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Applying Curriculum for Excellence to Develop Lifelong Learning Skills

Assessment is For Learning

 

Assessment in Scotland today, Assessment is for Learning (AiFL) enables both teachers and pupils to develop individual learning needs whilst empowering pupils to manage their own learning within the classroom environment.

The focus of Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) is for pupils to become successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens and effective contributors (to society). (The Curriculum Review Group Report, 2004, p15). A Framework for Assessment was devised to underpin this vision with assessment aimed at supporting learning that develops pupils’ knowledge, understanding, life-long learning skills, attributes and capabilities which contribute to these four capacities. (Building the Curriculum 5, p,10). As a student teacher during placement I planned to use assessment methods to guide my practice in building a picture of pupils’ progress and achievements, and to help plan next steps to further develop my planning as stated in Building the Curriculum. (Building the Curriculum 5, p23). Research has also highlighted the lifelong implications that learning has: ‘One of the basic skills for success in the knowledge society is the ability to learn. With increasingly rapid changes in the work place, in part due to changing technology and because of changing societal needs in the context of globalization, citizens must learn to learn in order that they can maintain their full and continued participation in employment and civil society or risk social exclusion.’ (Hoskins & Fredriksson, 2008, p5).

Therefore, I chose to focus on meeting the principles of CfE, and in encouraging pupils to take control of their own learning, and to potentially develop lifelong learning skills. In this assessment I discuss my findings and reflections with reference to research and policy and examine the implications for my future career in education.

 

Traffic lighting

I opted to lead a group of 10 children in handwriting lessons following guidelines outlined in our Professional Studies course. I used a self-assessment traffic light system:

  • green indicated that pupils were happy and confident with their work
  • amber that the work was acceptable but that pupils were aware that improvement was needed
  •  red indicated that further guidance was required.

Focussing on 3 pupils in the group allowed me an insight into the learners’ knowledge and understanding through each lesson and I used learning conversations and observation notes to allow me to reflect and plan for forthcoming lessons. These also highlighted a wide range of skills being developed such as the ability to evaluate their own writing, revising and editing their work if required, and checking that it made sense, whilst being supported, as indicated in the Highland Literacy Progression Steps to Success in Writing, First Level. (Appendix B).

 

Findings

 

During the investigation I considered the effect self-assessment has on pupils when it is used alone, where no feedback is given and the difference in children’s learning when feedback was given.  I wanted to discover if I could observe a connection between these aspects on children’s learning.  I also pondered if there was a link between discussing what is to be learned, children recognising when learning has taken place and viewing next steps in pupils’ learning, focusing on Hattie’s feedback questions which were discussed in Assessment A: ‘Where am I going? How am I going to get there and what do I do once I get there?’ Hattie references ‘feedback as amongst the most common feature of successful teaching and learning.’ (Hattie, J., Visible Leaning, p129).

During Lesson 1 children were not introduced to the Learning Intentions (LI) and Success Criteria (SC), and I did not refer to them at any stage.  I wanted the children to be passive listeners and to be able to observe the effect on their learning compared with the following two lessons. (Appendix C). The lesson used appropriate tasks related to their stage and I closely guided the session. At the end of the lesson I modelled an example of traffic lights using coloured cards as templates. (Appendix C). I placed a traffic light stamp in each jotter and asked the children to fill it in accordingly. One child, Child B coloured in all three colours and seemed confused and required further support. (Appendix C). Already from this lesson, it was outstandingly evident that pupils need to understand what the learning is (Where am I going?) and how they will achieve it (How will I get there?). It appeared apparent that children need to be motivated and guided to achieve their true potential, as a single assessment procedure will not reflect the child’s true strengths nor identify their next steps. This reflects on the findings of Black & Wiliam, whose research I reviewed in Assessment A and I wanted to implement further methods suggested such as sharing LI & SC.  Their research indicated a main issue that pupils can only assess themselves when they have a clear picture of the criteria that their learning is meant to achieve. (Black & Wiliam, 1998, p6).

Children were responsive to discussing the Learning Intentions at the start of Lesson 2, using Larry the Learning Llama and Sydney the Successful Sheep, a method I introduced to help to engage children in connecting with their learning. I led a discussion about what our Success Criteria should be, and this was displayed visually. Most of the children were enthusiastic in sharing their opinions. During this lesson I chose one pre-writing task from the Highland Council Emerging Literacy training course which I had previously attended. (Appendix D). Using guidance from this, (See Appendix B) I focussed on letter formation ‘I can form my letters correctly’ and ‘I can write names’ asking the children to write their name and surname.

