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Bioinformatic Analysis of Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressor Genes in Selected Cancers

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Bioinformatic Analysis of Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressor Genes in Selected Cancers for their Diagnostic and Prognostic Value

Abstract

Cancers are a diverse range of diseases characterised by gene mutations that result in uncontrolled cell proliferation and lead to the generation of tumours. Genes that are often mutated in cancer are known as oncogenes and these mutant genes can be used as biomarkers to reveal the pathways behind cancer formation and shed light on potential treatment options and expected progression. In this study BRAF is the oncogene biomarker under investigation. Clinical BRAF samples were compared to a clinical reference samples using multiple sequence alignment of amino acid sequences. This allowed the detection of the most commonly mutated amino acids in the clinical data set as well as the nature of these mutations and their deviation from the reference sequence. Amino acid 600 was revealed to be the most commonly mutated amino acid in the data set, accounting for 7 out of the 10 mutations present in the clinical data set. In addition to multiple sequence alignment, models of mutant and wild type proteins were compared to identify structural differences between them and identify the cause of the oncogenic activity. This revealed that the mutations on amino acid 600 disrupts the structure of the activation loop of the kinase binding domain. This renders B-Raf unable to retain an inactive state and promotes cell proliferation. Primers were also designed in order to evaluate to ability of PCR based amplification to detect these mutations to amino acid 600. These primers gave a suitable PCR result, with amino acid 600 falling within the range of the amplification segment. COSMIC (Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer) was also used to investigated the specific types of cancer associated with certain mutations as well as to identify other mutation hotspots and define their structural alterations. Published literature was also investigated to research the mechanisms of action in pathways associated with BRAF and the impacts of targeted anti-BRAF therapies over long term cancer treatment.

Acknowledgments

I would like to offer my sincerest gratitude to my project supervisor Dr. Ralph Rapley for his support, encouragement and guidance throughout this project, without which this project would have been impossible to complete.

Contents

Acknowledgments…………………………………………

List of Figures……………………………………………

1. Introduction……………………………………………

1.1 General aspects of oncology……………………………….

1.2 Risk factors, carcinogens, formation genetic and sporadic tumours………

1.3 Genes involved in early tumour formation………………………

1.4 Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressors…………………………

1.5 Aims and Objectives……………………………………

2. Methods………………………………………………

3. Results………………………………………………

3.1 Details on Gene of Study…………………………………

3.2 Multiple Sequence Alignment………………………………

3.3 Protein Models

3.4 In-Silico PCR…………………………………………

4. Discussion…………………………………………….

4.1 Identification of gene mutations (Biomarkers) as an aid to diagnosis………

4.2 Identification of gene mutations (Biomarkers) as an aid to prognosis and treatment…….

4.4 Bioinformatic Tools…………………………………….

4.5 Future of diagnostics……………………………………

References……………………………………………..

List of Figures

Table 1.2: Table of oncogenes

Table 1.1: Table of tumour suppressor genes.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene

Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF cDNA sequence

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder

Figure 2.13: Clustal Omega multiple sequence alignment.

Figure 2.14: BRAF transcript on the ENSEMBL database

Figure 2.15: Protein summary selection on ENSEMBL

Figure 2.16: ENSEMBL graphical display of protein domains.

Figure 2.17: SWISS-MODEL entry.

Figure 2.18: SWISS-MODEL results.

Figure 2.19: NCBI Primer BLAST

Figure 2.20: UCSC In-Silico PCR.

Figure 3.1: Results of multiple sequence alignment.

Figure 3.2: Protein models V600

Figure 3.3: Protein models G469R mutations.

Figure 3.4: Results of primer BLAST

Figure 3.5: Results of UCSC In-Silico PCR.9

Figure 3.6:Map of UCSC In-Silico PCR product.

1. Introduction

Oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes are genes that are commonly mutated in a wide range of cancers. In some cancer types, mutations to key oncogenes and/or tumour suppressor genes are found in up to 80% of cancer samples. As such these genes are key targets of interest, as understanding the pathways that caused the development of cancer will allow a more efficient targeted treatment. In addition, expression of these mutated genes may also allow more rapid and less invasive diagnosis of cancer type and malignancy.

Cancers are a group of diseases characterised by their uncontrolled proliferation which leads to the eventual generation of cancerous tumours. There are over 200 different types of cancers and different cancers can be comprised of completely different types of cells making cancers a highly variable and hard to treat group of diseases. In addition to their rapid proliferation, cancers can also be invasive, metastasising to nearby tissues and can also be carried in the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where new secondary tumours may form. Cancers are caused by mutations in DNA that lead to deregulation of the cell cycle and cell growth, genes commonly mutated in cancers are known as oncogenes, while genes that protect the body against cancer development are called tumour suppressor genes.

