Community Sports Hall Project
This report is an analysis of information management and construction methods. It details in seven parts the different approaches that a client could take towards building a Community Sports Centre on the South coast of Fife. As the information manager, it was important to advise the client on the best way to manage information and to help maximise communication and output. By successfully achieving this, the client would achieve funding from the SportsScotland Facilities Fund. This report will also look at the role information management plays, the role of stakeholders, different construction processes, data flow diagrams, web-based collaboration, eTendering and BIM-based application. By further analysis of different applications and their functions, the client would be more satisfied with the project outcome. Contents
Information management 2
Construction Processes 4-6
Data Flow Diagrams 7-8
Web-based Collaboration 8-10
BIM-Based Applications 12-13
1.0 Introduction on the role and importance of Information Management for the project
In the development of a project information management is an important process in the development and creation of a build. Information management is the cycle of organisational activity. It involves the acquisition of information from one or more sources and the subsequent custodianship and distribution of that information to those who need it. Information management helps to split up data, information and knowledge. Data is seen as the raw facts obtained from events such as transactions. Information is the clusters of these facts whist can be used to present facts to human beings involved in decision making. Knowledge obtains the meaning of this and applies it to a purpose.
For this project, it is important as it leads to a more efficiently run project from which data can be accessed with more ease. As the project involves the construction and application of a building it will be important for the information management involved to be accurate and clear. If it is presented in a clear manner, then the process of construction can be improved as communication is made easier leading to lesser costs and the needs of the client being met.
Information management is the means in which an organisation plans, collects, organises and uses the information to ensure that the value of it is identified and exploited. Throughout information management, there is a life cycle. This involves creating, capturing, organising, accessing and applying information to meet the needs of the project. By following this life cycle the aims of the project can be achieved.
There are several types of information which all helps to improve the construction industry. These types include industry, company and project-centric. Industry looks at regulations, standards and price indices. A company is interested in financial, marketing, HR and procurement information. Meanwhile, the project takes information from design detail specification and vendor detail. These types of information are managed to make a more information based, highly collaborative, diverse and project-based construction.
The role of information management for this project can be improved using information systems. Information systems consist of resources such as labour, materials and data which travel through assembly and construction to produce the final building. It looks to have a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organisation. These systems help to produce knowledge which can be shown to the clients and relevant stakeholders.
The importance of Information Management can be further strengthened by failures of construction projects in the past due to lack of systems and planning. By having relevant information made available the construction and design process will become further streamlined and useful
2.0 Identification of stakeholders of this project and the relationships among them on a hierarchy
The stakeholders involved in this project looks at the individuals and groups who can affect or be affected by the decisions and involvements of the organisation’s objectives. There are different types of stakeholders involved in the project. These are economical, technological, social and political stakeholders. Their importance, power and level of interest can be measured in the table below.
Economic stakeholders can directly influence the profitability, cash flow and work progress of a project. By doing this they are directly involved in the budgeting, use of materials and early design decisions. Economic stakeholders in this project will be the client and SportsScotland who will fund any construction.
Technological stakeholders who can affect the project due to their influence as gatekeepers or have access to the necessary technology needed to complete the project. Holding this technology is key to the construction of any project. For the construction, the technological stakeholders will be the contractors involved as they will look to source the means for construction. This will include the engineers, surveyors and regulatory bodies.
Social stakeholders can affect the success of the project in many ways. This includes altering public opinion, by campaigning against the project using their social position to affect the wellbeing of the project through planning, and or other means. By doing this, the opinion of those involved at SportsScotland could change for the better or for the worse and a lot of the decision of the funding of the project could rest on this at is the public are not content with the new facility then funding will most likely not be granted. The social stakeholders include residents, environmental groups, conservationists and the client.
Political stakeholders who can impact upon the success of the project by influencing and enforcing legislation to affect the wellbeing of the project. By doing this they become stakeholders in the project as they can potentially block building in certain areas, the use of certain materials and designs. They, therefore, hold power in the planning stage of any project. The stakeholders involved here would be regulatory agencies, planning agencies, the government and trade associations.