The warm up tasks provided in Lesson 2 led to a great increase in confidence in pupil B who sought guidance and asked questions throughout the lesson. (Appendix E). Whilst there was still letter reversal present, pupils’ work had improved from the first lesson. Pupils were more engaged, they worked well supporting each other and unlike Lesson 1, I did not have to lead the whole lesson.

Whilst referring to the SC, pupils were confident, worked collaboratively and offered good reasoning, and illustrated that they were clearer on the direction of the learning. During assessment of their work pupils were able to explain to me why they had chosen a specific traffic light colour and constructive verbal feedback was offered to each pupil. However, reflecting on the children’s self-assessment I was surprised that Pupil A chose red, (Appendix G) as despite making a few errors, he quickly corrected himself and I praised him for this. I was surprised as I felt the active involvement of the children in the lesson would reflect in the assessment and this would highlight an increase in a developed sense of ownership of their learning. ‘One advantage of the traffic lighting device is that the teacher can identify at a glance the main learning difficulties that have arisen, without lengthy interrogation of each student individually.’ (Black & Harrison, 2001, p.46).  This was apparent with Pupil A who displayed great letter formation but needed much support when blending sounds and spelling out words and I shared these concerns with the class teacher before discussing next steps. (Appendix E).

I continued to track the pupils’ progress and it was clear that I could observe progression. (Appendix F). Though many did not make colour changes, progression was noted, for example, by lesson 3 Pupil B was still on amber but he was writing most of the letters the correct way around and if mistakes were made he was correcting them. This clearly illustrated that pupil B now had increased pencil control and less letter reversals.

At the beginning of Lesson 3, children took the lead when they saw ‘Larry the Llama and Sydney Sheep’ and with excitement and interest asked what their learning was going to be. The children contributed to what the SC should be and again this was displayed visually for them to refer to. Pupils responded well to pre-writing tasks and though most found clicking along to the music tricky to begin with, all gathered rhythm as the task progressed. Having the large overwriting letters was a positive next step from lesson two as Pupils B and C had been starting their letter formations at the wrong points. (Appendix D, Plan B).

All pupils were more reflective whilst traffic lighting and whilst Pupil A was over critical, the other two pupils (with mild guidance) were honest about their work and were able to share what they felt they had done well and what were areas that needed further work. Pupil B identified and corrected mistakes in his work. (Appendix H).

Whilst reading findings from Shirley Clark, I reflected on how I had used the traffic light system: ‘Leaving the traffic light tool towards the end of the session had shown that pupils who were over confident tended to overestimate their achievement whilst less confident children regularly underestimated their attainment. The way I have combated these problems is to place a small set of traffic lights on each table, they can then with a talk partner focus on a particular success criteria or steps to success.’ (Clarke website, para. 5).

Perhaps a more useful tool for future practice is to have a traffic light system throughout the lesson, allowing for support to be available at any time. Therefore, as pupils progress they could support each other’s learning. I wondered if this would have better supported Pupil A. Guidance using this approach   could then be offered throughout at any stage and not only to individuals but to the whole group, which could be teacher or pupil led.

Whilst self-assessment using traffic lighting was my main aim during this investigation, the first lesson undoubtedly illustrated that if I was using it solely without any LI & SC, without questioning, plenary or effective feedback then children’s progress would be hampered.  The children’s learning had no direction and they were the receivers of information with no connection to its purpose. By using a series of successful Formative Assessment methods listed by Clarke, (Clarke, S. p6). I was given a greater insight into the children’s learning and felt more confident in identifying next steps. Pupils were more involved in guiding their learning.  These included sharing LI & SC, clarifying LI in planning, involving children in self-assessment, focusing on effective verbal feedback, questioning, using positive praise to raise self-esteem and identifying next steps to help shape their learning.