While some mutations are prominently linked to certain cancers, most known biomarkers are not effective targets for cancer diagnosis, as presence of a certain biomarker is not necessarily indicative of cancer presence. Likewise, lack of biomarker presence does not necessarily indicate the patient to cancer free. Biomarkers do however play an invaluable role in modern cancer prognosis, knowledge of the mutations present in cancers is a useful tool in deciding the treatment path for patients. For example, the overexpression of oestrogen receptors (ERs) is present in over 50% of breast cancers, patients with mutations leading to enhanced ER activity are

far more responsive to selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM) treatment pathways, such as tamoxifen. In addition to predicting the response to treatment types, knowing the mutations present in cancer also allows a more accurate prediction of a cancers malignancy and progression path.

1.1 General aspects of oncology

Oncology is a branch of medicine that focuses on cancer diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis of cancer requires different methods depending on the type of cancer and its location, the most consistently accurate method of diagnosis for almost all cancers is a biopsy of a suspected sample. However, the position of cancer can impact the ease with which samples for biopsy can be obtained. For example, in the case of basal cell carcinoma, excision of tissue for analysis is far easier and less invasive than obtaining a biopsy of prostate cancer cells. As such new, potentially non-invasive methods for diagnosing cancers and evaluating their malignancy is a high priority for oncologists, as early diagnosis of cancer is one of the most important factors in being treated successfully.

The development and progression of bioinformatic techniques, combined with their ease of access has dramatically affected the field of oncology. Bioinformatics combines computational techniques with large online databases containing data on genes and their sequence, function and expression. These databases allow researchers to retrieve data on genes for wild-scale comparison such as multiple sequence alignments. Techniques such as these can be combined with catalogues of clinically significant mutation data to investigate the prominence of specific mutations in specific cancer types. Bioinformatic analysis of the human BRAF gene in cancer is the focus of this study.

1.2 Risk factors, carcinogens, formation genetic and sporadic tumours

Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases with around 12.7 million new cancer cases reported worldwide in 2008 and 7.6 million cancer deaths (Jemal et al., 2011). While many risk factors for cancer development have been discovered, there are still millions of cases of cancer a year where the reason for cancer development is not known. There are also many factors that are suspected, but not proven, to be linked to cancer development. For example, exposure to the pesticide Malathion has been suggested to increase the risk of developing prostate cancer (Koutros et al., 2013), but more investigation is required to confidently define it as a risk factor.

The most common and avoidable risk factor for cancer development is smoking, with an estimated 80% of lung cancer deaths being attributed to smoking (Peto, 2000). As such cancer patients are always advised to stop smoking due to the large number of toxic chemicals and carcinogens present in cigarette smoke. A carcinogen is something that can be directly implicated in causing cancer. While the most commonly mentioned carcinogens are chemicals such as Benzo[a]pyrene, which is found in tobacco smoke. Other substances and even organisms can also cause cancer in humans, radiation can cause cancer development via DNA damage, and some microbial agents produced by fungi also have carcinogenic properties. Viruses can also cause the development of cancer, Hepatitis B and HPV have both been found to be carcinogenic, increasing the likelihood of liver and cervical/mouth/throat cancers respectively.

A multitude of hereditary genetic disorders can also increase the chance of cancer development. One of the most common and well researched of these cancer syndromes is Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), in which many benign adenomas form in the colon due to a mutated APC gene leading to the accumulation and upregulation of β-catenin and its associated pathways controlling cell proliferation and migration-. The benign adenomas have a high risk of developing into cancers due to the lack of β-catenin regulation (MacDonald, Tamai, & He, 2009). Another cancer syndrome is the mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 known as Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) which increases the risk of breast and ovarian cancer in women and prostate cancer in men. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are both genes whose function is based in DNA maintenance and repair, so mutations in these genes inhibit the body’s natural failsafe against DNA damage and present a greater opportunity for DNA damage to progress to cancer.

Sporadic cancers are far more common than those arising from hereditary conditions and comprise the majority of all cancers. These sporadic tumours form when DNA becomes damaged or mutated, altering or inhibiting the functionality of key proteins, usually those relating to DNA repair. However, most cancers do not contain mutations directly to the genes coding for DNA repair proteins but arise due to due epigenetic silencing of DNA repair gene expression.