Of these stakeholders, there are also subcategories which look at the influence of stakeholders and how much they can gain or lose from the project. They are generally divided into primary and secondary stakeholders. Primary stakeholders are those who gain or lose the most from the project. They are not directly involved in the development of the design and the construction process and can be subdivided further into those involved in the project demand and supply. For this project, the primary demand stakeholders would be the client and SportsScotland whilst the primary supply stakeholders would be the CPM, architect, surveyor, engineers and any contractors used.
The secondary stakeholders are those who may not be directly involved in the process of construction but that can be influenced by the outcome of the project. Secondary stakeholders can be further subdivided into individuals and organisations involved in the private and public sector of the project. The private secondary stakeholders would involve local residents, environmental groups, conservationists and archaeologists whilst the public secondaries would involve regulatory agencies, planning agencies, local authorities and government. Although they are sometimes not involved in the project, their influence is still key to the success of the project.
3.0 Explanation of the construction process that may be followed to carry out this project. This should be discussed in relation to the main differences and features of the three construction processes followed.
Following on from a successful application for funding from SportsScotland the project would then be designed and constructed. There are several ways to follow through this process. These include the RIBA Plan of Work, Process Protocol and the Design and build method of procurement. By looking at the differences between these, the correct method can be chosen, and the project can become more successful.
The construction process chosen for this particular project would be the RIBA Plan of Work as it offers the most integrated system which builds incrementally. The plan involves 10 stages which take the project from the appraisal stage all the way to after practical completion.
Stage A of the plan is the appraisal stage. The initial stage of appraisal looks at identifying the client’s requirements and possible and constraints on development. By identifying these early on, the design team can analyse issues and redesign in terms of the appraisal results. This stage further gives preparation of studies to enable the client to decide whether to proceed and to select probable procurement methods. The selection of the correct procurement method would strengthen the use of budget and help the clients need be met.
The second stage of the plan is stage B, Strategic briefing. Strategic briefing helps to prepare for the strategic brief by or on behalf of the client by confirming the key requirements and constraints of the project. Identifying this helps to form the design and cost estimation of the project. It also identifies procedures, organisational structure and range of consultants and others to be engaged with the project. At this point, it is identified that the strategic brief becomes the responsibility of the client.
Stage C looks at the outline proposals which helps to commence development of the strategic brief which by this point has been made by the client. From here it develops into the project brief which will be important for the whole process of construction. It also gives preparation of the outline proposals and the estimation of cost whilst reviewing the relevant procurement method.
Detailed Proposals is stage D of the plan of work and is the further developed project brief. The brief by this point holds all the elements from the strategic one and looks to show the buildings final design and cost.
Stage E involves the final processes of production and holds the buildings design expectations and cost estimations. By having cost estimations available preparations can be made for the stakeholders and potential tenders. Stage F is the Production information which involves preparing the information made by designers and passing it to the construction team in order for the project to be constructed. This is incorporated into tender documentation and the contract documents.
Stage G involves the preparation of a tender as a submission made by the prospective supplier in a response to an invitation to tender. The offer is made to supply goods or services. The tender documentation is prepared to seek offers. Tender documentation will include a letter of invitation to tender, the form of tender, preliminary information and plans, the form of contract and BIM protocol, a tender pricing document, the employer’s information requirements for BIM, design drawings and specifications. Stage H is the Tender Action in which the client has identified the preferred tenderer they may hold a tender settlement meeting to enter into negotiations. This may result in the further adjustment of the tender documents and the submission of a revised tender.
Stage J is Mobilisation which refers to the activities that should be carried out after the client has selected the contractor, but before the contractor commences work on site. It is a preparatory stage during which the majority of activities are managed by the contractor. The consultant, contractor and consultant team undertake a range of activities in during this stage to make sure everything is in place for construction.
