Executive Summary
The report exclusively deals with the Accounting and Financial Management. The report has been divided into two broad types. The first part deals with the calculations regarding the payback period, average accounting return and break-even analysis. This part of the report also explains the various aspects of the same. The next half of the report is based on the calculations related with the Horizontal and vertical analysis. Further, it also explains the different patterns and trends present in the Income Statement and Balance Sheet based on the calculations done.
Introduction
The primary objective of accounting in any business is to help that business make the maximum profit after tax. Unless accounting makes its full contribution to that objective, its cost cannot be justified. In today’s industry, one of the ways accounting pays for itself is to help management to control operations. Another way is to help management utilize its working capital to the greatest possible advantage.
Every business has important financial concerns and its success or failure depends in a large part on the quality of its financial decisions. Effective financial decision making requires an understanding of the goal(s) of the firm. The widely accepted objective of the firm is to maximize the value of firm for its owners, i.e. to maximize shareholders wealth (MAYER, R. et al, 2005).
Hence, the accounting and financial management has become an integral part of business in the twenty-first century. The concept of payback period, average accounting return, breakeven analysis, trend analysis and vertical analysis are very important for any business, big or small.
Discussion
2.1 Problem 1
A company is considering a capital project costing £ 400,000. The sales forecasts, together with the forecast expenditure are shown below:
Table 1: Sales and Expenditure Forecast
Year | Sales (£) | Cost of Sales (£) | Other variable costs (£) | Fixed costs except depreciation (£) | Depreciation (£) |
1 | 200,000 | 60,000 | 20,000 | 30,000 | 100,000 |
2 | 300,000 | 90,000 | 30,000 | 30,000 | 100,000 |
3 | 400,000 | 120,000 | 40,000 | 30,000 | 100,000 |
4 | 300,000 | 90,000 | 30,000 | 30,000 | 100,000 |
1,200,000 | 360,000 | 120,000 | 120,000 | 400,000 |
The above problem can be formulated in the form of Income Statement as below:
Table 2: Income Statement of the Company
Years | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
Sales | 200,000 | 300,000 | 400,000 | 300,000 |
Cost of Sales | (60,000) | (90,000) | (120,000) | (90,000) |
Gross Profit: | 140,000 | 210,000 | 280,000 | 210,000 |
Variable Cost | (20,000) | (30,000) | (40,000) | (30,000) |
Earnings before Fixed Charges: | 120,000 | 180,000 | 240,000 | 180,000 |
Fixed Cost | (30,000) | (30,000) | (30,000) | (30,000) |
Earnings before tax and depreciation: | 90,000 | 150,000 | 210,000 | 150,000 |
Depreciation | (100,000) | (100,000) | (100,000) | (100,000) |
Net Income: | -10,000 | 50,000 | 110,000 | 50,000 |
2.1.1 Calculation of Payback period for the Project
The payback period for the project is the length of time to get your money back (FABOZZI and PETERSON, 2003). In this problem, the company has invested £ 400,000.
The table below shows the expected cash flows in the four years:
Table 3: Expected Cash Flows of the Company
End of Year | Expected Cash Flows | Accumulated Cash Flows |
1 | 90,000 | 90,000 |
2 | 150,000 | 240,000 |
3 | 210,000 | 450,000 |
4 | 150,000 | 600,000 |
From the table above, it is clear that at the end of Year 2, the full £400,000 will not be paid back. We need to have some amount from Year 3 as well. The amount needed from Year 4 will be £400,000 – 240,000 = £160,000.
Hence, the payback period is calculated as:
Payback Period: | 2 years + 160,000/210,000 | = 2.762 years |
= 2 years and 9 months (Approx.) | ||
Thus, the Payback period for the company is 2 years and 9 months.
Calculation of the Average Accounting Return
The Average Accounting Return (AAR) measures the return on an investment, after taxes and depreciation, over a specified period. Mathematically, the ratio is equivalent to the expected average earnings less taxes and depreciation, divided by the average book value over the duration of the investment.
According to table 2 above, we need to find the values of:
- Average project earning after tax and depreciation
Average Net Income = Sum of all Net Incomes / No. Of Years
= (-10,000 + 50,000 + 110,000 + 50,000) / 5
= £ 50,000
- Average book value of the investment during its life time
The depreciation for each year is £ 100,000. Thus, the yearly book value of investment is given by:
Table 4: Book Values
Year | Book Value |
1 | 400,000 |
2 | 300,000 |
3 | 200,000 |
4 | 100,000 |
5 | 0 |
Average book value = Sum of all book values / No. Of years
= 400,000 + 300,000 + 200,000 + 100,000 + 0 / 5
= £ 200,000
Average Accounting Return (AAR) = 50,000 / 200,000
= 0.25
Therefore, the Average Accounting Return for the invested £ 400,000 after taxes and depreciation is 25 %.
