued, supported and developed
Awareness campaigns to be integrated to ensure that our workforce is clear about the values and behaviours expected of them and these are aligned with recruitment practices to ensure we recruit, develop and performance manage our staff against our values.
Engage and involve staff in decisions and transformational change that affects them. This will include fully implementing a Listening into Action initiative throughout the organization. Employee involvement benefits everyone. Workers feel a sense of pride and ownership and furthermore involved workers are more likely to management get the benefit of the employees’ extensive knowledge.
Practical Ways to Involve Employees will include:
- Encouraging employee suggestions and give recognition
- Inviting employees to participate in incident investigations, workplace safety inspections, and behaviour-based safety
- Holding informal discussions with employees about safety and encouraging suggestions.
There is no doubting the challenge and ‘stretch’ that achieving a redesigned workforce will present, but committing to meeting this challenge will in itself send a message to staff about our determination to continue to provide safe effective services in which there is a recognition of the importance of every individual.
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