Arthashastra and its relevance in modern warfare and counterinsurgency/counterterrorism philosophy
INTRODUCTION – SITUATING THE ARTHASHASTRA
1. Kautilya, also known as Chanakya or Vishnugupta
3. Written about 300 B.C., Kautilya’s work was pitched to teach with the various intricacies of governance and politics to the king.
4. Books of Treatise
The Arthashastra is divided into 15 books, 150 chapters, 180 sections and 6,000 slokas.
5. Science of Arthashastra
Kautilya believed that a ruler’s duties included the internal administration of the country, protection of the state from external aggression, maintenance of law and order within the state, and the welfare of the people. New territory had to be acquired by alliance or conquest for the prosperity of the state and also in the political environment existing then, which had many kings, anyone content with his own territory was likely to fall prey to hedgemonistic ambitions of the other.
6. Spectrum of Arthashastra
Kautilya argued that a nation could never achieve prosperity under a foreign ruler; indicating that independence was a pre-requisite for prosperity and economic progress. At the macro level, the Arthashastra covers the entire gamut of human society, the establishment and continuance of a nation state, foreign policy, war, civil law and economics. At the other end of the spectrum, the book delves into the building blocks of a society by clearly defining standardised weights
7. National Security
Kautilya insisted that all threats to national security must be eliminated at any cost to the state, while no enemy must be privy to the inner machinations and processes of one’s own state – “Like a tortoise, the king (state) shall draw in any limb of his that is exposed.” Internal stability was the harbinger of economic well being. However, to maintain internal and external security, Kautilya proposed a massive network of spies and agents operating within the state and also in surrounding and enemy states. Detailed descriptions of espionage and counter-espionage activities, physical punishments and torture for internal security set this work apart from any other political treatise.
8. The Arthashastra is thus a mixture of both what we applaud today and what we consider to be reprehensible. Kautilya wrote his book about 2300 years ago when extreme forms of governance were commonplace and the primary task of the ruling monarch was primacy of his state and a policy of expansionism. While Kautilya was quite willing to reward those who served the state, he seemed to have an obsession with using the discipline of the laws to make everything in the kingdom ‘just right’. In the Arthashastra, everyday life in all its multifarious activities comes in for careful regulation and adjustment, from the ‘cooking pot to the crown’.
Statement of the Problem
9. The aim of this paper is to study the teachings of Arthashastra in order to determine its relevance and yield insights into military strategy and warfare with emphasis on counter insurgency and counter terrorism.
10. The concepts of defence and war as enunciated by Kautilya are as relevant in the 21st century as it was in the 3rd century BC.
Justification for the Study
11. The Arthashastra is essentially a treatise on the art of government and specially focuses on aspects of internal administration and foreign policy. It has been translated as “Science of Politics”, “Treatise on Polity”
12. Two thousand three hundred years ago, Kautilya compiled the Arthashastra and with it he proved to be a kingmaker as he enabled the inception of the Maurya dynasty. The Arthashastra has endured the test of time and it has since withstood the test of credibility. We will be enriching ourselves if we learn and grasp even a fraction of the wisdom that Kautilya embodied.
13. Our ancient scriptures have been neglected and Western principles and teachings propounded in our literature, including military literature due to ignorance of students and insufficient importance by teachers.
14. Kautilya’s treatise enraptures in many ways, the complexity of our current world. The problems that existed then, persist in a more widespread and magnified manner in the contemporary world. The principles of Military strategy followed by Kautilya are also relevant in the contemporary world.
15. Study of his military strategy will throw some light on the in-depth knowledge of warfare in ancient India and will provide important lessons for conventional and unconventional warfare in the modern world, besides enhancing understanding and pride in our country and its thinkers. The lecture by Dr Gopalji Malviya, sparked the inquisitiveness and determination to study the Arthashastra.