Break-Even Analysis for the Project
One of the most common tools used in evaluating the economic feasibility of a new enterprise or product is the break-even analysis. The break-even point is the point at which revenue is exactly equal to costs (HOLLAND, 1998). At this point, no profit is made and no losses are incurred. The break-even point can be expressed in terms of unit sales or pound sales.
That is, the break-even units indicate the level of sales that are required to cover costs. Sales above that number result in profit and sales below that number result in a loss. The break-even sales indicate the pound of gross sales required to break-even. So, a break-even cannot be calculated only once. It should be calculated on a regular basis to reflect changes in costs and prices and in order to maintain profitability or make adjustments in the product line. ^{1}
Break-even (Sales) = Total Fixed Cost / (1- Total Variable Cost / Sales)
For Year 1,
BEP (Sales) = 130,000 / (1- 80,000 / 200,000)
= £ 216,666.67
For the Year 2, 3 and 4 also same BEP (Sales) value came due to proportionate change in total fixed cost, total variable cost and sales.
This figure is the level of sales that the company must reach in order to break even. Again, if the company is reaching more than this, then it should be making a profit and if it is not, the company will not be selling enough to cover the fixed expenses.
Thus, no profits are made from the sale of product until more than £ 216,666.67 in gross sales is generated.
____________________
Source: ^{1}, HODGETTS & KURATKO,1986.
As sales increases, variable costs are incurred, meaning that total costs (fixed + variable) also increase. At low levels of output, costs are greater than income. At the point of intersection (total sales and total cost intersection), costs are exactly equal to income, and hence neither profit nor loss made. This point of intersection is called the Break-even point which is found to be £ 216,666.67.
In the first year, the total sale made by the company is £ 200,000. But BEP (Sales) is found to be £ 216,666.67. That means, the company is still short of £ 16,666.67 in order to make neither profit nor loss i.e. BEP.
In the second year, the total sale made by the company is £300,000. Compared to the BEP (Sales) which is £ 216,666.67; the company is now making profit. And it continues to do that for year 3 and 4 as well.
Thus, break-even analysis helps a company to maintain profitability when costs and prices changes.
2.2 Problem 2
The Horizontal and vertical analyses on financial statements of the Geneva Palace Hotel are as follows:
Table 5: Income Statement (Horizontal Analysis)
Income Statement |
Geneva Palace Hotel |
For the Years Ending 31 December 2005, 2006 and 2008 |
2005 | % ( 2005-2006) | 2006 | % (2006-2007) | 2007 | |
Food Sales Revenue | £ 1,700,500 | 5.26 | £ 1,790,000 | 4.00 | £ 1,861,600 |
Cost of Goods Sold | 471,128 | 6.38 | 501,200 | 8.00 | 541,296 |
Gross Profit | 1,229,372 | 4.83 | 1,288,800 | 2.44 | 1,320,304 |
Operating Expenses | |||||
Salaries and Wages | 541,654 | 12.36 | 608,600 | 9.00 | 663,374 |
Employee Benefits | 63,008 | 13.64 | 71,600 | 11.00 | 79,476 |
Laundry Expenses | 17,005 | 5.26 | 17,900 | 3.50 | 18,527 |
Supplies Expenses | 52,089 | 3.09 | 53,700 | 3.50 | 55,580 |
Advertising | 16,826 | 6.38 | 17,900 | 6.00 | 18,974 |
Utilities | 36,860 | 3.09 | 38,000 | 1.50 | 38,570 |
Maintenance | 16,910 | 12.36 | 19,000 | 10.00 | 20,900 |
Other Expenses | 38,800 | 3.09 | 40,000 | 1.50 | 40,600 |
Total Operating Expenses | 783,152 | 10.67 | 866,700 | 8.00 | 936,001 |
Income Before Fixed Charges | 446,220 | -5.41 | 422,100 | -8.95 | 384,303 |
Fixed Charges | |||||
Rent | 19,400 | 3.09 | 20,000 | 4.00 | 20,800 |
Property Taxes | 9,400 | 6.38 | 10,000 | 5.00 | 10,500 |
Insurance | 4,250 | 17.65 | 5,000 | 20.00 | 6,000 |
Interest | 76,000 | 5.26 | 80,000 | 4.00 | 83,200 |
Depreciation | 19,200 | 4.17 | 20,000 | 4.00 | 20,800 |
Total Fixed Charges | 128,250 | 5.26 | 135,000 | 4.67 | 141,300 |
Inc
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