Effectiveness Psychoeducational Female
Background of Study
Based on the view of Johnson and Johnson (2000, as cited in Glading, 2003), a group is form by two or more individuals, who meet in face-to-face interaction, interdependently, with the consciousness that each belongs to the group and for the reason to achieve mutually agreed-on goals.
Wilson, Rapin and Haley-Banez (2000), the members of The Association for Specialist in Group Work (ASGW), which is a national division of the American Counselling Association, defines group work as “a broad professional practice involving the application of knowledge and skill in group facilitation to assist an interdependent collection of people to reach their mutual goals which may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or work-related. The goals of the group may include the accomplishment of tasks related to work, education, personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving, or remediation of mental and emotional disorders.”
Jacobs, Masson and Harvill (2005) had created seven categories of groups which based upon their different goal: educational group, discussion group, task group, growth group, counselling group, support group and self help group. However, ASGW only focus on four types of group work, which are psychoeducational group, counselling group, psychotherapy group, and task and work group (Wilson, Rapin and Haley-Banez, 2000).
This chapter comprises the background of the study and the research problem that arises in investigates the effectiveness of psychoeducational group on improving female adolescents’ emotional intelligence (EI). The research problem enhanced the objective to study on psychoeducational group and EI. Prediction of outcome was stated as hypotheses. Finally, definition of variables, significance and limitation of the study were discussed.
Group work is identified as an important modality because it is not only enable the clients to develop feelings of belonging and awareness of others, but also to increase their socialization skills and self-confidence. Besides, work group provide the opportunities for clients to exchange their idea and feedback (Nelson, Mackenthum, Bloesch, Milan, Unrein & Hill, 1956; as cited in Posthuma, 2002). Compare with individual counselling, group work is more efficiency because it consists of several clients who meet for common purpose and able to save considerable time and effort. When the group made in a group setting, the commitment to work on specific concerns often has become strength (Jacobs, Masson & Harvill, 2005).
According to Posthuma (2002), groups have been effective in various helping professions such as short-term psychiatric setting (Bradlee, 1984; McLees, Margo, Waterman, & Beeber, 1992; Prazoff, Joyce, & Azim, 1986), long-term psychiatric setting (Waldinger, 1990), counselling for special populations (Akos, 2000; Firth, 2000) and with the chronically physically ill (Gonen & Soroker, 2000; Levine, 1979).
Variety kinds of group work are believed to be helpful to adolescent in making a successful development and growth which related with psychological and social issues (Glading, 2003). During this transition period from childhood to adulthood, adolescent grow up psychically and mature mentally. They struggle with various psychological and social issues such as cope with crisis in identity, extraordinary peer pressures, dramatic physical changes, impending career decision, the desire for independence and self doubt (Wasielewski, Scruggs & Scott, 1997; as cited in Glading, 2003).
From a group, adolescents have the opportunity to identify their conflicting feeling, realize that they are not unique in their struggles, honestly question those value they decided to adjust, learn to communicate with peers and adults, learn from the modelling provided by the leader, and learn how to accept what others recommend and to give of themselves in return (Corey & Corey, 2002).
In this study, the psychoeducational group is used by the researcher to promote female adolescents’ emotional intelligence (EI). The term “Emotional Intelligence” was first introduced by Mayer and Salovey at arose in 1990 (Ciarrochi, Forgas & Mayer, 2001). The initial ability definition of EI as “A type of emotional information processing that includes accurate appraisal of emotion in oneself and others, appropriate expression of emotion, and adaptive regulation of emotion in such a way as to enhance living.” (Mayer, DiPaolo & Salovey, 1990; as cited in Ciarrochi, Forgas & Mayer, 2001).
Daniel Goleman, a science journalist, published the best-selling book, Emotional Intelligence at 1995. His popular book lead to an unusual turn of event as the field of EI become popularized and broadened. Theoretical and research modification in the area were taken place roughly since 1998 until present. At the same time, some new measures of EI have been developed.
Based on the information from American Psychological Association (APA) (2002), emotional development during adolescence involves establishing a realistic and coherent sense of identity in the context of relating to others and at the same time learning to cope with stress and manage emotion. Adolescents’ Self-concept and self-esteem are the two major concepts that involve in the developing a sense of identity. In the EI perspective, they need to be self-awareness and possess effective relationship skills.
Emotional skills are necessary for the adolescents to master in for their stress management and be sensitive and effective in relating to others. The four important skills that identified as part for adolescents’ emotional development are: recognizing and managing emotions, developing empathy, learning to resolve conflict constructively and developing a cooperative spirit.