Stage K is the Construction to Practical Completion in which the project undergoes the stages of construction. During this the project is The lead designer coordinates the preparation and issue of any additional information required by the contractor and co-ordinates the review of design information prepared by the contractor. The client begins preparations for the occupation of the development, including the preparation of an operational policy and migration strategy setting out how they will manage the transition into and the operation of the new facility. Stage L involves the After Practical Completion. At this point occupation of the constructed building will take place with the end users seeing the end product. From here, Post Occupancy Evaluation will take place to form a review of the construction. (Royal Institute of British Architects, 2018)
Another method of construction is designed and build which involves another plan to take a project from conception to occupation. Design and build offer ten stages in a different way from the RIBA plan of work. The initial stage is business justification The business justification stage is the first stage. It takes place once a business need has been identified which might result in a building project. The stage involves assessing whether there is justification for the project, preparing a preliminary business case and creating an organisational structure for the project. The business justification stage takes place before the selection of the consultant team, so the client may wish to appoint advisers to help them.
The feasibility studies stage considers the options for satisfying the client’s needs, enabling the client to prepare a business case for the preferred option and deciding whether to proceed with the project. It is possible to make an outline planning application during this stage if the risk to the project of not receiving planning permission is high, or if delays in receiving planning permission would be problematic.
Concept design then takes place, and this can be undertaken by either the contractor or consultant team and is then followed by the detailed design. The concept design stage is concerned with preparing a concept design for the preferred option and developing and then freezing the project brief. It may also include making an outline planning application or a detailed planning application. On design and build projects it might include tendering for the design and build contractor. Meanwhile, the detailed design is concerned with developing the detailed design and technical design for the project. It is also likely to include making a detailed planning application and applications for statutory approvals.
Production information then takes place in the way that it did with the RIBA plan of work in order to prepare the information that the contractor will need to construct the building. The project then follows mobilisation were the client selects the contractor to undertake certain activities. The majority of the activities are managed by the contractor. Mobilisation refers to the activities carried out after the client has selected the contractor, but before the contractor commences work on site. It is a preparatory stage during which the majority of activities are managed by the contractor. Similar to the RIBA plan of work, construction then occurs on the project until it reaches a certificate of practical completion.
Once construction has been finished the occupation and defects liability period takes place after the client has taken possession of the development. During this stage, any defects are rectified and the final certificate is issued signifying that the construction works have been fully completed. As the development is now occupied, and the contractor no longer has possession of the site, close co-operation is required between the contractor and the client so as so not to disturb occupants, whose activities will take priority over work required to rectify defects. Post-occupancy evaluation is the process determining how successful the delivery of the project was, how successful the completed development is, where there is potential for further improvement, and what lessons can be learned for future projects. It can be particularly valuable to repeat developers and may be a requirement of some funding bodies.
Another process that may be used for construction is the Government soft landings process. This involves seven keys steps which streamline a project from conception to end use. By analysing at each stage, it makes sure that the design, construction and occupation team work together to meet each other’s needs. The first step is the strategy that will be used for the construction of the building were the best possible options are analysed. By doing this the client, contractor and consultant team can meet and discuss issues and variations. The brief is then issued to offer an outline of the building’s requirements. The concept of the building is then generated in order to show how the building will look and how it will impact upon thos4 around it. The definition then takes place before design. At this point, the building has all of its tender documents and specifications drawn up and the contractor is aware of the client’s needs. The build and commission stage of the process involves the contractor following the design brief and tender to generate a suitable building for the end user. Handover and close-out then take place to give the client the building they helped design. Operation and end life looks to study the performance of the building through surveys and helps to produce Post Occupancy Evaluations which can be used.
The most relevant process here would be the RIBA plan of work as it offers the most streamlined and effective way of construction due to its many clear steps and use of evaluation at each.
4.0 – Data Flow Diagrams for the main stages of the project on at least three levels.