 

 

 

 

Theory

The focus for my investigation was Scaffolding, a theory devised by Bruner, Wood and Ross.  Bruner believed that when children were learning new concepts, they required an adult to take the lead, and as their learning develops so the level of support from an adult can gradually decrease. (teachthought website, para. 1). Using self-assessment and reflection allowed me to track and monitor progress and plan the next lesson accordingly. The required outcome is therefore that pupils will acquire the knowledge and understanding and thus the level of support will be reduced over time. Bruner describes the process as: ‘[Scaffolding] refers to the steps taken to reduce the degrees of freedom in carrying out some task so that the child can concentrate on the difficult skill she is in the process of acquiring’ (Gibbons, p16).This was the conclusion over the three lessons, with a teacher-led lesson in Lesson 1, which resulted in children growing in confidence and becoming more independent and less teacher- directed by lesson 3. Though these letters were not new to the pupils, they appeared to have little or no understanding of correct formation, and scaffolding methods at the start of a lesson allowed them to focus on what their learning was to be and to discuss it with their peers.  ‘Children can do a lot of talking when given time and space by a teacher prepared to listen and observe. Such talk provides evidence of children’s progress to date but also scaffolds the learning of the group as they interrogate each other about the nature of the task and collaborate to accomplish it.’ (Torrance and Pryor, p.131) Therefore, by carrying out a series of tasks with children working collaboratively and providing opportunities to share their thoughts and views supported the pupils scaffolding each other with their knowledge. This again was evident in my investigation where I used teaching methods from a Highland Emerging Literacy training course helping to promote and support a successful outcome for the pupils involved as more confident pupils would support other members in the group. (Appendix D).

 

Implications for future practice

Looking at self-assessment in handwriting is an area of which I would like to investigate further, and this has been highlighted in my SMART target (Appendix A) with a focus on Standard 3.3.1 ‘Using assessment, recording and reporting as an integral part of the teaching process to support and enhance learning’. (GTCS website). From observing practice of experienced teachers in week 1, my vision is to further expand my knowledge and understanding before adding my findings from this investigation to my lessons in SE2b and carry this knowledge forward into my probationary year. Black (1998) argues that formative assessment when applied can help raise attainment, supporting the lowest attainment group the most. (Assessment A). The current Scottish government focus in education is on closing the gap in attainment, with an emphasis on Literacy, Numeracy & Health & Wellbeing and I believe that this is a key area for me to focus on in my probationary year. Most of the pupils in this study group were boys, and I would be interested in doing further research as to whether a gender gap exists in this area of Literacy, examining reasons for the possible gap, putting in place schemes used by local authorities such as Highland Council’s Emerging Literacy programme which works alongside parents of pre-school children and considering if using self-assessment will help support this.  Research, notes and daily reflection will further add to my evidence allowing me to effectively plan for weeks 2 and 3 before considering the outcome and supporting learning for week 4. (Appendix D).

Handwriting is an essential tool of our Scottish curriculum and poor handwriting has been shown to be linked to low achievement across the curriculum. Ongoing difficulties can have long-term consequences and may affect future employment or further education opportunities. (Graham & Perin, 2007, p.445).  Much pupil assessment in Scottish schools is carried out through writing processes which makes it essential for pupils to be supported in this area of the curriculum.

 

Conclusion

Self -Assessment helps pupils relate to their learning and identify areas in their work where support is required whilst highlighting success in the classroom allowing next steps for learning to be planned. This approach was very evident when using traffic lighting combined with other assessment methods over three lessons and this allowed me to produce pupil led planning.  In Assessment A, I discussed how the Scottish Government is driven to strengthen relationships in schools between policy, research and practice to help address the gap in attainment with assessment playing a leading role in securing successful outcomes for Scotland’s children. (National Improvement Framework, p17). This small-scale study using self-assessment has highlighted how much children’s learning can develop over three lessons and further reading has shown how pupils thrive in their learning when the correct assessment measures are applied in a classroom. However, on reflection I would spend more time at the beginning of a lesson enabling pupils to understand approaches to self -assessment more fully and I would use the traffic lights system continuously in this context and not just at the end of the lesson. In BTC 5 it states: ‘Assessment approaches need to promote learner engagement and ensure appropriate support so that all learners can achieve their aspirational goals and maximise their potential.’ (Building the Curriculum 5, p23). If assessment is key to pupils’ success, then as a teacher I must ensure that pupils fully understand why we carry it out and provide the means to do so to the highest standards to ensure I meet the vision of CfE with pupils becoming Successful Learners, Confident Individuals, Effective Contributors and Responsible Citizens.