16. The scope of this paper is restricted to the study and analysis of the aspects related to warfare as enunciated by Kautilya. The study does not include his precepts on the social, political and economical structure of an ideal state. Though Kautilya has treated foreign policy as an important part of warfare, only brief mention where necessary would be made. The famous Mandala theory has hence been consciously left out. Also the actual battle fighting and formations described in detail have been omitted to maintain focus on strategy. The study will cover the relevance of Arthashastra and its importance for modern warfare, counter insurgency and counter terrorism.
17. Though a sincere effort has been made to cover the relevance, trying to expound on Kautilya’s immense wisdom presents a remarkable challenge. Therefore, throughout this dissertation the work of Kautilya is quoted to speak for itself.
Methods of Data Collection
18. There are a number of books written on Arthashastra. Though some books are in Sanskrit and some are literal translations, some books are available in college library on the Arthashastra notably by LN Rangarajan, R Shamashastry, MV Krishna Rao and Roger Boeshe. Some data is also available on the internet and journals. A bibliography of sources is appended at the end of the paper. Likely sources include the following:-
(a) Books written by eminent authors as mentioned above.
(b) Papers submitted by researchers.
(c) Information available over the internet.
(d) Discussions with teachers and professors of history. Dr Gopalji
Malviya was gracious enough to grant some valuable time for a ‘one on one’ discussion. His encouragement, advice and passion for the subject made the research meaningful.
Organisation of the Dissertation
19. The dissertation is organised into six chapters. Chapters one and two deal with introducing the subject and the methodology of the research. It is proposed to study the subject under the following heads:-
(a) Chapter III – Principles of military strategy in Arthashastra.
(b) Chapter IV – Relevance in 21st century conventional warfare.
(c) Chapter V – Relevance in fourth generation warfare.
(d) Chapter VI – Conclusion.
PRINCIPLES OF MILITARY STRATEGY IN ARTHASHASTRA
20. Kautilya has enunciated many military strategies in the Arthashastra. Most importantly he does not seem to have made much distinction between military strategy and that of statecraft. He believed that warfare is an extension and an integral part of statecraft. He has covered an array of strategies over a vast canvas from the actual fighting and planning, to training and deceit. Some of these will be discussed in this chapter.
Planning a Campaign
21. Kautilya’s most striking doctrine is his discussion of planning a campaign –”The activity of one setting out on a campaign deals with the factors to be taken into account before the king (state) decides that it is in the state’s interest to commence the campaign”. Kautilya brings out the various facets of planning a campaign. He enunciates eight factors which are to be critically considered for determining whether a campaign would end in success, prior to making preparations for war. The factors that he considered for a successful campaign included Power (military, intellectual and morale), place and time, revolts and the rebellion in the rear, the calculation of losses, expenses and gains and the likely dangers of treachery. Few of the factors are discussed below:-
According to Kautilya, the most important factor is of power. Power included the military might, and the economic strength of the adversary, and also the intellectual power, and t the ability of the enemy to carry out a objective analysis and not to be swayed by emotion or opinions. He even lists out the order of the three constituents of power to be Intellectual power, Military might and Enthusiasm and morale in the decreasing order of importance. Kautilya says that though the mightier king may be endowed with better war machinery and that he can buy heroic fighters, the Power of good analysis and judgement (which include intelligence and the knowledge of politics – the two eyes of the king) are superior to sheer military strength. The operational ‘fFactor of fForce’ as spelt out in present day warfare encompasses the tangible (personnel, weapons, mobility, fire power and logistics) and the intangible elements (leadership, morale, discipline, training, doctrine and motivation).)
 is still relevant.
(c) Time/ Campaigning Season
Kautilya has laid stress on timing The operational factors in modern warfare give serious consideration to the factor of time. Time has further been divided into preparation time, warning time, reaction time, decision cycle time etc. Durations of the campaign and the interval between two consecutive operations should beare kept short to be maintain a high tempo. This is brought out by Kautilya when he recommends that ‘whenever the king is superior, he shall not waste any time and should proceed against the enemy whenever by doing so the enemy can be weakened or crushed’. Due to new technologies the pace of thein present day warfare new technologies are enlarging the area of combat is growing and at the same time compressing the time factor is being compressed. Thus tThe critical evaluation of time, and the various weather parameters and advices such as theand terms for planningfor planning a long, medium and short war as given in the Arthashastra remain relevant even today.