Figure 1 – Simplified Design Process
Figure 2 – Data Flow Diagram, Design Process
Figure 3 – Data Flow Diagram, Bill of Quantities (Design buildings ltd, 2018)
5.0 The web-based collaboration application that can be used. The report should propose at least three applications with a comparison of these selected applications in terms of functions provided and its use in the market.
Collaborative software is commonly known as groupware and serves to be used as software that recognises the significance of work groups by providing functions and services that support collaborative activities. There are several applications available to use for this type of work and it is important to analyse and compare them.
Docuware is one of the applications available to use in web-based collaboration. It is a cloud-based system which manages documents electronically through automation. It is available for use by web and through mobile which allows authorised users to connect wherever they are. Docuware is unique as it offers the ability to find important documents through a simple search engine. These searches can be saved so that regular processes can become even more efficient. This can be further embedded in Microsoft Outlook, Word and Excel. Docuware also possesses software which can give email notifications that keep important functions going whilst removing human error. With task lists and email notifications, projects move forward on schedule. It also provides for comprehensive and immediate disaster recovery, since all of the documents will be stored in one central location off-site. Docuware benefits its user by letting them access documents from any location, can access any project data, plans and protocols at the instant of a click (Docuware, 2018). Real-time access is also available with user knowledge status updated via stamps. Docuware also enables any size of organization to transform documents into valuable capital.
Asana is another collaborative software available to be used. It works as a project and task management app that facilitates team communication and collaboration. Asana can help to develop projects and tasks within those whilst tracking progress from various devices. It allows collaboration as team members can be added to projects and tasks for improved communication. Asana integrates communication to rid the need for email and third-party applications. It allows for the sharing of notes, uploading of attachments and improved organisation in order to streamline workflow. Notifications allow for users to know when changes have been made. This notification-based process applies to each activity and is how Asana balances between project delivery and communication.
Asana combines project management and collaboration tasks to handle the most complex workflows in the largest teams. It allows for the creation, categorisation and scheduling of projects in a special calendar for the prioritisation of daily tasks. Users are given the ability to add custom filters to this and track only their interests. Asana as an application also generates detailed progress reports for its user. Within the same platform, you can attach various file formats, and share project-related documents with your team without having to use emails or third-party communication channels. Users can also star projects that they are using.
Asana eliminates the challenge which large teams face when trying to work together through the use of email notifications. Team members can discuss project process whilst it is ongoing. All of this is stored to encourage innovative ideas. This means that no one in the team will miss an update. Opinions can be exchanged between different professionals to gain better results (Finnegan, 2018). Meetings do not need to be attended as findings can be viewed online Meetings, nevertheless, are not excluded from the game: they simply become more productive, particularly in terms of fixing bugs, generating leads, or hiring an applicant. Depending on the permissions assigned by the admin, the meetings can even be attended by guests, partners, and other external collaborators.
Wrike is another collaborative software which allows for business use and information management. Wrike will allow for one hub of work, a user-friendly navigation, security measures to ensure project stability and a mobile application provided to let you track progress.
Wrike offers a paned view to a project which lets important data be viewed on one screen to give clear visibility of project operations. It shows three panes all on one page. The left pane shows the project hierarchy and allows for work on smaller tasks and navigation between projects. The middle pane displays the project task list to view goals. The right panel shows the task details. From these three panes, you can ask for updates from team members, prioritize tasks, communicate with the team and control progress. Wrike also gives the ability to put an item into different folders without duplication and thus lets you create and sort data through tags and folders. A task can be grouped into many folders but not duplicated. This task remains as a single file and all file changes remain relevant to the folder it is changed. You can also use the tags and folders to share tasks with other teams and your clients.
Wrike also uses an activity stream so that you can track progress to help micro-manage small tasks. The stream pane and its widget in the dashboard helps to display activity. All shared activities can be seen in chronological order. The main advantage is that team members can view each other’s activity progress. An @mention can be used to draw attention to specific issues (Finances online, 2018). The user who is being mentioned is made aware of this and by doing this, all the team member scan gets a full view of what’s being discussed.