 

 

 

References

 

Black, P and Harrison, C, (2001). Self- and peer-assessment and taking responsibility: the science student’s role in formative assessment. School Science Review83(302), pp.43-49.

Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. London: Phi Delta Kappan,

Available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/15bc/cadd19dbeb64ee5f0edac90e5857e6d5ad66.pdf [Date Accessed: 6th April 2018].

Clarke, S. (2009).  Peer Assessment.  Available: http://www.shirleyclarke-education.org/research/other-research-2009/ [Date Accessed: 6th April 2018].

Clarke, S. (2001). Unlocking Formative Assessment. London: Hodder Education.

Gibbons, P. (2015). Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Graham, S. and Perin, D., (2007). A Meta-Analysis of Writing Instruction for Adolescent Students. Journal of Educational Psychology99(3, pp. 445-476.

GTCS. (2012). The Standards for Registration: Mandatory requirements for Registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland. Available at: http://www.gtcs.org.uk/web/FILES/the-standards/standards-for-registration-1212.pdf [Date Accessed 1st April 2018].

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible Learning for Teachers. New York: Routledge.

 

Hoskins, B. and Fredriksson, U. (2008). Learning to Learn: What is it and can it be measured? Italy: JRC Scientific and Technical Reports. Available: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC46532/learning%20to%20learn%20what%20is%20it%20and%20can%20it%20be%20measured%20final.pdf [Date Accessed: 31st March 2018]

Torrance. H. and Pryor, J., (2002)., Investigating Formative Assessment. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press.

Teachtought. (2017). Learning Theories: Jerome Bruner On the Scaffolding of Learning. Available: https://www.teachthought.com/learning/learning-theories-jerome-bruner-scaffolding-learning/ [Date Accessed: 2nd April 2018].

The Scottish Government, (2004). A Curriculum for Excellence, The Curriculum Review Group Report.Edinburgh: The Scottish Executive.

 

The Scottish Government, (2011).A Curriculum for Excellence, Building the Curriculum 5, A Framework for AssessmentEdinburgh: The Scottish Government.

 

The Scottish Government. (2017). 2018 National Improvement Framework and Improvement Plan for Scottish Education.  Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A: SMART TARGET.

 

GENERAL AIM: 

Professional Skills & Abilities.

3.3.1 Use assessment, recording and reporting as an integral part of the teaching process to support and enhance learning.

SPECIFIC TARGET: I am looking to deepen my knowledge and understanding of formative assessment procedures and use findings to enquire if a gender gap exists in handwriting. 

ACHIEVABLE – Action Plan

MEASURABLE

Success Criteria

Evidence
Week 1 

I will observe how the CT delivers lessons, focusing on assessment methods used, strategies and tracking.

Observe, record and note any differences in gender in the classroom.

I will further develop my knowledge and understanding of formative assessment, applying it to my planning and lessons. Notes. 

Literature.

School policy.

Examples of children’s work.

Daily Reflection.

Observations.

 

Week 2 & 3 

Lead handwriting lessons and add formative assessment techniques into lessons focussing in week 2 on self-assessment, traffic lighting throughout lesson.

Continue in week 3, observe and note effects of techniques that work well and areas to improve.

Track pupils progress. (Use Highland Literacy Progression & be familiar with benchmarks).

Pupils will be able to assess their learning and be encouraged to take a lead in their learning. Lesson plans. 

Pupils work.

PROP.

Daily Reflection.

Feedback children/teacher.

Tracking sheet.

 

 

Week 4 

Continue to lead handwriting lessons, tracking progress.

Record what worked well/not so well and next steps that can be taken in learning plans.

I can reflect on whether a gender gap exists and research methods/training that can best develop my practice to support this. Lesson plans. 

Daily Reflection.

PROP.

Tracking sheet.

Enquiry report.

REALISTIC Seek guidance in Week 1 before implementing self-assessment and make any necessary adjustment and record. Gain feedback and include findings in plan, notes and daily reflections.

TIMESCALE                                                                                                                                                              

 

Start Week 1: 30/04/18

 

Finish Week 4: 21/04/18

 

Next Steps/Reflections from SE2a:

  • I would like to expand my knowledge of formative assessment methods and record my findings, allowing me to develop my enquiry practice and how I record my findings.
  • Focussing on Hattie’s research expand strategies for effective teaching. Continue to use those by Black & Wiliam with additions to these by Clarke as they have shown success in SE2a.
  • Include more formal observations and apply my findings to practice reflecting on its effectiveness/success.
  • To become familiar with tracking methods used in the classroom in my placement school. Use the Highland Literacy Progression and Benchmarks to guide learning as this gave me an understanding of the direction of learning.
  • Undertake CPD training such as supporting Literacy barriers.
  • Look at ways that pupils share their success with their parents, certificates, sending work home or digital media.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B- Highland Literacy Progression.