(d) Troop Mobilisation
He Kautilya lays down the criterias in great detail which are required for mobilising each kind of troops. like Tthe standing army, is to be chosen if the threat is great and from well trained troops, however the territorial army is to be chosen if the enemy is weak. Tthe militia or is to be mobilised if the enemy is weak and it is only a law and order problem. Ffriendly or allied forces. are to be used when the king and the ally have the same objective. Without any remorse he adds that the jungle tribes should be used when there is a gain to the king, whether they win or lose in fighting the enemy – ‘Just as a Chandala stands to benefit when a wild dog fights a wild boar’. Combat potential concept in the present day concepts operational art states that combat potential is converted into Combat power by mobilisation of troops and start of conflict.. He was the first Indian statesman to consider the lower castes to fight wars.
(e) Other factors
The other factors he discusses in planning include the revolts and the rebellion in the rear, the calculation of losses, expenses and gains and the likely dangers of treachery. Thus Kautilya has also brought out the fact which present day planners also abide by; of not planning or initiating military action without adequate forces and in the presence of unreasonable military or political constraints. Though most planning is valid only till the first contact with the enemy, still a complex almost mathematical analysis of gains and losses was carried out to justify going to war.
(f) Power Place Time relation
The relationship of power, place and time to wage a war had various interpretations during that period. However Kautilya has clearly enunciated that though each of these components is important, none is more important than the other and all are interdependent. The fact that Kautilya understood the concept of space-time-force relationship and dynamics is a revelation. He postulated that only when the king finds that he is superior in power space and time shall he proceed against the enemy. “Force is important for a campaign; just as the collision of an unbaked mud-vessel with a similar vessel is destructive to both, so war with an equal king brings ruin to both…place (space) is important as a dog, seated in a convenient place, can drag a crocodile and a crocodile in low ground can drag a dog…time is critical as during the daytime the crow kills the owl and at night the owl the crow.”His analysis of Force-Space-Time in the quote shows that the correct forces need to be deployed in the correct terrain at a time of their choosing for maximum effect. The analogy of the crocodile being dragged by a dog would refer to a vastly superior force being inexorably drawn away from their base into an area of operations that is favourable to the smaller enemy (large conventional forces fighting insurgents in urban areas). All the factors listed by Kautilya need to be considered whilst planning a modern day conventional or unconventional campaign.
22. Physical Security
The security of own kingdom consisted of physical security and also the capability to prevent treachery, revolts and rebellion. The frontier post and forts (consisting of mountains, rivers, jungle and deserts) provided physical security. The details of fortifications are placed at the Appendix _______. Thus the importance given to internal security was immense. Demobilisation of troops was carried out in times of peace to save money and they were mobilised again for conquests. However the forces guarding the forts, royal property and the kings own guards were never disbanded, thus ensuring the importance of internal security. Besides Kautilya was extremely wary of revolts, rebellion and the ability of spies trying to influence the people by wrong newstreachery.
23. Control Over Army
. Various means were utilised by the king to maintain control over his army including the Chiefs of Army such as paying them well, keeping them under surveillance and testing their integrity to prevent any rebellion.. Some of these measures including shrewd and ruthless ones are enumerated below:-
(a) Those suspected of treachery were posted to remote areas while their families were kept in the capital as hostages.
(e) They were paid well to prevent them from being tempted by bribes by the enemy.
(f) They were kept under surveillance of clandestine agents, especially to see that they did not succumb to the instigations of the enemy.
(g) Their integrity was tested to weed out the cowardly.
(h) Tthe wings of the Army were kept under the control of more than one chief so that mutual fear and suspicion would ensure their loyalty.