Moreover, Wrike further holds excellent analysing for easier generating of reports. Global reports can be easily made available to the user giving performance chars to show a visual representation of performance and progress. This graph helps you estimate individual and teamwork pace as well as project completion date. The Folder Statistics on the right pane of a project folder shows important task metrics like status and due date, on a weekly basis.
From comparing the three-collaborative software, the Asana program appears to be the most relevant for use in the project. This is as it focuses on the collaborative side and allows for users to work on projects of all scales whilst tracking their progress.
6.0 The tendering application that can be used. The report should propose at least three applications with a comparison of these selected applications in terms of functions provided and its use in the market.
E-Tendering is an example of e-business in construction. It is defined as “the issue and receipt of tender documentation through electronic means which facilitates the procurement of construction work and award of contracts”. It involves the electronic exchange of any tender documents. Due to the electronic transfer of these documents, security becomes a major issue with solutions having not be identified for security and legal reasons. This affects how the systems operate.
In eTendering, one of the main goals is to achieve a successful integration of design and construction. eTendering systems offer secure communications, access control, secure time, record keeping, system availability and file formats. To protect against this three possible security architectures to prevent against this would be principally based, trusted third party (TTP) based and distributed TTP architecture (DTTP) (Martin, 2008).
An example of an e-tendering application is TED eTedenering which is administered as the EU institutions eProcurement platform. This is modelled upon EU directives on public procurement. TED eTendering is an extension of TED (Tenders Electronic Daily) which works as the online system for tender and procurement. Documents such as contracts, technical specification, annexes, questions and answers are made available through free electronic access. TED eTendering benefits its user by providing free electronic access to calls for tenders published by EU institutions, agencies and other bodies. It integrates knowledge and synchronises with TED eNotices and the TED website, where public procurement notices are published.
When using TED eTendering the benefits allow for many improvements from a standard tender. The project is instantly made more collaborative as eProcurement provides an environment for preparing and publishing tender documents. Management of documents and preparation is made easier due to a synchronisation of contract notices and automatic publication of calls for tenders. By having this, tenders are easier accessed and applied. It can also support tenders by publishing reports, statistic and files which can be made available in order to give more information on projects. The application further allows for the publishing of calls for tenders for all types of procedures.
Economically speaking, the application is also free and available to access at any time. The user is also allowed to download documents at ease. Questions and answers are also displayed with consultation allowing for the possibility of new questions. Electronic subscription is also made available for calls for tenders with email updates made and alerts for newly published tenders.
Anyone can register for TED eTendering with the only basic information required. All information on tenders is accessible without registration. Registered users can access and submit questions for tenders, subscribe to tenders and have notifications of tender activity.
In Scotland, PSC-Tender is used as the national eTendering application for projects involving the public sector. It is available free of charge from the Scottish Government. Its use expands to over thirty government organisations including those involved with Local authorities, NHS and HE/FE. It provides web-based procurement tools which enable eTendering and lets suppliers securely communicate with buyers throughout procurement.
Suppliers who are bidding for contracts can store, edit and re-use answers to questions. This helps suppliers who are not looking to renter information (Bravo solution, 2018). It aligns with the EU Procurement Directives to ensure that good practice is kept. Features of this application also allow for eContract Management through the eSourcing functionality. This is a feature which has been widely used in the Scottish public sector. It lets contract managers store information in the correct record.
Suppliers are also benefited through advice made available from Public Contracts Scotland to let them perform tender exercises. Registration is required which lets them express interest and respond to questions
RICS eTendering is also an online application service which was made available to suppliers and buyers. It let users electronically issue and receipt any tender documentation in an electronic format as part of the procurement process. RICS suggest that for this type of eTendering to occur that there must be a clear understanding of the nature and intent of all parties. The adaptation of standard practice will enable all parties to benefit from the consistency of approach to avoid ambiguity and reduced frustration.