 

  

Experiences and Outcomes

Steps to Success- Writing 

First Level Progression

Organising  and using information I am learning to use my notes and other types of writing to help me understand information and ideas, explore problems, generate and develop ideas or create new text.LIT 1-25a 

 

By considering the type of text I am creating, I can select ideas and relevant information, organise these in a logical sequence and use words which will be interesting and/or useful for others.LIT 1-26a

 

SS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • I can write in sentences about a topic.
  • I can write down my ideas in a logical order.
  • I can evaluate my own writing.
  • I can use labels and words to organise my thinking.
  • I can write true things about a topic (non-fiction) with  help.
  • I can begin to make notes about a topic.
  • I can organise my  relevant information into a logical sequence and structure.
  • I can use some detail in my writing.
  • I can evaluate my own and other people’s writing.
  • I can organise my ideas to make sense in fiction and non-fiction writing with help.
  • I can use information I have found and organise it under headings and in my own words.
  • I can use effective words I know of in my writing (phrases from books read, wow words, well known phrases and colloquialisms).
  • I can add description and detail to my writing.
  • I can listen to other people’s ideas and give them suggestions about  their writing.
  • I can publish my own writing.
Tools for Writing 

 

 I can spell the most commonly-used words, using my knowledge of letter patterns and spelling rules and use resources to help me spell tricky or unfamiliar words.LIT 1-21a 

 

 

I can write independently, use appropriate punctuation and order and link my sentences in a way that makes sense.
LIT 1-22a

 

Throughout the writing process, I can check that my writing makes sense.LIT 1-23a

 

 

 

I can present my writing in a way that will make it legible and attractive for my reader, combining words, images and other features.LIT 1-24a

 

SS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • I write from top to bottom and from left to right.
  • I can use spaces between my words.
  • I sound out words when I spell.
  •       I use beginning, middle and ending sounds to write words.
  • I can spell P2 common words
  • I know that different types of writing are set out differently (letter, poster, poem etc.).
  • I can write simple sentences using capital letters and full stops.
  • I can use joining words to make my sentences longer.
  • I can form my letters correctly.
  • My writing is easy for others to read.
  • I can add relevant pictures and simple diagrams to my writing.
  • With support I can check over my writing to make sure that it makes sense.
  • I can revise and edit my work with help.
  • I use what I know about how words are built and I am beginning to spell words independently.
  • I can spell the P3 common word.
  • I can create a piece of writing showing an awareness of purpose and audience with some support.
  • I use capitals and full stops correctly
  • I use spaces between words.
  • I use joining words to make longer sentences.
  • I can use question marks and exclamation marks correctly in my writing.
  • I can use commas in a list.
  • I can use speech marks to show when someone is talking.
  • I can recognise and use pronouns in my writing.
  • I use nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs in my writing.
  • I check my work to makes sure it makes sense.
  • I can draw pictures and diagrams to go with my writing.
  • I make sure my handwriting is neat.
  • I can revise and edit my work with increasing independence.
  • I can use commonly known homophones correctly in my writing e.g. there, their, they’re, two, to, too, of, off, your, you’re, no, know and knew, new etc.
  • I can spell P4 common words correctly..
  • I can use different planning formats for different genres (fiction, non-fiction text).
  • I can organise my writing into simple paragraphs.
  • I can use a plot with a twist in my writing (fiction).
  • I can write different types of endings (simple cliffhanger, conclusion, etc.).
  • I can develop an interesting character in my writing.
  • I can develop different kinds of setting depending on the genre.
  • I check my work to make sure it makes sense and make improvements.
  • I can draw labeled diagrams to support my writing.
  • I can write for an audience, ensuring it is legible to everyone.
  • I can review my writing and edit my spelling, punctuation and grammar (omitted words, making sense etc.).
  • I can revise my writing and improve the quality (ideas, word choice, organization, voice, sentence fluency, conventions and presentation.).
Creating Texts  I can convey information, describe events or processes, share my opinions or persuade my reader in different ways. 