Recently, there are some studies provided some indication of the predictive nature of EI in adolescents. The studies found that the adolescents with high EI score were inversely related to aggression (Rubin, 1999; as cited in Woitaszewski, Scott, Mattew & Roeper, 2004) and related to lower admission of smoking and alcohol use (Trinidad & Johnson, 2002; as cited in Woitaszewski et al, 2004). Mayer (2001; as cited in Woitaszewski et al, 2004) suggested that emotional intelligence was apparently related to the capacity to organize emotions that can occur in peer relationships. These evidences show that emotional intelligence is related to positive behavioural and social outcomes.
Psychoeducational group is a type of group that originally developed for use in educational settings. Recently, young people who join in developmental psychoeducational group out of sense the needs and desire to gain experience and knowledge that will help them better handle their concern such as identity, sexuality, parents, peer relationship, career goals and educational problems (Carty, 1983; as cited in Glading, 2003).
There are some examples showed the positive outcome for the adolescent who received in developmental psychoeducational group. Baker, Thomas & Munson (1983, as cited in Glading, 2003) showed that cognitive restructuring group enabled the students learn skills related to resolving problematic situation. Besides, the study of Hudson, Doyle & Venezia (1991, as cited in Glading, 2003) showed the effectiveness of communication skills group to improve their interpersonal relationship. The study of Jenau Anak Pawan (2007) and Siti Hawa Mohd Yusof (2007) showed that strcutured group enable improved the self-concept of orphans, who age of range from 12 to 17. Thus, in this study, the researcher would like to investigate whether psychoeducational group enable in improving the EI among female adolescents, who ages from 16 to 17 and have low or moderate level of EI score.
1.3.1 General Objective
The general objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of psychoeducational group in improving EI among female adolescent.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
To identify the different score of EI between pre-test and post-test for experimental group and control group after psychoeducational group take place.
To identify the different score of four elements of EI (perception emotion, managing emotion own emotion, managing others emotion and utilization of emotion) for Schutte-Self Report Inventory (SSRI) between pre-test and post test for experimental group and control group.
To assess the validity and reliability of module for treatment for psychoeducational group.
(Module for Psychoeducational Group)
Figure 1.0: Conceptual Framework
This study consists of two sample group, which are control group and treatment group. The sample of both group are identified to have low or moderate level of SSRI score. Each group will be given SSRI during post-test, to identify their EI level. For control group, no any intervention is given. For instance, the treatment group will form a psychoeducational group with the used of module which will develop their EI level. After 10 sessions of treatment, both groups will be given SSRI again as post-test. The score between for pre-test and post-test for both groups will be compared.
HÐ¾1a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for emotional intelligence.
HÐ¾1b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for emotional intelligence.
HÐ¾2a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for perception of emotion variable.
HÐ¾2b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for perception of emotion variable.
HÐ¾3a : There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for managing own emotion variable.
HÐ¾3b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for managing own emotion variable.
HÐ¾4a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for managing others emotion variable.
HÐ¾4b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for managing others emotion variable.
HÐ¾5a: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for treatment group after psychoeducational group approach for utilizing emotion variable.
HÐ¾5b: There is no significance difference between score for pre test and post test for control group after psychoeducational group approach for utilizing emotion variable.
Significance of Study
The study provides the contribution from the view of theoretical aspect and practical aspect. From the theoretical aspect, this study is view as an academic research that study with group work. Besides, the study showed the potential of psychoeducational group as an appropriate group work approach to promote clients’ socioemotional development.
This study is an experiment that assesses the effectiveness of psychoeducational group. Thus, the outcomes of the study are able to serve as an evidence of the ability of group work to promote EI. This is the chance to promote the group work approach for the community of Malaysian to gain their trust on the group work’s effectiveness.
Besides, this study provides the opportunity for researcher to assess the validity and reliability of the module that had been developed. This is significance and necessary for this study since the validity and reliability of the module able to guarantee its quality and effectiveness.
From practical aspect, the study provides the module that had been developed to promote the development of EI for adolescent through group work. The modules are flexible and able to modify according to the needs of the group. For those helping professions who interest to implement the group for developing emotional intelligence, the modules can be the references.
The effectiveness of module enables to generate the adolescent who possess with good emotional intelligence. It believed will be leaded them to gain self-awareness, not only able to make perception of their own emotion and managing their own emotion, but also able to guide them have a better interpersonal relationship.