1.3 Genes involved in early tumour formation

Tumours can arise from a wide variety of different human tissues, given such a wide variety of tumour types it’s no surprise that the genes involved in the formation of tumours can vary hugely. Many oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes can be responsible for early tumour growth. Tumour suppressor genes widely follow the “two-hit hypothesis” requiring both alleles of the gene to be mutated to express the effect of the mutation, while oncogenes mostly require only one mutated allele.

The Ras family of proteins are highly implicated in early tumour formation, being frequently mutated in many human cancers, as such they are a well-researched family of oncogenes. There are 3 genes encoding for Ras family proteins HRAS, NRAS and KRAS, and the Ras protein isoforms are GTPases that act as switches, when GTP is bound to the GTPases they are in the active state and activate the signal transduction pathway associated with the GTPase. To inactivate the pathway the bound GTP is irreversibly hydrolysed by GTPase to GDP which renders the signal transduction inactive. In order for the GTPase to be made active again via the action of Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which displace the GDP and allow a new GTP to bind and activate the signalling pathway. Point mutations to any of three Ras isoforms, H-Ras, N-Ras and K-Ras are largely associated with hyperproliferative disorders and are typically associated with a single point mutation at codons 12, 13 or 61 (Prior, Lewis, & Mattos, 2012). In some studies K-Ras mutations have been found in up 90% of analysed pancreatic cancer samples, typically K-Ras mutations are localised to codon 12, with around 80% of mutations at this location.

Many genes can be associated with the early development of tumours, but the most consistently mutated genes in cancers are associated with cell cycle regulation (Giacinti, & Giordano, 2006). Loss of cell cycle regulatory abilities is a key step in providing a favourable environment for deregulated hyperproliferation of poorly-differentiated cells characteristic of malignant tumour growth. Promotion of cell survival and repression of apoptotic pathways through mutations to tumour suppressor genes are also potent promoters of tumour formation. This highlights many genes associated with the cell cycle as potential biomarkers for use in the detection of early stage tumours and even precancerous growths. Greater understanding of these control pathways may also reveal new targets for cancer treatments and methods to counteract the effects of specific mutations.

1.4 Oncogenes and Tumour Suppressors

In addition to mutations, oncogenes can also be activated via amplification, where cell signalling and microenvironment lead to the production of extra gene copies and the subsequent increased expression associated causes oncogene activation. The consequences of mutant oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes can be broadly categorised based on the “Hallmarks of Cancer” laid out by Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg in 2000 in their article in Cell. These hallmarks were listed as: Self-sufficiency in growth signals, Insensitivity to anti-growth signals, Evading apoptosis, Limitless replicative potential, Sustained angiogenesis and Tissue invasion and metastasis (Hanahan, & Weinberg, 2000). The majority of single oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes contribute to the establishments of up to two of these hallmarks.

Tumour Suppressor Gene De-activation of Tumour Suppressor Gene Consequence of Mutant Protein
PI3K Point Mutation Apoptosis Evasion
LKB1 Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth, Sustained Angiogenesis
PTEN Point Mutation, Deletion Apoptosis Evasion
p15 Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth.
p16 Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth.
Rb Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth.
BRCA1 Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth, Resistance to Anti-Growth Signalling
p53 Point Mutation, Deletion Apoptosis Evasion, Resistance to Anti-Growth Signalling
Ptch Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth, Apoptosis Evasion
Integrin Deletion Invasiveness/Metastasising
NF1 Point Mutation, Deletion Deregulated Cell Growth
NF2 Point Mutation, Deletion Deregulated Cell Growth, Invasiveness/Metastasising
TGFβR Point Mutation Resistance to Anti-Growth Signalling
APC Point Mutation Deregulation Cell Growth
Axin Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth
α-catenin Point Mutation Invasiveness/Metastasising
E-cadherin Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth, Resistance to Anti-Growth Signalling, Invasiveness/Metastasising

Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.Table 1.1: Table showing a number of tumour suppressor genes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Table 1.2: Table showing a number of oncogenes and the mutations or modifications that occur in them, as well as the cancer hallmark their modifications contribute to. The oncogene of focus in this report is BRAF.