LIT 1-28a / LIT 1-29a

 

I can describe and share my experiences and how they made me feel.

ENG 1-30a

 

Having explored the elements which writers use in different genres, I can use what I learn to create my own stories, poems and plays with interesting structures, characters and/or settings.

ENG 1-31a

 

SS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • I can write names and favourite words independently.
  • I can think of ideas to write about using         prompts/stimulus.
  • I can use descriptive langauge to make my writing more interesting.
  • I can write a simple character description.
  • I can write a simple story setting.
  • I can develop the use of ideas, word choice, organisation, voice, sentence structure, conventions and presentation.
  • I can write about a topic at length.
  • I can plan a simple storyline (plot).
  • I write about what I see and true things about my life.
  • I can use ideas from other writers to write my own piece.
  • I can share my feelings in my writing.
  • I can create a character and put them into a story.
  • I can create a story setting that becomes part of a bigger story.
  • I can develop the use of ideas, word choice, organisation, voice, sentence structure, conventions and presentation.
  • I can create a piece of writing connected with a class topic.
  • I can discuss the different genres of fiction texts and use their features in my writing (adventure, horror, romance, children’s stories, folk tales etc.).
  • I can discuss the different genres of non-fiction texts and use their features in my writing (diaries, recounts,   persuasive, argumentative, informative etc.).
  • I can share my experiences and how they made me feel   through my writing.
  • I can create a piece of writing with dialogue.
  •  I can use adverbs and pronouns correctly in my writing.
  • I can write short non-fiction texts (facts about a topic, letters, lists etc.).
  • I can use a simple dictionary or thesaurus to help me in my writing.
  • I can develop the use of ideas, word choice, organisation, voice, sentence structure, conventions and presentation.
Enjoyment and Choice I enjoy creating texts of my choice and I regularly select subject, purpose, format and resources to suit the needs of my audience. 

LIT 1-20a / LIT 2-20a

 

SS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • I can write about a subject of my choice.
  • I see myself as a writer.
  • I take risks with writing.
  • I can share my ideas with others.
  • I pick ideas to write about by myself.
  • I see myself as a writer.
  • I take risks with writing.
  • I can share my ideas with others.
  • I can make decisions about my writing and am able to offer simple explanation and justification for these.
  • I see myself as a writer.
  • I take risks with writing.
  • I can share my ideas with others.

 

 

Appendix-C

Learning Plan

 

 

                   Highway Rats (See weekly overview for other groups)

31/01/18 Class: P2/3
Literacy Planning: Handwriting
  1. Prior learning:

Children have worked on letter formation throughout P1.

  1. Identified aspects of integration across the curriculum

I can present my writing in a way that will make it legible and attractive for my reader.

LIT 1-24a.

  1. Learning Intention(s)
  • LI: I am able form letters correctly.
  1. Product success criterion
  • I can write letters the correct way around.
  • I can write my name.
  1. Learning activities and use of teaching time

 

Trace over alphabet letter sheet.

Swap over. (10 mins)

  • Letter bingo: I call out and show letters and the children write them on whiteboard. (5 mins).
  • Use traffic light cards to introduce and get them to choose green, amber or red. (5mins)

(Total time = 30 mins).

Differentiation 

Support Core Extension
Visual aids. Visual aids, writing sheets.  Writing extra letters and words.
  1. Resources

http://www.doorwayonline.org.uk/literacy/letterformation/ (Whiteboard)

Letter tracing sheets.

Whiteboard, sponges & pens.

Traffic light cards.

Letters of alphabet.

(8) Links to theory: 

Scaffolding-Bruner.

  1. Evaluation of pupils learning and next steps

Pupils settled well into the lesson and listened well to instructions.

The exercises were short, and pupils responded well to all, although they did ask for smaller pens for the letter overwriting sheet.

Some pupils were unsure about self-assessing and I had to model various examples, one pupil (D) was withdrawn and did not wish to share their opinion.

All pupils’ traffic lighted their work, only one pupil did not fully understand but I discussed this with him and he then chose his colour. The children also were also asked to circle each letter and explain to me why they chose it as their best letter.