Imperativeness of Security
Kautilya believed that offensive action is based on defensive power. His insistence of for internal security clearly underlined underlines the fact that before forces are committed to the main task all own vital and vulnerable targets should be secured. In fact he even advices the king to keep the treasury and army under his control. In case of a threat of revolt, Kautilya advices the king,not to remain behind in the capital and to allow his Commander to lead a campaign and to leave it to his Commander and remain behind in the capital, .in case of a threat of revolt.
24. This coupled with the fact that he attached great importance to controlling his army brings out the fact that internal security must be the sound foundation for a successful campaign.
25. Threat of Coup
Kautilya advised the king not to leave military matters entirely to others and be involved in it. He paid great importance to the training of the army and to the loyalty of the soldiers. Towards this he advocated the use of spies especially from threat of a coup. Kautilya recommended that “secret agents, prostitutes, artisans and actors as well as elders of the army should ascertain with diligence, the loyalty or disloyalty of soldiers”.
Types of Warfare
26. According to Kautilya, the king had two main responsibilities which included the protection of own state from external aggression and enlargement of territory by conquest as follows:-
or War by Counsel
. This is the exercise of diplomacy to win wars. This is to be utilised when the king is in a weaker position and engaging in battle would not be wise or beneficial.
(b) Prakasayuddha or Open Warfare
This is the form of normal warfare which follows all laid down rules of fighting a battle. Open warfare, Kautilya declared, is ‘most righteous,' This was quite unlike the teachings in the Indian epics which emphasised the Dharmayudha or ethical warfare.
(c ) Kutayuddha or C oncealed W arfare . This form of warfare includes psychological warfare and treachery in the enemy’s camp. Also known as Guerrilla warfare. The Chinese civil war by the People’s Liberation Army, the Vietcong in the Vietnam war, the Kosovo Liberation Army in Kosovo are examples of using mobile military tactics to defeat a stronger force. and guerrilla warfare.
(d) Gudayuddha or Clandestine / Silent War .
This type of war is waged by covert means to achieve the objective. It includes means to win without fighting the battle by means such as assassinating the enemy. Also called silent war, it is a kind of warfare with another kingdom in which the king and his ministers—and unknowingly, the people—all act publicly as if they were at peace with the opposing kingdom, but all the while secret agents and spies are assassinating important leaders in the other kingdom, creating divisions among key ministers and classes, and spreading propaganda and disinformation.
27. The military organisation is covered in great detail in Arthashastra. Maintenance of the state’s armies, troops and the organisational structure
28. Managing the Army
He further warns against calamities which adversely affect the functioning of the army which include not giving due honours, not paid sufficiently, low in morale etc. Kautilya states that armies should never be abandoned, left leaderless or totally merged into someone else’s army.ItThe army should always have adequate reinforcements. He further warns against calamities which adversely affect the functioning of the army. He includes many factors such as not giving due honours, not paid sufficiently, low in morale, an angry army, a dispersed one, having to fight in an unsuitable terrain or season, an army which has been encircled, obstructed or cut off from reinforcements and supplies and most importantly one without leaders. He makes an incisive observation when he states that an unhonoured army, an unpaid army an exhausted army will fight if honoured, paid and allowed to relax respectively but a dishonoured army with resentment in its heart will not do so. He further gives importance to leadership qualities by stating that an army repulsed will fight if rallied by heroic men unlike an army abandoned by its chief. This is as true today, even in the age of C4ISR. and where troops or ships are spread across the globe. It is an accepted fact that in the absence of an inspired leader victory goes to the stronger (numerically superior) side. He also adds that even if the army faces extreme reverses like loss of capital or death of a commander it will still fight unless they are cut off from their king and leader. He stated the pre requisite for an effective leader which is true even today that he should keep in mind two fundamental elements, the mission and the people. The king is advised to guard his army against troubles created by the enemy and told to strike at the weak points of the enemy’s army similar to the critical vulnerabilities in JOPP.
Algorithim of Victory.