A collection of two or more individuals who meet in face-to-face interaction, interdependently, with the awareness that each belongs to the group and for the purpose of achieving mutually agree-on goals. (Johnson and Johnson, 2000; as cited in Glading, 2003)
A team that form by seven members who meet in face-to-face interaction, which lead by the researcher, with the purpose of improving their emotional intelligence.
A specialist group work with members who are relatively well-functioning individual but who may have lack of information in a certain area, with the specialization deals with importing, discussion and integrating factual information. New information is integrated through the use of planned skill-building exercises (Galding, 2003).
A structured group with focus on EI theme and work with female adolescent who are low or moderate levels of EI, with the aim of providing members with increased awareness of their emotional problems in daily life and the tools or skills to better cope with it.
An outcome which has production of intended result (Hornby, 1997).
Creation of positive effect for the group members to help them improves their EI development through psychoeducational group approach.
The ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. (Salovey, Peter & David Sluyter, 1997; as cited in Wikipedia, 2007)
The ability of an individual to percept emotion accurately, master the skill in managing own and others’ emotion, and utilize his emotion for creative thinking, flexible planning, mood redirected attention and motivation.
Perception of Emotion
The ability to recognize one’s own and others’ emotion base on “situational and expressive cues that have some degree of cultural consensus as to the emotional meaning” (Saarni, 1999; as cited in Ciarrochi, Chan & Bajgar, 2000).
The ability aware of own and others’ emotion and perceive such verbal and nonverbal emotion accurately.
Managing Own Emotion
The capacity for adaptively coping with aversive or distressing emotions by using self-regulatory strategies that rearrange the passion or duration of such emotional starts (Saarni, 1999; as cited in Ciarrochi, Chan & Bajgar, 2000).
The ability to manage and coping with own strong positive or negative emotion and restructure such emotion with stability.
Managing Others’ Emotion
The ability to arrange events others take pleasure in, cover negative emotions in order to avoid hurting others’ feelings and make others feel better when they are down (Saarni, 1999; as cited in Ciarrochi, Chan & Bajgar, 2000).
The ability manipulates and controls others’ emotion for creation of a harmony and joyful atmosphere.
Utilization of Emotion
The ability to used own emotion in the search of life goals and make decision based on feelings over logic (flexible planning), using emotion to facilitate different thinking (creative thinking), Interpreting strong negative emotion in a positive way (mood redirected attention) and pursuing one’s goal with drive, persistence and optimism (Motivating emotion) (Sample, 2007).
The ability to use emotion to solve the daily life emotion related problems.
Individual who ages from range of 11 to 21 and do involved into a transition period from childhood to young adulthood. It is generally a time of self-discovery in which young people aim to define their place in the world (Ariganjoye & Daigneault, 2007).
Members who ages from range of 16 or 17 and identified have a low or moderate level of EI. They participate in the study as a member for control group or treatment group.
Limitation of Study
Below are some of the limitations of study that identified by the researcher:
The samples of the study are the female adolescent who ages from 16 to 17. The module that developed may not suit with the other population.
The researcher unable to control the confidentiality among the sample from treatment group because they stay with the same place with the sample from control group. Perhaps if they break the confidential, some input from the psychoeducational group may receive by the sample from control group indirectly.
The sample may answer SSRI without honestly and bias, this will lead to the inconsistency of the validity and reliability of the outcome.
Perhaps some of the samples are not ready mentally to participate in the study or be involuntary. They may act with resistance, reluctant or absence for the group meeting, which will influence their improvement of EI development.
Since the researcher is a counsellor trainer who still in supervision, perhaps the competency of researcher is limited to handle more crisis issue.
Overall this chapter is used to provide a general introduction for the study. The background and the problem statement of the study had been discussed. Besides, this chapter state with the objectives and hypotheses of the study. Besides, the important terms for this study had been defined. Finally, this significance and limitation of the study had been discussed.
This chapter explore the entire concept for this study in details. The key concepts for this study include psychoeducational group, module, emotional intelligence and adolescent. Besides, literature review of previous research that related with these concepts was organized to support the relationship of variable for this study.
2.1 Pscyhoeducational Group
Psychoeducational group, sometimes are simply referred to as “educational group” or “guidance groups”, is originally developed fro the use in educational setting, specifically public schools (Galdding, 2003). The premised of psychoeducational groups is on the idea that education is treatment not only because of the knowledge acquired in the process but also because of the perception that may be changed as result (Young, 1998; as cited in Gladding).