 

Next Steps:

  • Continue to focus on letter formation b, d, p and q but focus on specific letters for individual children e.g. p and q for D (see notes).
  • Continue to allow pupils to self-assess for them take a lead in their own learning.
  1. Evaluation of teaching and next steps

I chose to take the pupils put to offer them a different learning space as we had to shorten the available time, so I chose to drop the whiteboard activity after discussion with CT. (Pupils had worked well on previous days outside the classroom).

There was no space available, only one room, so we returned to the class and pupils settled well despite the disruption.

I felt my instructions were clear and I led the lesson well however, pupils did seem to disengage at points from lesson when I was talking.

The exercise was good for me to see the level of their handwriting and to guide pupil’s in assessing what their next steps should be.

Next Steps

  • Offer the pupils active learning opportunities to ensure high level of engagement.
  • Share LI & SC, offer positive feedback and encourage pupils to discuss and self-assess their work.
  • More pupil involvement, less teacher led.
  1. Links to SPR: 3.3.1 Use assessment, recording and reporting as an integral part of the teaching process to support and enhance learning.

I introduced a traffic light stamp to their jotter, which they all responded to positively.

  1.                      Any other information

Key Vocabulary:

Short, tall, hanging, letters, pinch.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix D

Learning Plans: A and B.

 

                                            

Handwriting Plan –February 2018.

Highway Rats (See weekly overview for other groups)

  PLAN A      5.02.18 PLAN B          7.02.18
Prior Knowledge Letter formation exercises. 

Fine motor skills activities.

Letter formation exercises. 

Fine motor skills activities.

E’s and O’s I can present my writing in a way that will make it legible and attractive for my reader, combining 

words, images and other features.

LIT 1-24a

I can present my writing in a way that will make it legible and attractive for my reader, combining words, images and other features. 

LIT 1-24a

   Learning Intentions 

 

  • To be able to write letters correctly.
  • To be able to write letters correctly.
Key Vocabulary 

 

Short, tall, hanging, letters, pinch. Short, tall, hanging, letters, pinch.
Success Criteria
  • I can write letters the right way around.
  • I can write my name.
• I can write letters the right way around. 

• I can write my name.

Lesson Plan: 

Activities & Teaching Time

Recap previous lesson. 

Warm up hands followed by letter overwriting sheet with name.

Introduce LI & SC.

Fingers lights (Emerging Literacy training).

(5mins).

Worksheet letters p, q, b and d (next step last week).

Traffic light work.

Plenary.

(30 mins).

Recap previous lesson. 

Warm up hands followed by letter overwriting sheet with name.

Introduce LI & SC.

William Tell Overture-pen click.

Worksheets/jotter work focus on specific letters p, q, b and d. (Next step)

Traffic light work.

Plenary.

(30 mins).

Differentiation
Support Core Extension
Visual support with letters. Visual aids and writing sheets. Writing letters that start with certain letters.
Support Core Extension
Visual support with letters and thicker sized pens for warm up. Visual aids and writing sheets. Use flashcards with pictures and children write short words e.g. bee, box etc.
Theory Scaffolding-Bruner. Scaffolding-Bruner.
RESOURCES Letter overwriting sheet. 

Felt tips (small)

Finger lights

Worksheets.

Traffic light stamps.

Letter overwriting sheet. 

Pens that click.

Worksheets.

Traffic light stamp and ink pad.

Pencils

Felt tip pens.

Evaluation of pupils learning and next steps
  • Pupils were very enthusiastic about using the fingers lights and we focused on p and d. making the letters on our desk. The majority of pupils could share what direction d and p should be but D and A both needed continual support. Several pupils showed that they were starting or finishing their letters in correct point.
  • Most pupils worked well on their over writing sheets and writing their name. M struggled with their name and required support and with some of letter sounds, visuals shown, and findings shared with CT. M was very critical on work at the end of the lesson.
  • Everyone wrote two lines first b and the d. DL & D showed some reversal in his work and A wrote the opposite letters d then b.
  • Pupils were more confident in assessing their work and were able to explain to me why they chose that colour, verbal feedback was given to each pupil.

Next Steps:

  • Focus on letters that are still being reversed b, d, p and q.
  • Overwriting sheets to highlight starting point for writing specific letters.
  • Pupils again were very enthusiastic about using the pens along to the music. At the beginning all could write in the air choosing the correct direction of d and b but there was some confusion with p and q. D had a few reversals but later corrected them after looking over his work.
  • Most pupils were able to write their name and I observed a significant improvement in this over the three lessons, especially in D with his size and position of his text.
  •  Pupils referred back to the SC and LI throughout the lesson.
  • Pupils were more confident with the traffic light system and could explain it to me. The children also explained their reasoning well for that choice and some offered to their peers (R & A). Again M was over critical.