29. When two kings are at war, he advises his king to sue for peace with a stronger king, accept the peace offer of a equally strong king and to destroy the
Oligarchies / Coalitions
30. A whole section is dedicated to oligarchies or confederacy. In the present world such a communion is exhibited by coalition forces. While accepting that these coalitions are strong entities he frames various means to fight and put up resistance against them. As an oligarchy is defined as a unassailable cohesive unit, sowing dissension, using deceit, treachery and playing on the differences amongst them has been suggested as measures to defeat them. In the present world, the attempt to break the coalition by Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein is an example of this tactics.
Strategies for Weak King
31. Kautilya has written extensively on the response of a weak king when being attacked by a stronger king. When confronted by a superior power Kautilya advices the weak king to find a way to survive to fight another day, preserving “his body, not wealth; for, what regret can there be for wealth that is impermanent?” Kautilya did not however expect the weak king to give in to the conqueror without a fight and recommended various measures which included use of ‘diplomatic or concealed warfare’ and instigating a revolt in the enemy camp.As a desperate measure he even advocated a powerful speech offering a mixture of moral exhortation and arguments to be given to the superior king.
People and Popular Support
32. Kautilya maintained that people were more important than forts and armies. As he put it, “one should only seek a fortress with men.” Kautilya urged the king to be popular with the people and to endeavour to secure the welfare of his subjects. The Arthashastra has emphasised on not causing harm even to the subjects of the enemy king. In fact extra ordinary measures are recommended to win over the people of the enemy land. Their customs had to be respected and their gods had to be revered by the new king. After the war, carrying away loot was forbidden.
33. The important six fold foreign policy has been left out due to dissertation restrictions. The gamut of strategies from the planning aspects, the types of war to the very crucial support of the people will be will be contextually examined for their relevance in the next chapters.
RELEVANCE IN 21 ST CENTURY CONVENTIONAL WARFARE
34. Realist School
In this chapter the present day conventional warfare will be examined as seen through the prism of Kautilya. Kautilya is widely known to have preached the Realist School of thought which advised rulers to maximise power through political rather than military means. He preached that the ends justified the means including the use of ruse, deceit
35. Role and Mission
In an increasingly complex world, the missions of the armed forces are correspondingly more diverse and complex than ever before. In times of peace and tension, the armed forces are a powerful instrument of the nation’s foreign policy. In times of crisis and conflict, they are the foremost expression of the nation’s will and intent. Suffice to say that the expectations of a nation from its military are diverse and wide-ranging. Therefore, modern warfare is not restricted to war alone. Rather, they encompass the military, political, economic and the diplomatic aspects.
36. Nature of War
War or conflict has two different characteristics. One, which represents progress and change, and the other, which represents constancy and permanency. On one hand, the dynamics of progress and change depend much upon a commander’s imagination, innovativeness, grasp of technology and complexity. While on the other, the Arthashastra is testimony to the constant and unchanging nature of war. Studies of military history show that certain features constantly recur; that certain relations between type of action and success often remain the same; that certain circumstances and moments have time and time again, proved decisive. Past being the prologue of future, underscores the relevance and significance of studies of military history such as propagated by the Arthashastra.
Joint Intelligence Preparation of Operational Environment
37. Factor of Space
The relevance and importance of planning in present day warfare is evident by the stress on the use of Appreciation and now on CES and JOPP. The fact that these instruments allow detailed planning to foresee almost every eventuality justifies the shift to newer instruments like JOPP. The identification of the Area of Operations (AO) and the Area of interest (AI) constitute the first steps towards planning the battle space. Detailed analysis is thereafter carried out as also put forth in the Arthashastra on the factor of space. The weather, terrain and geography are given importance besides factors like demography, economy, natural resources and economy.
38. Factor of Time
The factor of time is used to analyse the time factor to own and enemy forces with respect to preparation time, reaction time, transit and deployment time to name a few. As emphasised by Kautilya, one of the most important factors related to time is to determine the duration of the war. Incorrect understanding of this vital factor can have serious repercussions on force planning, doctrine and outcome of war. The 1967 Arab –Israel war was swiftly accomplished in six days, one day longer than that was planned. The factor of time was adequately planned for by the Israeli forces. Another critical factor related to time brought out by Kautilya is the weather. The detailed planning carried out to predict the correct weather during Normandy landing emphasises this fact. Any mistakes would have been catastrophic for over two million allied troops.