Corey & Corey (2002) cited that “Structured groups focus on a particular theme and are often psychoeducational in nature.” Commonly in a structured group, the members are asked to complete a questionnaire at the beginning group to assess how well they are coping with the part of concern. When the groups terminates, another questionnaire is completed to assess their progress.
According to Conyne (1996; as cited in Gladding, 2003), the major goal of pscyhoeducational group work is “to prevent future development of debilitating dysfunctions while strengthening coping skills and self-esteem.” Thus, it is suited to use in various setting such as schools, hospitals, mental health agencies, social service agencies and universities (Jones & Robinson; as cited in Gladding, 2003). In general, it stresses growth through knowledge (ASGW, 2000; as cited in Gladding). Besides, it increases members’ awareness of some life problem and the tools or skills to better cope with it (Corey & Corey, 2002). Carrell (2000, as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006) points out that psychoeducational groups emphasize on support, learning of new skills, and how to help and be helped.
The general contents or themes for psychoeducational group includes, but is not limited to, personal, social, vocational and education information (Bates, Johnson & Blaker, 1982; as cited in Gladding, 2003). Some current topics for psychoeducational groups for adolescents include: loneliness, self-esteem social skills, career development, career exploration, children of divorce, grief, conflict resolution, bullying prevention, anger management, aggression, relationship skills, communication skills, prevention of depression, family relationship, cognitive coping skills and antisocial behaviour (Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006 ) .
These groups usually process in 50 minutes to 2 hours period and work best when they have a regular meeting such as once a week. The appropriate number for sessions is 8 to 10 (Gladding, 2003). To Corey and Corey (2002), the general sessions for psychoeducation group are about 2 hours for 4 to 15 weeks. However, if the group is for children or clients with a short attention span, 30 to 45 minutes session should be appropriated.
Furr (2000, as cited in Gladding, 2003) introduced six-step process that essential for designing a psychoeducational group:
Stating the purpose
Designing experiential activities
The activities or curriculum in these groups usually take in nonthreatening exercises or group discussion forms but it may present in variety forms actually (Bates, Johnson & Blaker, 1982; as cited in Gladding, 2003). Certain technological application such as computer-assisted programs, video or audio transmission and computerized simulations take a role in the group to develop the members’ growth through knowledge in indirect way (Bowman & Bowman, 1998; as cited in Gladding).
According to Shechtman, Bar-EI and Hadar (1997; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006), adolescents able to take many advantages through group because they have a chance to relate to each other learn the life skills. Besides, they may practice the behaviours that generalized from the group into real-life situations. From the group, multiple feedbacks are received and through helping each others, their self-esteem may be increased.
Psychoeducational groups are commonly utilized in school setting, for prevention purposes for students at risk (Vera & Reese, 2000; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006). Psychoeducational group approach assist group members in sharing and developing coping skills and behaviours and apply such skills in dealing with new or difficult situation (Dagley, Gazda, Eppiger & Stewart, 1994; Hoag & Burlingame, 1998; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006).
Through psychoeducational intervention, adolescents learn the improved way of functioning. They will expose with new cognitive concepts, ideas and exploration of their issues. The adaptive behaviours will be explored, discussed and practices for transfer to school and home. From the healing interaction of the group experience, their self-esteem, efficacy, and emotional satisfaction will be improved (Smead, 2002; as cited in Janice & DeLucia-Waack, 2006 ).
Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad (2005) defined module as a unit of teaching and learning that discuss with certain topic, in a systematic and subsequent way. It helps the student able to learn alone and master the learning unit in an easy and accurate way.
Module can be used in the non-academic setting such as the activities that related with self-growth, adventure and interaction. Thus, module suits to apply for individual or group in academic or non-academic form with the purpose to lead them for change in a positive direction (Rusell, 1974; as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005).
According to Sulaiman Yasin, Saidin The & Asma Ahmad (1986, as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005), the role of module is to assist someone to gain knowledge, awareness and adeptness which will lead to the improvement of management ability to achieve the objective that fixed by an organization. Thus, in this study, the module had been developed and be used in the psychoeducation group to assist the group members to gain knowledge, awareness and practice the skills that related with EI, with the goal of increase their EI level.
The modules are important in this study because each module has the specific objective. When the members aware of the objective during the beginning of the session, such situation able to drive them to participate in the activity actively to achieve the goal. Besides, the modules that developed consists with assessment elements which will enable the member to receive and provide feedback that related with their achievement and understanding of the activities that they participated (Shaharom Noordin & Yap Kueh Chin, 1991; as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005).