Next Steps:

  • Continue Formative Assessment methods in SE2b.
Evaluation of Teaching 

and next steps

 

 

  • Resources were well prepared, and children responded well to the lesson, this was evident through engagement.
  • I split the group which worked well as they worked better in two smaller groups.
  • My timings were on track.
  • I used various assessment methods such as, traffic lighting, thumbs up and plenary at the end of the lesson.
  • Pupils related well to LI & SC and referred to SC at the end whilst looking at their own work sharing their best letters.

Next steps:

  • Continue with traffic lighting and other assessment methods.
  • Discuss and share plan with CT.

 

  • I shared the LI & SC and discussed with pupils throughout.
  • I introduced and recapped on the previous two lessons and having a key learning focus for the 3 lessons benefitted pupils’ learning and I observed the pupils’ progression over the 3 planned lessons.
  • I continued to use the same assessment methods and pupils discussed their work at the end and shared their thoughts with other pupils which were great to observe.
  • Again, I offered a different warm up activity and pupils responded well to this.
  • Timings were good, and I kept the pace to ensure the pupils stayed engaged throughout.
  • Keeping the tracking sheet, even for a short period of lessons, easily highlighted progression/areas to be developed.

Next steps:

  • Seek feedback from class teacher on findings from three lessons.
  • Use information gathered to begin Assessment Part B.
  • Continue to use Highland Literacy guidance in SE2b.

 

Links to SPR 3.1.4 Have high expectations of all learners. 

Understanding and supporting barriers to learning.

3.3.1 Use assessment, recording and reporting as an integral part of the teaching process to support and enhance learning. 

Using traffic lighting over three lessons to encourage pupils to self-assess allowing me to track learning, planning next steps with pupils.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix-E

 

Observation Notes Lesson 2

Pupil A:

Pupils A is at the table and listens attentively to the discussion about today’s lesson, he will share his thoughts if questioned but not offer independently about handwriting and the SC.

Pupil A completes his work quickly and is very critical with his writing, this was evident when using Traffic Lighting. (Pupil A requires extra support with handwriting and the CT has raised concerns with members of the SMT about more support/observations).

Pupil B:

Pupils B displays low level behaviour and appears slightly anxious at start. He responds well to using the finger lights and engages well with his peers over the duration of the lesson. He is not confident in sharing his views, requires constant support to stay on task and prompts to ensure he has the correct formation then he is happy to make corrections. Increase in confidence from lesson 1.

Pupil C:

Pupil C works very hard and is happy to share his knowledge on handwriting and discusses the areas in which he thinks he has improved and talks about where he thinks he needs to ‘work harder on.’ He is supportive of his peers and strong in reflection.

*All Pupils have grown in confidence over 2 lessons and were clear on how to traffic lighting to self-assess, with a massive difference in Pupil B who was not keen to share any information in lesson 1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix-F

 

RRe 

Handwriting

L1 

Pupil A

L1 

Pupil B

L1 

Pupil C

L2 

Pupil A

L2 

Pupil B

L2 

Pupil C

L3 

Pupil A

L3 

Pupil B

L3 

Pupil C

Sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably     Gol Pencil grips might help, awkward hold. Big improvement, with guidance. Showing good pencil grip today. Showing great improvement. Continued improvement.
Green-Can form lower-case letters in the correct destination, starting and finishing in the right place Starts in middle or bottom and adds parts after. Still starting many letters at wrong place. Support given. Good formation. Improved but needs prompting on occasion to remind. Work on b and d.
Can write letters the correct way around 

(HLP)

Less reversals (corrected) Only a few reversals, recognising mistakes.
Form capital letters
I can write my name 

(HLP)

With support. Great improvement with size, position and spacing. Good improvement.
Understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’ (letters that are formed in similar ways) Clearer understanding. Improved.
  • Green=secure
  • Orange=Emerging
  • Red= Support needed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix-G

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix H

 

Pupil B – letter p

Pupil B said: ‘I put green as I worked hard with my letters. I noticed after checking some were wrong and I want to sort it.’

(Corrections were made after checking over his work).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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