RICS eTendering benefits the user by offering a ten-step plan which enables the user to have an efficient money and waste saving project. The 10 step plan offers checks over choosing the right method and medium, checking technology and security, preparing for tender, preliminary enquiries, agreeing to set a standard, ensuring legality, evaluation and performance (Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors, 2010). By having this plan, all parties are made aware of what the tender includes and what it will perform.
This type of eTendering allows for improved communication as users can communicate through various processes to make for a more efficient procurement route. Electronic formats such as Word, CAD and Excel are supported to let tenders be viewed with their drawings. The use of communication on this service will also provide a quick exchange of data, familiarity and an inexpensive use since it is free. This web-enabled tender system lets users log in and upload and download documents. Documents can be logged onto a file for parties to access and so that potential tenderers can view the same information. This system is similar to the accepted tender opening process with controlled access and tender opening and email alerts to let users know about changes and unopened files.
This method is advantageous as it provides a dynamic nature of instant access, secure systems in place to reduce security risks, reduced administration, single source servers and control of versions and revisions. By having this eTendering is made more accessible for any project due to the availability of technology.
7.0 The BIM application that can be used. The report should propose at least three applications with a comparison of these selected applications in terms of functions provided and its use in the market.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a broad term that describes the process of creating and managing digital information about a built asset such as building, bridge, highway, tunnel, and so on. It is an important part of any stage of a construction project due to the high level of information that files can hold. Software which uses BIM is becoming far more in demand due to its popularity with 4D models and improved deadlines leading to this
An example of a BIM application is Autodesk Revit which incorporates BIM software for use by architects, landscape architects, structural engineers, MEP engineers, designers and contractors. This software was developed by Autodesk to allow users to design buildings and structures along with their components in 3D whilst also being able to annotate the model with 2D drafting and allowing for access to project information through the building models database. Revit is offered as 4D and lets its user control stages throughout the design and through to end users. Applications allow for planning and tracking from concept to later maintenance and demolition
Revit is designed to offer tools which let the user plan, design, construct and building various buildings and infrastructure. Revit fully supports multi-discipline use to achieve the collaborative design. In its design, buildings components let the user analyse and simulate systems and structures to show designs. Documentation can also be produced from these Revit files to show the means of construction and design. The software is also highly collaborative as it allows multiple users to access centrally shared models to improve communication and reduce clashing and overworking. Design can be easily interpreted by clients and team members as models can show high-quality 3D and 4D visuals. By offering features for multi-disciplines to work on a unified project, Revit reduces translation errors and makes the design process more predictable (Autodesk, 2018). Furthermore, Revit offers imports and exports to link files with commonly used formats.
For a construction professional, Revit lets users analyse the constructability of a project to make aware of the means, methods and materials of how a building comes together. Real-time chat lets professionals communicate to know which tasks are being worked on and who is working on them.
BIM software is also available on the software Vectorworks Architect which is modelled around an architect’s design process. It works by having a design-based BIM which allows for the conceptualising ideas. By doing this the user is free to edit and analyse projects whilst also generating drawings. Construction details can also be easily refined to extend the scope of projects without impacting upon the creative workflow of a team.
Vectorworks benefits the use by letting them keep their personal design process which is different to most software’s which force the user to relearn processes without a steep learning curve or slow transition (Vectorworks, 2018). This means that teams can switch to this program and remain productive whilst experiencing the positive impact of BIM.
Archicad is another BIM-based application which uses 3D modelling to ensure that design decisions are reflected from a projects “real” look. It allows the user to work in 3D so that they can make decisions in a 3D environment. It uses a central model which lets designers work on a single building model to create, document and construct ideas. The software also allows for efficient documentation of tasks with a one-click system.