Jamalidin Ahmad (2002, as cited in Sidek Mohd Noah and Jamaludin Ahmad, 2005) categorize module into four types with according to their purpose. They are teaching module, motivation module, training module and academic module. Teaching module is used in school setting, with the purpose to provide guidance for students to study alone. To develop the student motivation, motivation module is used by teacher, facilitator or moderator in variety form such as acitivities, trainings and games. Academic module is prepared by universities or colleges lecturers that complete with lecture notes and is provide to their students. Training module is a module in training form with strive for improve the worker performance in certain organization.
The chart below illustrates the process to create a module.
Set the objective
Needs of research
Identify theory, rational, philosophy, concepts, target and time period.
Choose the contents
Combine draft of module
Assess validity and reliability
Combine draft of module
Combine draft of module
Complete module and able to be used
Phase I, Draft Module Preparation
Pahse II, Test and Evaluate Module
Figure 2: Model Module Creation Sidek
Source: Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaludin Ahmad (2006). Pembinaan Modul: Bagaimana membina Modul Latihan dan Modul Akademik. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Sidek Mohd Noah introduced a module that is more comprehensive for module creation at 2001 (Sidek Mohd Noah & Jamaluding Ahmad, 2005). This model has two phases. Phases one involves the steps to create draft for module, whereas phase two is a level to test and evaluate the module. The validity and reliability of the modules are assessed in this phase. Only the module with appropriate value of validity and reliability will be used. For in stance, of the value is inappropriate, the module need to modify and rebuilt until the appropriate value of validity and reliability been achieved.
2.3 Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Mayer (2001) in his article A Field Guide to Emotional Intelligence proposed a fivefold division of years to explain the overview of the emergence of EI concepts. From 1990 to 1969, the psychological study of intelligence and emotion were separate. During the period of 1970 to 1989, psychologists focus on the study of how emotions and thought influenced each other. At 1990, the term of ‘emotional intelligence’ first introduces by Mayer and Salovey and leads to emerge the EI as a topic to study.
When come to 1994 to 1997, the concept of EI was popularized by Goleman and his book Emotional Intelligence become a worldwide best-seller and was widely copied. From 1998 until present, a numbers of refinements of the concept of EI take place and a new measure of the concept of EI had been introduced as well. Now, EI become a popular topic for the scientific research.
There are variety definitions for EI. According Mayer (2001), recently two lines of definition had emerged. First line consists of the original approach that defined EI as an intelligence involving emotion. For the second lines, the definition is mixed approaches that blended with other skills and characteristic such as well-being, motivation, and capacities to engage in relationship.
Mayer, Caruso and Mayer (1999; as cited in Mayer, 2001) proposed the ability theory and divides EI into four brunches: ability at emotional perception, the ability to use emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions and managing emotion. For mixed definition, Bar-on (1997; as cited in Mayer, 2001) view EI as noncognitive competencies and categorized as intreapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management and general mood. Goleman (1998; as cited in Mayer, 2001) used the mixed definition as well. He proposed five-part elaboration of EI: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills.
The most common mental illness that relate with EI is Alexithymia. For people who suffer with Alexithymia, they suffer with the difficulty identifying feelings and distinguishing between feeling and the bodily sensations of emotional arousal. Besides, it is hard for them to describe feeling to others and have a poor fantasy life. They also have a cognitive style that is literal and focuses on the minute details of external events. High alexithymia individuals are identify to have a low EI because they unable to use emotions as information about their internal or external worlds and do not feel good about themselves (Taylor, 2001).
Bar-on (2001) proposed four themes to define self-actualization: the ability and drive to set and achieve goals, being committed to and involved with our interests, actualizing our potential and enriching our life. His findings strongly suggest that the EI factors and facilitators such as happiness, optimism, self-regard, independence, problem-solving, social responsibility, assertiveness and emotional self-awareness are best predictors of self-actualization. He mentioned that the person who has high IQ does not guarantee that they will actualize their potential because his study showed that even EI individuals with average or even below-average cognitive capacity are able to actualize their potential in life.
Empathy is one of the five domains of EI that proposed by Goleman (1995), which defined as ability recognizing emotions in others and the ability that built on emotional self-awareness and it serve as the fundamental “people skills”. Empathic accuracy is a measure of the ability to accurately infer the specific content of “reading” people’s thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1997; as cited in Flury & Ickes, 2001). These aspects are closely related with friendship and dating relationship (Flury & Ickes, 2001).