39. Factor Force
The factor of force includes all sources of military power. Though military theory cites a force ratio of three to one between attacker and defender, the quality of weapons and intangibles like morale and psychological factors can play a decisive role. Military cohesion or the bonding together of individuals is an important factor as can be seen in the cohesion at unit levels. “Sections of the army should consist mostly of persons from the same region, caste or profession.” Kautilya was suggesting that men of an army should know one another and that an army of friends fighting side by side is the most difficult to defeat. The factor of force involves identifying and evaluating the enemy’s forces and its capabilities, limitations, doctrines, techniques and procedures. The relative Combat power and potential is also brought out in this step.
40. Inter dependence of Factors
The interrelation and correlation of the space-time-force as put forth by Kautilya is the essence of the entire step. Thus planning for conventional war has changed little especially with respect to these basic factors.
41. Presently, national and international interests have become vulnerable, with no clear indication of how they can best be protected
42. Conventional warfare espouses the use of ‘Open warfare’ as Kautilya named it. The Arthashastra describes in great detail the standard battle-arrays and its composition, the types of arrays and the reasons for choosing them. Great emphasis is placed on reserves behind every battle-array and this is where the king stations himself. Preference for mountains or forts to station the reserves is shown.
43. The organisation as laid down by Kautilya catered for civil supremacy and ensured effective coordination between the various components of the Army.
44. While planning an operation and deciding whom to attack Kautilya advices to ensure that the gains outweigh the losses. While discussing gains he talks about the importance of enemy’s mines, productive forests, elephants, water works and trade routes. Oil is the subject of much dispute today. Oil resources were the bone of contention during wars with Iraq in 1990 and 2003 predicts a series of wars between economies that have stepped into the ‘information age’ (third wave) and those still in the ‘industrial age’ (second wave). The Gulf War to a great extent proves the theory of Toffler and what Kautilya always believed that wars will occur for economic reasons.
45. When survival is at stake, the soldiers are strongly motivated as it is a matter of life and death. The Soviets fought in World War II for their survival. Arthashastra addresses this fact when Kautilya advices to let the enemy soldiers know that the defeated soldiers would not face reprisals. After such humanitarian policies toward the defeated populace have become widely known, ordinary enemy soldiers will surrender in great numbers. By contrast, if a king announces that he will massacre every soldier, then all will fight to the death. He added that a broken enemy should not be harassed. Similarly, he advised that “to fight with brave men who have given up all hope of life is a rash deed.”
46. The support of the population is an essential requirement in the present age for going to war and for supporting its sustenance. Failure or setbacks in war can have a harmful impact on the commitment of the population to back the policy, and drastic action is often required to restore confidence. During the Falklands War, for example, the British Prime Minister, Mrs Thatcher demanded some operational success to offset the impact on public morale and support for the war after the loss of HMS Sheffield to an Argentinean Exocet missile, against better military judgement
Decline of Conventional War
47. Conventional wars or Open wars, have become the exception rather than rule after the second world war.
Relevance of Kautilya
48. Kautilya in his treatise has already put forth an elaborate and systematic plan of action for conventional war. Studies and analyses of wars tend to deeply influence military thought, doctrines, concepts, war-games and principles of war. As a result, more often than not, strategies and tactics employed in the later wars have been influenced by those employed in the previous ones. Therefore the study of the Arthashastra should be encouraged (to prevent reinventing the wheel) and the planners and tacticians should put into practise the valuable teachings of Arthashastra.
RELEVANCE OF ARTHASHASTRA IN FOURTH GENERATION WARFARE
49. Fourth generation warfare(4GW)
50. Kautiliyan Insights
The Indian Army and lately the Indian Navy (to some extent) are engaged in an ideology based counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism campaign. In order to succeed, a deep understanding of the historic template and strategic culture of the ene