Archicad is designed from an architect’s point of view to make it an easy to use BIM application. The tools available make the design workflow become more streamlined due to the ease of relevant information being readily available. Intuitive tools also appear to let the user make quick changes to their project. The software also includes a graphic user interface which allows the user to control their project using options and commands which appear as tools which mirror those used in architectural practice. It also benefits the user by offering BIM-based editing which lets the user create, edit and modify designs in a 3D environment which apply automatically throughout every view. Archicad allows for the conceptual design to be held in the hands of the designer by giving the toolbox to the user. Other intuitive told also help to create models which have automatically generated floor areas. Models which have been designed in Archicad also benefit from having automatically generated elevations, sections and schedules (Archicad, 2018). It also provides an algorithmic design which allows for a freeform and parametric design with collaborative work also being made available to architects and designers to use another program, Grasshopper, in union with Archicad.
For this project, the best-suited application would be Autodesk Revit as it best allows for a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. By letting different stakeholders insert, extract, update and modify the project at different phases of its lifecycle, the project can be greatly benefitted. By having a BIM-based application business benefits can be seen through the implementation of planning, staffing and training. Revit and BIM both benefit the user by improving coordination between software and project personnel. Productivity is also improved as there are fewer requests for information due to the integration of information. Communication is also improved as 3D visualisation allows for designs to be viewed before construction. Quality control is thus then improved as the project is made viewable to all team members. By correctly implementing a BIM application into a project through providing adequate training the project can be further streamlined for improved cost and time effectiveness.
- Design buildings ltd, . 2018. Bill of quantities BOQ. [Online]. [20 February 2018]. Available from: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Bill_of_quantities_BOQ
In-text citation: (Design buildings ltd, 2018)
- Royal institute of british architects, . 2018. RIBA Plan of Work. [Online]. [23rd February 2018]. Available from: https://www.ribaplanofwork.com/PlanOfWork.aspx
In-text citation: (Royal institute of british architects, 2018)
- Bravo solution. 2018. Case Study: Caley Construction Ltd. [Online]. [24th February 2018]. Available from: https://publictendersscotland-prep.bravosolution.co.uk/esop/pts-host/public/pts/attach/supplier_case_study.pdf
In-text citation: (Bravo solution, 2018)
- Martin, J. 2008. Web-Based Electronic Bidding United Kingdom, Practical Experience. [Online]. [12th February 2018]. Available from: https://discovery.hw.ac.uk/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_proquest208185965
In-text citation: (Martin, 2008)
- Royal institute of chartered surveyors. 2010. ETendering Guidance Note 2nd Edition. [Online]. [28th February 2018]. Available from: http://www.rics.org/Global/Downloads/etendering_2nd_edition_PGguidance_2010.pdf https://publictendersscotland-prep.bravosolution.co.uk/esop/pts-host/public/pts/attach/supplier_case_study.pdf
In-text citation: (Royal institute of chartered surveyors, 2010)
- Autodesk. 2018. Autodeskcouk. [Online]. [28th February 2018]. Available from: https://www.autodesk.co.uk/products/revit-family/overview
In-text citation: (Autodesk, 2018)
- Vectorworks. 2018. Vectorworksnet. [Online]. [15th February 2018]. Available from: http://www.vectorworks.net/
In-text citation: (Vectorworks, 2018)
- Archicad, . 2018. Archicad Brochure 21. [Online]. [15th February 2018]. Available from: archicad-21-brochure.pdf
In-text citation: (Archicad, 2018)
- Finances online. 2018. Wrike Review . [Online]. [20th February 2018]. Available from: https://reviews.financesonline.com/p/wrike/
In-text citation: (Finances online, 2018)
- Finnegan, M. 2018. Computer World. [Online]. [20th February 2018]. Available from: https://reviews.financesonline.com/p/wrike/
In-text citation: (Finnegan, 2018)
- Docuware, . 2018. DocuWare 2018. [Online]. [19th February 2018]. Available from: /en/docuware-for-project-teams
In-text citation: (Docuware, 2018)