Oncogene Activation of Oncogene Consequence of Mutant Protein
Akt Point Mutation Increased expression, Apoptosis Evasion
Cdk-2 Amplification Deregulated Cell Growth
Cyclin E Amplification Deregulated Cell Growth
HPV-E7 Viral Infection Deregulated Cell Growth
Mdm2 Amplification Apoptosis Evasion
Fas Point Mutation Apoptosis Evasion
Gli Amplification, Translocation Deregulated Cell Growth, Apoptosis Evasion
Hedgehog Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth, Apoptosis Evasion
Smo Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth, Apoptosis Evasion
Notch Translocation Apoptosis Evasion
B-Raf Point Mutation, Amplification Deregulated Cell Growth
Ras Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth
Myc Point Mutation, Amplification Deregulated Cell Growth
β-catenin Point mutation Deregulated Cell Growth
HOXs Translocation, Point Mutation Deregulated Cell Growth

It is notable that tumour suppressor genes are not susceptible to amplification modifications, whereas they are prominent activators of oncogenes, in addition, tumour suppressor genes seem notably more susceptible to deletion mutations. Given the antioncogenic nature of tumour suppressor genes, it is likely that most deletion and point mutations are characteristic of loss of protective function associated with tumour suppressor genes. By comparison, oncogenes are almost always activated by an increase in function as a result of amplification or missense mutations that result in the disruption of important protein binding sites.

1.5 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this report is to use bioinformatic techniques and published research to investigate the oncogene BRAF and its mutations. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of BRAF as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of specific cancer types.

2. Methods

The first step was establishing the gene of interest and characterising basic features such as cytogenic location and expression locations. OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) was the first database consulted. OMIM gave the cytogenic locations of the gene, as well as links to NCBI genome maps and gene pages, as shown in Figure: 2.1. The NCBI database entry for BRAF showed the number of exons in the gene as well as giving a link to download the sequence in the FASTA file format shown in Figures 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4.

The next step was to use the COSMIC (Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer) database to identify to retrieve the cDNA sequence of BRAF as well as analyse the locations of mutation hotspots and the specific cDNA sequence alterations responsible for mutation shown in Figure 2.5 and 2.6. The COSMIC gene viewer was used to locate mutations and characterise their alterations shown in Figures 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9. Each mutation also had database entries detailing tissue distribution and clinical samples shown in Figure 2.10. Clinical mutant BRAF samples were also obtained from the NHS genomics clinical data set shown in Figure 2.11. These samples were translated into amino acid sequences using ORF finder and these amino acid sequences used in Clustal Omega to perform sequence alignment to identify deviations from the reference sequence as shown in Figures 2.12 and 2.13. After performing the sequence alignment ENSEMBL genome browser was used to determine the domains present in B-Raf transcripts shown in Figures 2.14, 2.15 and 2.16. SWISS-MODEL was then used to create models of proteins of interest in order to compare the structural differences between mutant and wild-type proteins, amino acid sequences of B-Raf proteins of interest were inputted to create the models shown in Figures 2.17 and 2.18. Finally, primers were designed using NCBI Primer-BLAST, the forward and reverse primers gave were inputted into UCSC In-Silico PCR program to determine suitability for PCR-based mutation detection shown in Figures 2.19 and 2.20.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA fileFigure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.1: OMIM database page for BRAF gene, showing cytogenic location and link to NCBI genome map.Figure 2.2: NCBI database page for BRAF gene showing the number of exons.

Figure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequenceFigure 2.3: NCBI genome viewer link to BRAF FASTA file

Figure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMICFigure 2.4: NCBI FASTA view and download link for BRAF sequence

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Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence link

Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnifiedFigure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

Figure 2.5: COSMIC BRAF gene overview and cDNA sequence linkFigure 2.6: BRAF cDNA sequence from COSMIC

C:UsersAndreasAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCacheContent.WordCOSMICV600Ezoom.png

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequences

Figure 2.14: The first BRAF transcript on the ENSEMBL database was selectedFigure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

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Figure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified

Figure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samples

Figure 2.12: ORF finder was used to translate clinical sample nucleotide sequences and full BRAF cDNA to amino acid sequencesFigure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.

Figure 2.11: NHS Genomics anonymised clinical samplesFigure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutation

Figure 2.10: V600E BRAF mutation COSMIC page gave tabs to investigate the tissue distribution and view clinical sample data.Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspot. Was then converted to cDNA sequence.

Figure 2.9: Close up view of V600 peak, showing cDNA substitution of T>A giving rise to a V>E amino acid substitution- V600E mutationFigure 2.7: COSMIC gene view of BRAF amino sequence, a large peak at amino acid 600 indicated a very common mutation hotspotFigure 2.8: BRAF mutation hotspot in COSMIC gene view was magnified



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